005 - Water Resources
In this video Paul Andersen explains how water is unequally distributed around the globe through the hydrologic cycles. Seawater is everywhere but is not useful without costly desalination. Freshwater is divided between surface water and groundwater but must me stored and moved for domestic, industrial, and agricultural uses. Subsidized low cost water has created a problem with water conservation but economic changes could help solve the problem.
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Title: String Theory
Artist: Herman Jolly
All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing:
“Center Pivot Irrigation.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, August 20, 2015. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Center_pivot_irrigation&oldid=677028017.
“Desalination.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, September 4, 2015. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Desalination&oldid=679383711.
File:LevelBasinFloodIrrigation.JPG, n.d. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:LevelBasinFloodIrrigation.JPG.
Hillewaert, Hans. English: Aquifer (vectorized), May 25, 2007. en:Image:Schematic aquifer xsection usgs cir1186.png. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Aquifer_en.svg.
Ikluft. Aerial Photo of the California Aqueduct at the Interstate 205 Crossing, Just East of Interstate 580 Junction., September 11, 2007. Own work. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kluft-Photo-Aerial-I205-California-Aqueduct-Img_0038.jpg.
Kbh3rd. English: Map of Water-Level Changes in the High Plains/Ogallala Aquifer in Parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming, 1980 to 1995., February 27, 2009. Own work. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ogallala_changes_1980-1995.svg.
moyogo, Water_Cycle_-_blank svg: *Wasserkreislauf png: de:Benutzer:Jooooderivative work: Water Cycle, SVG from Wasserkreislauf.png, November 13, 2011. Water_Cycle_-_blank.svg. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Water_Cycle-en.png.
NCDC/NOAA, Michael Brewer. English: Status of Drought in California, October 21, 2014., October 23, 2014. http://droughtmonitor.unl.edu/MapsAndData/MapArchive.aspx. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:California_Drought_Status_Oct_21_2014.png.
“Ogallala Aquifer.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, July 20, 2015. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ogallala_Aquifer&oldid=672198863.
Plumbago. English: Annual Mean Sea Surface Salinity from the World Ocean Atlas 2009., December 5, 2012. Own work. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:WOA09_sea-surf_SAL_AYool.png.
Rehman, Source file: Le Grand PortageDerivative work: English: The Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River, China., September 20, 2009. File:Three_Gorges_Dam,_Yangtze_River,_China.jpg. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:ThreeGorgesDam-China2009.jpg.
Service, Photo by Jeff Vanuga, USDA Natural Resources Conservation. Level Furrow Irrigation on a Lettuce Field in Yuma, Az., October 4, 2011. USDA NRCS Photo Gallery: NRCSAZ02006.tif. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:NRCSAZ02006_-_Arizona_(295)(NRCS_Photo_Gallery).tif.
Station, Castle Lake Limnological Research. Castle Lake, California, January 14, 2008. . https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Castlelake_1.jpg.
Tomia. Hydroelectric Dam, December 30, 2007. Own work. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hydroelectric_dam.svg.
USGS. English: Graph of the Locations of Water on Earth, [object HTMLTableCellElement]. http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/waterdistribution.html - traced and redrawn from File:Earth’s water distribution.gif. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Earth%27s_water_distribution.svg.
version, Original uploader was Sagredo at en wikipedia Later. English: These Images Show the Yangtze River in the Vicinity of the Three Gorges Dam, September 29, 2007. Transferred from en.wikipedia; transferred to Commons by User:Rehman using CommonsHelper. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:ThreeGorgesDam-Landsat7.jpg.
“WaterGAP.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, April 22, 2014. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=WaterGAP&oldid=605287609.
“Water in California.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, August 31, 2015. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Water_in_California&oldid=678801793.
Fantastic video! Great job breaking down an important system of the world that gives all of us life. Schools and parents should make it a priority to educate children most importantly but really everyone on this topic. And as to your point about increasing the price of water to slow down consumption...It makes sense to slow down the waste of water, but then I think about how that would also prevent the poorest of people getting a vital resource. I propose a similar solution which includes raising the price, BUT only after a certain volume is used per person. Different restrictions can be put in place. Give the minimum amount of water a person needs to survive comfortably for the same low price. If you exceed that amount there should be a high premium for domestic use. Industrious and agricultural uses may be a little more complicated but having laws to make sure farmers and businesses are being as efficient as possible and not wasting water will be a major key. We all need water. We all know that. But not enough people understand the situation the world is currently in. Education as always, is one of the most important factors for resolving this problem. Once again great video! Cheers!
Increase the cost of water? If you believe in market to function, why you intervene? If you believe that markets don't function properly, why you don't get rid of it and bring sustainable systems such as Resource Based Economy? Be consistent, be logical, get rid of money and ownership which is there for the profits of the rich, not for you, not for the general public nor environment.
Agricultural irrigation is highly inefficient since a lot is evaporated. For example simply covering the soil with organic material (mulch from straw for example) can greatly reduce the evaporation and thus the irrigation needs.
since most is used by the upper class use's 92% why don't they pay for a 95% efficiency and get over it they keep telling us at 8% to save water and we'll look at the truth. less people should be the second rich bastards can't afford it what the f have you seen the murry darling river they won't make the next flood season with a farm set like that stupid economy people stop sucking (d)
Massive amounts of agriculture to feed the animals we eat. That is the real and the biggest reason why we use so much water. I would not go as far as to say that we should all become vegetarians. However, I think we have to radically change our diet.
+Pedro Gouveia That counts too. Lots of water is needed to grow crops, and most of our crops are fed to animals, not people, actually. Because people in the US love meat, we have animal factory farms (a lot are pretty inhumane and generate pollution) which does require directly giving water to those animals, which adds to the amounts of water needed. More water and energy is wasted this way because extra water is needed to keep the animals alive, and most of the energy in the food we grow & feed to them are given off as heat.
One way to fix this is to slowly switch the US over to a more plant-based diet. Less water and energy will be wasted trying to feed animals for the sake of meat, and when demand for meat drops, animal factory farms will begin to shut down (supply and demand basically) and there would also be less pollution (from animal wastes) damaging the environment. Another added bonus is that less animals would be abused / kept in crowded conditions.
Someone correct me if I got anything wrong
I'm disappointed because in the same video you mention agriculture as the destination of 3/4 of our usable water; water usage efficiency; and ... the solution is increasing water cost (or investing in more efficient irrigation). Wait, what?.
I know your logic kind of makes sense, but not when you start adding other real factors. Please separate water usage efficiency between livestock breeding and crop cultivation, for example. In this perspective it would be far, far more impacting to educate people on reducing meat consumption; or, in this context, increase water price proportionally to waste (e.g. more for meat industry, little less for crop cultivation (the ones not destined to meat industry), little less for industry and far less for civilian use. I really wish you had elaborated on the solution, or else not talked about it at all. (PS: I forgot to write how much I like and have learnt from your videos. Thank you!)
I've just two questions about thermodynamic. I know this is out of the subject but please answer me.
The first one is (one of the second law statment say "the entropy of the isolated system will never decrease" can you explain that with an examples?).
The second one about the energy destruction (the engine of the car burn fuel to do work) the fuel energy converted to mechanical energy,so where is the mechanical energy? I mean was it destroyed?.
note on the ogallala aquifer: this is the one they want to run the keystone xl through.
and a question: when you mention that plants can't live in salt water, there's an exception for the mangrove swamps at least. do these swamps desalinate? if so, is h2o released through evaporation or into the soil (now i'm wondering if plants ever release moisture into the soil - think not)?
Water is one of the most important problems. Free water where it isn't free inhibits desalination tech. We have to master water on this planet, it brings food and water. Dry areas are wasted. Rain over oceans are wasted. We need to master this really good and then produce more food, especially trees that gives of oxygen and have usefull plants beneath the trees to get even more output. somewhat like in a jungle.
Concentrated sunlight should desalinate water, it's an investment. The drought in California is permanent from now on. The Pueblo indians can tell you how that works. Their once fertile homeland is still a dessert dry wasteland. The innovation of a better desalination tech will be a hugh success. Patent that thing for 10 years and buy California. It's good that you dive into the questions that the young minds need to focus on. Hope one of your students will come up with something really cool.
Really you say the cost of water is the issue & not people who control it removing our water rights while polluting it purposefully(maybe you should follow Erin Brockovich learn something real so you have context/intelligent feeling?) while hey look at Nestle in California or New England they got great deals for our water for PENNIES because they pay off both D & R to remove our Rights while giving them to bribers & now you pretend it's the cost we pay ANDERSON seriously your one smart guy but your ego is writing long term checks please find a way to fix this you sound like you would be fun to hang out with outside of this environment hate to see you back here again to clean up your mess. They ship the water over sees in plastic bottles you think that is OUR fault that China has 1.5 Billion they need water for? The leaders are coordinating creating the situations you are speaking of to think you cannot connect the dots is insulting at best.
+John Mastroligulano I needed a lot of breath to read this one. Punctuation is your friend! But I will agree that the solution is not as 'simple' as the video infers. He could have mentioned that those are only suggestions. I would say that we must increase the *perception of the value of water*, NOT its cost.
Why not direct the Ocean through California to Colorado gravity filtering it along the way with a mesh that only let's H2O through maybe something made of Carbon/Graphite? Just start the project in Colorado & work your way to the Ocean(oh & don't forget the multiple dams which will generate power). We have real solutions but we do not have leadership that wants real solution they want things to be built to break so they can control your life & maintain their position of power over it. Seems simple & it is all the confusion is paid for by the same people who bribe both D & R to play shell game with your/my life.
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