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Coal Mining's Environmental Impact | From The Ashes
 
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In Appalachia, coal companies blow the tops off of mountains to get at the coal. The damage this does to the surrounding environment and water supply is devastating. ➡ Subscribe: http://bit.ly/NatGeoSubscribe About From The Ashes: From the Ashes captures Americans in communities across the country as they wrestle with the legacy of the coal industry and what its future should be in the current political climate. From Appalachia to the West’s Powder River Basin, the film goes beyond the rhetoric of the “war on coal” to present compelling and often heartbreaking stories about what’s at stake for our economy, health, and climate. Get More National Geographic: Official Site: http://bit.ly/NatGeoOfficialSite Facebook: http://bit.ly/FBNatGeo Twitter: http://bit.ly/NatGeoTwitter Instagram: http://bit.ly/NatGeoInsta About National Geographic: National Geographic is the world's premium destination for science, exploration, and adventure. Through their world-class scientists, photographers, journalists, and filmmakers, Nat Geo gets you closer to the stories that matter and past the edge of what's possible. Coal Mining's Environmental Impact | From The Ashes https://youtu.be/ynN39sfqT8w National Geographic https://www.youtube.com/natgeo
Views: 75608 National Geographic
Coal 101: What's Wrong with Coal?
 
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http://www.beyondcoal.org From mining, to burning, to disposal, coal is wreaking havoc on our health and our planet. Powering our country by burning coal is dangerous. It's time to transition Beyond Coal to clean, renewable sources of energy. Learn more and take action on our website http://www.beyondcoal.org - Founded by legendary conservationist John Muir in 1892, the Sierra Club is now the nation's largest and most influential grassroots environmental organization -- with more than two million members and supporters. Our successes range from protecting millions of acres of wilderness to helping pass the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, and Endangered Species Act. More recently, we've made history by leading the charge to address climate disruption by moving away from the dirty fossil fuels and toward a clean energy economy. Visit us here: Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/SierraClub Twitter: https://twitter.com/sierraclub Instagram: https://instagram.com/sierraclub
Views: 131226 NationalSierraClub
How Burning Fossil Fuels Leads to Climate Change | Chemistry for All | FuseSchool
 
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Learn the basics about climate change and how burning fossil fuels adds extra carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, and how this then leads to climate change. Fossil fuels, like oil, coal and natural gas, are the remains of living things from millions of years ago. They are mainly composed of carbon with varying amounts of hydrogen. When the petrol burns, it joins with oxygen to build up hydrogen oxide and carbon dioxide. Before the world became industrialised by burning fossil fuels the carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere was about 0.028% tiny compared with oxygen at 21% and nitrogen at 78%, but enough to keep us warm. Without this natural blanket of insulating gas the earth would be too cold to support life as we know it. But this carbon dioxide released when fossil fuels burn adds to the existing carbon dioxide levels which are now nearly 50% higher than pre-industrial times. Although we get a daily supply of heat from the sun, the earth normally loses this (at night and in the colder seasons) so the average temperature of the earth remains constant. But this status quo is starting to change: as humanity adds carbon dioxide into our atmosphere the extra layer isolates the heat and it cannot escape as easily. The earth cannot lose its greenhouse gases quickly – and we keep adding to them! By putting our planet in a sweat box, we are causing wide ranging consequences for our climate and life on the planet. Some people think that living things contribute to the enhanced greenhouse effect because they breathe out carbon dioxide – but this carbon has come from their food and that has come from plants which took the carbon from the atmosphere in what is called the carbon cycle. Even burning wood does not contribute to the enhanced greenhouse effect as long as the trees you cut down are replanted. However the carbon in fossil fuels has remained trapped underground for 100’s of millions of years so it is extra carbon that is being added to the natural cycle. We are also throwing away other gases into the atmosphere which help trap infra-red radiation, and so also enhance the natural greenhouse effect. They are methane, especially from rice paddy fields and from cows and nitrous oxide NON from car exhausts. This rise in temperature cause our climate to change because extra energy is trapped on earth – already causing glaciers and ice caps to melt. With more energy in the atmosphere weather becomes more extreme, so there are more floods, droughts, and storms. Not everywhere will get warmer, but the climate is changing all because we have been using fossil fuels at an ever increasing rate. SUBSCRIBE to the Fuse School YouTube channel for many more educational videos. Our teachers and animators come together to make fun & easy-to-understand videos in Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Maths & ICT. JOIN our platform at www.fuseschool.org This video is part of 'Chemistry for All' - a Chemistry Education project by our Charity Fuse Foundation - the organisation behind FuseSchool. These videos can be used in a flipped classroom model or as a revision aid. Find our other Chemistry videos here: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLW0gavSzhMlReKGMVfUt6YuNQsO0bqSMV Twitter: https://twitter.com/fuseSchool Access a deeper Learning Experience in the Fuse School platform and app: www.fuseschool.org Follow us: http://www.youtube.com/fuseschool Friend us: http://www.facebook.com/fuseschool This Open Educational Resource is free of charge, under a Creative Commons License: Attribution-NonCommercial CC BY-NC ( View License Deed: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ ). You are allowed to download the video for nonprofit, educational use. If you would like to modify the video, please contact us: [email protected]
Coal reserves in India, Environmental effects of coal mining, Clean coal technologies [2015]
 
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To Download Environment PDF slides click here : https://imojo.in/33wucm (PDF slides of all the environment videos, 700 slides) For free Video lectures and study materials on UPSC IAS Preparation, Please visit, Website : www.thinkersias.com Youtube Channel : Thinkers IAS (www.youtube.com/upscgeneralstudies) For any doubts - Please feel free to contact [email protected] Here to the links to all the videos for UPSC IAS Preparation, Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-FgEwqKkJbM&t=5s&index=2&list=PL11qqSwe0f6SmHI45eNFZrGwftQBx8ZPF Ancient History for UPSC IAS Preparation https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M-bNz7wDLd0&list=PL11qqSwe0f6QX8wsd2G0rUV8adkpaI9KL Current affairs analysis Sample videos https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1PuEVnBZdqQ&list=PL11qqSwe0f6SmHI45eNFZrGwftQBx8ZPF Geography for UPSC IAS https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rZMLJSNDa4k&list=PL11qqSwe0f6RY1_5OAXZb_MBnC_hWrKNT&index=2 Indian Art and Culture for UPSC IAS https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m4UVV9WR93s&index=2&list=PL11qqSwe0f6Sfc9MhJP2NUamLMrC5AxF1 Environment, Ecology and Agriculture for UPSC IAS Preparation https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U96nR89wa5Q&list=PL11qqSwe0f6SDbS2gOIxpYdwlqP2LvRtY Contemporary issues https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1PuEVnBZdqQ&list=PL11qqSwe0f6RfWdOjAS5R8jFLbeOBWPEy Security and International relations https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YcE9bMjXB_Y&list=PL11qqSwe0f6S9HXs-B_itNIKmEl-NvysU&index=2
Views: 3245 Thinkers IAS
Canary used for testing for carbon monoxide 1926 US Bureau of Mines
 
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In the early part of the 20th century, miners in Great Britain and the United States took caged canaries into coalmines in order to provide warning of the presence of toxic gases including carbon monoxide and methane. Canaries would visibly show distress and sway on their perches in the presence low concentrations of carbon monoxide before toppling over. The concept of the "canary in the coal mine" giving warning of a human health hazard is based on several principles. First, canaries were found to be more sensitive than both humans and other animals such as mice to the toxic effects of carbon monoxide. Second, the birds were allowed to share the same air exposures as the humans. Third, the occurrence of carbon monoxide poisoning in a bird was quite recognizable to the miners, since sick birds would tend to fall off of their perches and appear visibly ill. An article appearing in a 1914 issue of the Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry provides a simple description of the concept (Burrell G, Seibert F. Experiments with small animals and carbon monoxide. Jl Indust Eng Chem. 1914;6:241--244.): Birds and mice may be used to detect carbon monoxide, because they are much more sensitive to the poisonous action of the gas than are men. Experiments by the Bureau of Mines show that canaries should be used in preference to mice, sparrows, or pigeons, because canaries are more sensitive to the gas. Rabbits, chickens, guinea pigs, or dogs, although useful for exploration work in mines, should be used only when birds or mice are unobtainable, and then, cautiously, because of their greater resistance to carbon monoxide poisoning. . . . Breathing apparatus must be used where birds show signs of distress, and, for this reason, birds are of great value in enabling rescue parties to use breathing apparatus to best advantage. For more on the use of animals as sensitive indicators of environmental hazards, providing an early warning system for public health, read the 2011Public Health Report - Animal Sentinels for Environmental and Public Health (http://www.publichealthreports.org/issueopen.cfm?articleID=2645 ) by John S. Reif, DVM, MSc, at Colorado State University, Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences. This is clipped from the 1926 film by the US Bureau of Mines titles, Oxygen Breathing Apparatus. The film shows the kinds of breathing apparatus used in mine rescues and explains their various parts. A mine rescue team explores a mine, testing for low oxygen content and carbon monoxide. The entire film is posted to my channel. This US Bureau of Mines film and many others are available at the US National Archive in College Park, Maryland.
Views: 10228 markdcatlin
Taking the Carbon Out of Coal
 
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A company called SCS thinks it can use coal to generate electricity while cutting down 90% on carbon emissions — and still make a profit. The company's PurGen plant, which would be located on the site where an old Dow Chemical plant used to stand near the New Jersey Turnpike in Linden, NJ, would use a technology called carbon capture and storage, or CCS. Carbon dioxide coming from the coal would be captured and pumped in liquid form deep underground, where it would — presumably — stay. To continue using coal while achieving an 83% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050, as called for in proposed legislation being discussed in Congress, will require increasing amounts of CCS in the coming decades. The PurGen plant would not burn coal, but rather turn it into hydrogen through a process that generates a stream of pure CO2 as a by-product. The hydrogen would be burned to make electricity with very little air pollution — but only when the demand for electricity is high, and the plant can get a good price. At times when demand is low, the hydrogen would be diverted and converted on-site into the chemical urea, used to make fertilizer. The storage part of SCS's plan involves building a two-foot-diameter pipeline to carry liquefied CO2 from the plant, under the Arthur Kill — a waterway separating New Jersey from Staten Island — and 140 miles out to a point on the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean, where it would be injected and stored about 8,000 ft. beneath the sea floor in a suitable geological formation. Supporters say the plan is a perfect solution to several problems at once — how to use the nation's cheap, plentiful coal supply without adding heat-trapping CO2 to the air, how to provide clean electricity to a part of the country that has to import power, and how to spark a green energy industry that could help the US maintain economic leadership in a time when China and other nations are determined to wrest it away. But not everyone thinks the PurGen project is a good idea. For one thing, even if the plant makes electricity cleanly, the mining and transport of coal will still have environmental impacts. For another, some worry that sequestering CO2 underground hasn't been adequately tested yet. And other critics say the money for PurGen would be better spent on solar or wind energy or energy efficiency — challenging the very premise that finding a way to use coal without carbon emissions is needed. Credits: The News Market, Shutterstock
Views: 1098 climatecentral
Dumps in Mines | Mine Ventilation | In Hindi
 
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This video contains important informations about dumps in mines. Occurrence of gaseous impurities in mine atmosphere is known as Damp. Damps in mine Mixture of Methane CH4 and air. Explosive on composition between 5.4% to 14.8%. Reduce presence of Oxygen Danger to Life Damps in mine Mainly Mixture of Carbon dioxide CO2 and Nitrogen N2. Also known as Chokedamp. Increased presence of Blackdamp will reduce presence of Oxygen and causes danger to life. Damps in mine Mainly Mixture of Gas left after coal dust or fire damp explosion. Carbon monoxide CO is Main element in this damp. In Afterdamp , Carbon monoxide is causing more death due to its chemical properties. Damps in mine Mixture of Carbon monoxide CO and air. Source of Carbon monoxide is other than explosion. Such as strata emission, engine exhaust. Damps in mine Mixture of Hydrogen sulphide H2S and air. It is a poisonous gas. It has more adverse effect compared to Carbon monoxide.
Views: 6846 Mining Video
Future of Coal
 
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Despite major shifts in the industry and serious worries in coal communities, today coal still supplies nearly 40% of our electricity. According to the Bureau of Land Management, one out of every five homes and business in the US use electricity made from Wyoming coal. But what does the future look like for fossil fuels in a world where there is increasing pressure to keep them in the ground? For regions that have historically been dependent on jobs and revenue from coal and oil extraction, innovation is key. Ideas like clean coal, carbon sequestration, and carbon utilization are some of the potentially game-changing technologies aimed at saving an industry while reducing emissions. Inside Energy's Leigh Paterson reports.
Views: 3733 Inside Energy
Coal Mining In A Multiple Use Environment
 
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1990. Video production from the Manti-La Sal National Forest in Utah, showing how coal mining can be done in an environmentally sensitive manner. One of a series of five "showcase" mining tapes. Others in the series are "Hardrock Showcase: Humboldt National Forest", "Phosphate and the Forest", "The Wasatch-Cache Petroleum Showcase", and "Showcasing Mineral Activities".
Views: 1321 Forest Service
What is UNDERGROUND MINE VENTILATION? What does UNDERGROUND MINE VENTILATION mean?
 
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What is UNDERGROUND MINE VENTILATION? What does UNDERGROUND MINE VENTILATION mean? UNDERGROUND MINE VENTILATION meaning - UNDERGROUND MINE VENTILATION definition - UNDERGROUND MINE VENTILATION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Underground mine ventilation provides a flow of air to the underground workings of a mine of sufficient volume to dilute and remove dust and noxious gases (typically NOx, SO2, methane, CO2 and CO) and to regulate temperature. The source of these gases are equipment that runs on diesel engines, blasting with explosives, and the orebody itself. The largest component of the operating cost for mine ventilation is electricity to power the ventilation fans, which may account for one third of a typical underground mine's entire electrical power cost. Flow-through ventilation is the main ventilation circuit for the mine. Air enters the mine from surface via a shaft, ventilation raise or adit. The air is distributed through the mine via internal ventilation raises and ramps, and flows are controlled by regulators and permanently mounted ventilation fans. An auxiliary ventilation system takes air from the flow-through system and distributes it to the mine workings via temporarily mounted ventilation fans, venturies and disposable fabric or steel ducting. Auxiliary fan and duct systems may be either forcing systems, where fresh air is pushed into mine headings, or exhausting systems that draw out contaminated air. Sufficient volume of air is required for proper ventilation. A bulk of electric power is required for driving fans. By installing variable speed control air quantity can be optimized hence the power. at every place in the mine where persons are required to work or pass, the air does not contain less than 19% of oxygen or more than 0.5% of carbon dioxide or any noxious gas in quantity likely to affect the health of any person; the percentage of inflammable gas does not exceed 0.75% in the general body of the return air of any ventilating district and 1.25% in any place in the mine. The volume (expressed in cubic feet per minute or cubic meters per second) of air required to ventilate an underground mine is determined by mining engineers based on a wide variety of parameters. In most countries minimum requirements are outlined by law, regulation or standards. However, in some developing countries the mandated ventilation requirement may be insufficient, and the mining company may have to increase the ventilation flow, in particular where ventilation may be required to cool the ambient temperature in a deep hot mine, however auto-compression must also be taken into account. as per CMR 130-2-(i) in every ventilating district, not less than six cubic metres per minute of air per personemployed in the district on the largest shift or not less than 2.5 cubic metres per minute of air per daily tonne output whichever is larger, passes along the last ventilation connection in the district which means the inbye-most gallery in the district along which the air passes. In temperate climates ventilation air may need to be heated during winter months. This will make the working environment more hospitable for miners, and prevent freezing of workings, in particular water pipes. In Arctic mines where the mining horizon is above the permafrost heating may not take place to prevent melting the permafrost. "Cold mines" such as Raglan Mine and Nanisivik Mine are designed to operate below 0°C. the wet bulb temperature in any working place does not exceed 33.5°C and where the wet bulb temperature exceeds 30.5°C arrangements are made to ventilate the same with a current of air moving at a speed of not less than one metre per second.
Views: 6215 The Audiopedia
हीरों की खान की अनूठी दुनिया | Diamond Mining & Diamonds ore Processing
 
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The Amazing World of Diamond Mines हीरों की खान की अनूठी दुनिया | Diamond Mines - The diamonds Miners Mining and processing Diamonds kimberlite ore The journey of a diamond is a long and complex process. Diamonds are formed deep inside the Earth, they are mined and sorted, they are polished and cut, they are delivered to labs for grading and then finally, they are sold to jewelry stores around the world. Diamond can be found anywhere beneath layer 16, but is most common in layers 12-16. Methods for finding the ore generally fall in two categories: either caving or mining. Either way, you'll need an iron pickaxe to mine the diamonds (also any gold, emerald, or redstone you come across). Usually, kimberlite ore can be found in depths of at least 15 meters. When the diamond-rich depth is reached, the raw material extracted from the ground is then transported to a special screening plant for further processing. There's another form of alluvial mining called artisanal mining. Diamonds formed and stored in these "diamond stability zones" are delivered to Earth's surface during deep-source volcanic eruptions. These eruptions tear out pieces of the mantle and carry them rapidly to the surface. Diamonds are made out of carbon — highly organized carbon, that is. Geologists are still guessing how diamonds formed in the Earth from 1 billion to 3 billion years ago, according to a recent study in the journal Nature, but they think the recipe follows something like this: 1. Bury carbon dioxide 100 miles into Earth. Looking at the crystal form is a quick way of differentiating diamond from most of the other minerals that look like diamond. Diamonds are cubic (isometric) form. The most common mineral that looks like a diamond is quartz and it is hexagonal form. Most natural diamonds are formed at high temperature and pressure at depths of 140 to 190 kilometers (87 to 118 mi) in the Earth's mantle. Carbon-containing minerals provide the carbon source, and the growth occurs over periods from 1 billion to 3.3 billion years (25% to 75% of the age of the Earth). Diamond mining is generally less harmful to the environment than other types of mining, such as gold mining, because it does not make use of toxic chemicals. Despite serious environmental risks, effective regulation and proper planning can minimize diamond mining's environmental impact.
Views: 6582 Tarun Tyagi
How to create cleaner coal - Emma Bryce
 
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View full lesson here: http://ed.ted.com/lessons/how-to-create-cleaner-coal-emma-bryce It takes a lot of fuel to heat our homes, preserve our food, and power our gadgets. And for 40 percent of the world, cheap, plentiful coal gets the job done. But coal also releases pollutants into the air, causing environmental damage like acid rain and serious health problems. Can we create a cleaner version of coal? Emma Bryce details the three ways we might strip coal of its foul forces. Lesson by Emma Bryce, animation by Artrake Studio.
Views: 259085 TED-Ed
Why Clean Coal Is A Myth
 
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Coal is cheap, efficient, and plentiful-- but horrible for the environment. What about clean coal? Does clean coal exist? Relocating A 3-ton Rhino In Nepal (360 Video): https://youtu.be/XS1sgeIW2SQ The Crazy Plan to Capture and Store CO2 Under the Ocean - https://youtu.be/ozgROE1xCM4 What Ever Happened To Acid Rain? - https://youtu.be/6oe89mDei8I Sign Up For The Seeker Newsletter Here - http://bit.ly/1UO1PxI Read More: The fuel of the future, unfortunately http://www.economist.com/news/business/21600987-cheap-ubiquitous-and-flexible-fuel-just-one-problem-fuel-future "Such arguments are the basis of a new PR campaign launched by Peabody, the world's largest private coal company (which unlike some rivals is profitable, thanks to its low-cost Australian mines). And coal would indeed be a boon, were it not for one small problem: it is devastatingly dirty." Polluted air causes 5.5 million deaths a year new research says http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-35568249 "Most of these deaths are occurring in the rapidly developing economies of China and India. The main culprit is the emission of small particles from power plants, factories, vehicle exhausts and from the burning of coal and wood." China May Not Find Enough Coal to Burn https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/china-may-not-find-enough-coal-to-burn/ "Energy-guzzling China is facing a coal conundrum. Rapid urbanization and industrialization will keep China's coal consumption at record highs of around 4 billion tons per year by 2015. At the same time, the country will have to fight for coal security and to keep its supply line uninterrupted, according to the first energy outlook report from China's Energy Research Institute (ERI)." ____________________ DNews is dedicated to satisfying your curiosity and to bringing you mind-bending stories & perspectives you won't find anywhere else! New videos daily. Watch More DNews on Seeker http://www.seeker.com/show/dnews/ Subscribe now! http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=dnewschannel DNews on Twitter http://twitter.com/dnews Trace Dominguez on Twitter https://twitter.com/tracedominguez DNews on Facebook https://facebook.com/DiscoveryNews DNews on Google+ http://gplus.to/dnews Discovery News http://discoverynews.com Sign Up For The Seeker Newsletter Here: http://bit.ly/1UO1PxI Special thanks to Jules Suzdaltsev for hosting DNews! Check Jules out on Twitter: https://twitter.com/jules_su
Views: 152743 Seeker
ESS3C - Human Impacts on Earth Systems
 
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In this video Paul Andersen explains how humans are impacting the Earth through farming, mining, pollution and climate change. According to the NGSS wise management can reduce impacts on the planet. This will become more important as developing countries start consuming more resources. A K-12 teaching progression is also included. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: "File:160658main2 OZONE Large 350.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed June 8, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:160658main2_OZONE_large_350.png. "File:ACT Recycling Truck.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed June 8, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:ACT_recycling_truck.jpg. "File:Chilean Purse Seine.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed June 8, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Chilean_purse_seine.jpg. "File:CoralBleaching.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed June 8, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:CoralBleaching.jpg. "File:GDP PPP Per Capita IMF 2008.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed June 8, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:GDP_PPP_Per_Capita_IMF_2008.svg. File:House.svg, n.d. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:House.svg. "File:Kivioli Chemical plant.JPG." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed June 8, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Kivioli_chemical_plant.JPG. "File:Lake Nasser.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed June 8, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lake_Nasser.jpg. "File:Mauna Loa Carbon Dioxide Apr2013.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed June 8, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mauna_Loa_Carbon_Dioxide_Apr2013.svg. "File:Mvey0290.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed June 8, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mvey0290.jpg. File:OilConsumptionpercapita.png, n.d. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:OilConsumptionpercapita.png. "File:PulpAndPaperMill.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed June 8, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:PulpAndPaperMill.jpg. "File:Recycling Symbol.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed June 8, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Recycling_symbol.svg. "File:Sewer Plant.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed June 8, 2013. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sewer_Plant.jpg. "File:Soil Salinity2.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed June 8, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Soil_Salinity2.jpg. "File:Strip Coal Mining.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed June 8, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Strip_coal_mining.jpg. photographer, Rothstein, Arthur, 1915-1985. English: Farmer and Sons Walking in the Face of a Dust Storm. Cimarron County, Oklahoma., April 1936. This image is available from the United States Library of Congress's Prints and Photographs division under the digital ID ppmsc.00241. This tag does not indicate the copyright status of the attached work. A normal copyright tag is still required. See Commons:Licensing for more information. العربية | česky | Deutsch | English | español | فارسی | suomi | français | magyar | italiano | македонски | മലയാളം | Nederlands | polski | português | русский | slovenčina | slovenščina | Türkçe | 中文 | 中文(简体)‎ | +/−. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dust_Bowl_Oklahoma.jpg.
Views: 29587 Bozeman Science
Georgia: Coal and Carbon
 
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Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel and the least expensive one used to generate electricity in the US. It's also the source of many local problems, including those caused by strip mining and mountaintop removal, as well as disposal of toxic coal ash. But the biggest threat of all may be to the entire planet: burning coal releases large amounts of carbon dioxide, or CO2 — and carbon dioxide is a major contributor to climate change. Scientists say if the world continues emitting carbon dioxide following current trends, the average global temperature could rise by 7 degrees Fahrenheit or more by the year 2100, and by 9 degrees or more in the U.S. The oceans, expanding as they warm and flooded with melt-water from glaciers and ice sheets on land, could rise between two and five feet. In Georgia, a state that gets 60 percent of its electricity from coal (the national average is 50 percent), residents are already worried about the effects on their state's economy and ecology. As the temperature rises, the Live Oak — the state tree — could find it hard to thrive. Coastal cities like Savannah, meanwhile, will be under increasing threat from the rising sea. Like others across the country, Georgians are connecting the dots between how they get their electricity and what the future holds for their lives. As a result, they're trying to figure out how to cut down on the CO2 emitted by burning coal. One answer might be to reduce the amount of coal used — but coal is abundant and inexpensive, and therefore hard to give up. Yet it's also possible to reduce the amount of CO2 that comes from a coal-fired power plant. That's the idea behind "clean coal" or, to use the more technical term, carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). CCS technology could capture as much as 90% of the carbon dioxide emitted from coal power plants and pipe it deep underground, into porous formations of rock and sand that can absorb the CO2 and prevent its escape to the atmosphere. CCS technology appears to be viable, but implementing it at large scales is still at least a decade away. It also will require billions of dollars in investment, and some states, like Georgia, are less geologically suitable for storing carbon dioxide than others. CCS will make electricity from coal more expensive. And some opponents worry about whether any underground location can truly contain the CO2. The wider debate about clean coal and CCS is being played out on television, through a multimillion-dollar advertising war. Opponents say coal is a "dirty rock" that can't be wiped clean with an advertising campaign. They insist that even if the CO2 problem is fixed, mining, ash disposal and combustion will keep coal from being truly clean. The other side emphasizes the fact that coal is inexpensive, that the U.S. has domestic reserves that could last two hundred years or more, and that using coal is a prime way to help the U.S. remain competitive with fast-growing economies like China and India — both of which are major coal users. Even if CCS ultimately proves to be successful on a wide scale, experts say that there are steps people can immediately pursue to get a head start on reducing carbon dioxide emissions. "Efficiency is the first fuel that we should be going to," says Stephen Smith, Executive Director for the Southern Alliance for Clean Energy. Others point out that reducing CO2 emissions to the degree needed to avoid major climate change will require not only efficiency improvements, but also a portfolio of options. CCS, they say, could be one such option. Toward that end, the federal government is currently directing some stimulus funding to help demonstrate CCS technologies. Meanwhile, Congress is debating legislation to regulate carbon-dioxide emissions. If such legislation is approved, that could ultimately provide the necessary incentive for coal-burning companies to invest billions of dollars in CCS — the amount needed to make CCS a reality. Footage credits: David Novack ("Burning the Future"), Georgia Power, America By Air, Appalachian Voices (I Love Mountains), Getty Images, J. Miles Cary/Knoxville News Sentinel, Ocean Footage, Shutterstock
Views: 1771 climatecentral
Remote village hopes small coal mines not closed as part of govt plans to create reserve
 
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Residents of Tausa, a remote village in central Colombia, fear that authorities will close the small coal mines that have sustained them and their families for as long as anyone can remember. Miners in "La Flauta" said on Wednesday that their small-scale "artisan" mine will close if authorities declare the area a nature reserve in which mining is prohibited and there will be no hope for their future. Government officials have been saying that for the time being there are no plans to close Tausa's mines, and despite their worries, workers continue with the manual labour that has been passed down through generations. From early in the morning, miners at "La Flauta" hop into railway wagons and travel through a maze of tunnels before reaching the seam, where they begin to extract coal. Then they chip, drill and pick for hours the mine's interior walls in search for the mineral. The effort though, seems that it's not paying off at the moment. "Right now mining has become difficult because there are no exports. There are no carbon sales. Carbon is very cheap and there are 40 families, 40 people working and depending from this mine and we all have wives and children," said Sebastian Echeverria, 45, who has been the administrator of the mine for 11 years. Miners say they earn about 600,000 pesos (318 US dollars) every two weeks. "If there was a way to advance with my family, support my family with other (types of) jobs, then I would do it," said Armando Pinzon, a Tausa resident who has been working in the mines for eight years. The plan to declare the area a nature reserve is being reviewed by the Environment Ministry, and most likely will not go into effect in the coming future. But for Tausa's residents, that doesn't calm their fears of being left unemployed. The Juan Manuel Santos administration cut its coal production goal for 2013 to 94 (m) million tonnes from 98 (m) million due to strikes afflicting the sector this year. In 2012 the sector produced more than 89.2 (m) million tonnes. You can license this story through AP Archive: http://www.aparchive.com/metadata/youtube/46dd40d5b5071df504fcd0bbe4cc13e1 Find out more about AP Archive: http://www.aparchive.com/HowWeWork
Views: 3644 AP Archive
Environmental activists block access to strip mine in Germany
 
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(27 Oct 2018) Protesters on Saturday blocked a railway line leading to a large strip coal mine in western Germany that has become a cause celebre for environmentalists amid plans to clear part of a neighbouring forest to expand the facility. Another group of about 40 people occupied an excavator at the Hambach mine near Cologne, eight of them climbing onto the machine. Activists aimed to disrupt mining operations at the site run by energy company RWE. Thousands of people took part in Saturday's demonstration, prompting police to use water cannons to stop demonstrators crossing a closed highway and heading toward the mine site. Separately, employees of RWE were demonstrating for their jobs to be preserved. The area has seen repeated protests amid plans to clear part of the neighbouring Hambach Forest to make way for an expansion of the lignite mine. Earlier this month, a German court blocked the felling of the forest, saying it needs time to examine whether the woodland deserves protected status. Environmentalists argue that it does because of the bats that live there. They also say the continued extraction of coal runs contrary to Germany's goal of reducing carbon emissions to prevent global warming. Find out more about AP Archive: http://www.aparchive.com/HowWeWork Twitter: https://twitter.com/AP_Archive Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/APArchives Google+: https://plus.google.com/b/102011028589719587178/+APArchive​ Tumblr: https://aparchives.tumblr.com/​​ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/APNews/ You can license this story through AP Archive: http://www.aparchive.com/metadata/youtube/e5a0f4a7d8b1f1f26724fa8e645fe0cd
Views: 119 AP Archive
The hellish coal fields of Jharia | DW Documentary
 
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Savitri Mahto’s morning begins with her shift at the coal mine. There the 17-year-old toils away for hours every day in order to support her family. The toxic fumes are destroying Savitri’s health, but she cannot afford to see a doctor. Jharia in the Indian state of Jharkhand is home to around 600,000 people. It’s in the middle of the country’s largest coal field. Jharia, named after the city and region of the same name, also has a devastating number of coal seam fires - locally and globally one of the biggest causes of environmental pollution. Coal fires pump enormous quantities of carbon dioxide into the air. Savitri Mahto toils away every day in this toxic atmosphere before going to school. DW reporter Sonia Phalnikar has the story. The Hellish Coal Fields of Jharia A Report by Sonia Phalnikar _______ Subscribe to DW Documentary: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCW39zufHfsuGgpLviKh297Q?sub_confirmation=1# For more information visit: http://www.dw.com/documentaries Instagram https://www.instagram.com/dwdocumentary/ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/dw.stories DW netiquette policy: http://www.dw.com/en/dws-netiquette-policy/a-5300954
Views: 8962 DW Documentary
How is Coal Formed? - Geography for Kids | Educational Videos by Mocomi
 
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https://mocomi.com/ presents : How is Coal Formed? Millions of years ago, a large number of plants and ferns grew on Earth. These plants and ferns died in swamps, around riverbanks and got covered with soil and mud and slowly sank into the ground. As the years passed, the Earth’s heat and the weight of the ground changed these dead plants into coal. To extract coal, it needs to be dug out. Coal is usually found in layers, or seams underground. Learn more about where do we get coal and how does it form with the help of this animated learning module for kids. To learn more about where we get coal from, read: https://mocomi.com/where-do-we-get-coal-from/ For more geography related videos and interactive articles, visit: https://mocomi.com/learn/geography/ Follow Mocomi Kids - Top educational website for kids, on Facebook https://www.facebook.com/mocomikids/ on Twitter https://twitter.com/MocomiKids on Pinterest https://www.pinterest.com/mocomikids/ on Google+ https://plus.google.com/+mocomikids/ on LinkedIn https://www.linkedin.com/company/mocomi-kids
Views: 312378 MocomiKids
India: Coughing up Coal
 
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Find more Earth Focus content at https://www.linktv.org/earthfocus India is rivaling China -- in its plans to consume coal. India is aggressively expanding construction of coal fired power plants to meet growing energy needs. Some 455 new plants now are in the pipeline. With air pollution already a leading health concern, medical experts say this expansion can have dire health consequences. Emissions from coal power plants were linked to 80,000-150,000 premature deaths in India between 2011 and 2012 alone and to a wide range of diseases from cancers, to respiratory and cardiovascular disorders. Singrauli -- an industrial hub in north central India -- embodies the tragic human toll that a largely unregulated coal industry can extract. Sarah Stirk of the Ecologist Film Unit files this original investigative report for Earth Focus. Read a blog post from Sarah Stirk, journalist and filmmaker for the Ecologist Film Unit in the United Kingdom: https://www.linktv.org/earth-focus-blog/india-s-coal-pollution
Views: 5486 Link TV
Coal and Human Rights
 
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"Promises of Lavender" explores the stories of individuals and communities affected by coal in India, Colombia, South Africa and Egypt, with a focus on the violations of their rights by the industry. From the attempts against the life of a lawyer suing a coal company, the forced displacement of an Afro-Colombian community by a coal mine, the fears of an Egyptian activist about the unregulated entry of coal into his country, and the struggles of a Dalit woman regarding the health impacts of coal mining on her children, it explores the human face of coal development beyond the environment--including that of workers who suppoedly benefits the most from the industry. In Arbor, a community in Mpumalanga, South Africa, a coal company failed to deliver on its promises of water, electricity and livelihood programs. Five people were lucky enough to be hired to grow lavender to make perfume. Today, all of these lavenders have all but died. Is coal cheap? Has it fulfilled its promises of development to communities whose lives it has entered into? What has it cost already marginalized communities who can no longer dream in their homes? Learn more about the project at http://www.coalinthesouth.org.
Views: 973 Dejusticia
US coal company begins carbon capture - 15 Nov09
 
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Coal is cheap and abundant in the US state of West Virginia, a combination that has led the fossil fuel to become a prime source of energy, jobs and political influence. However, the very benefits it provides also pose a huge environmental challenge. Al Jazeera's Tom Ackerman visits the Mountain State, home to the largest electricity company in the US, to find out how American Electric Power (AEP) can churn out tons of carbon dioxide without contributing to a global environmental disaster. Teaming up with the French energy consultants Alstom, AEP has begun to pump waste chemical gases deep into the ground - a procedure it says could keep our atmosphere safe for centuries to come. They hope to demonstrate their particular method of underground carbon capture and storage can isolate nearly all the CO2 from existing power plants. At Al Jazeera English, we focus on people and events that affect people's lives. We bring topics to light that often go under-reported, listening to all sides of the story and giving a 'voice to the voiceless.' Reaching more than 270 million households in over 140 countries across the globe, our viewers trust Al Jazeera English to keep them informed, inspired, and entertained. Our impartial, fact-based reporting wins worldwide praise and respect. It is our unique brand of journalism that the world has come to rely on. We are reshaping global media and constantly working to strengthen our reputation as one of the world's most respected news and current affairs channels. Social Media links: Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/aljazeera Instagram: https://instagram.com/aljazeera/?ref=... Twitter: https://twitter.com/ajenglish Website: http://www.aljazeera.com/ google+: https://plus.google.com/+aljazeera/posts
Views: 3188 Al Jazeera English
Underground coal fires in America
 
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Hell on Earth directly below Centralia, Pa (Continued) http://www.earthmagazine.org/earth/article/33d-7da-5-5 From 2003 - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZjtmaCI9_wM 12/27/2007 - Clean-up of a coal waste fire burning underground for more than 40 years. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bdv9hXYZQBs 7/26/2010 - Recently three such fires have been spotted out near Wyoming's Powder River Basin (Continued) http://www.merinews.com/article/3-underground-coal-fire-spotted-near-powder-river-basin/15827354.shtml 7/23/2010 - TIME: Deep Underground, Miles of Hidden Wildfires Rage http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,2006195,00.html (Excerpt) According to a review by the Department of Interior's Office of Surface Mining Enforcement and Reclamation, more than 100 fires are burning beneath nine states, most of them in Colorado, Kentucky, Pennsylvania (where 45 fire zones are known), Utah and West Virginia. But geologists say many fires go unreported, driving the actual number of them closer to 200 across 21 states. USGS (2009): Emissions from Coal Fires and Their Impact on the Environment http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2009/3084/ (Excerpt) In the United States, the combined cost of coal-fire remediation projects, completed, budgeted, or projected by the U.S. Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM), exceeds $1 billion, with about 90% of that in two States—Pennsylvania and West Virginia (Office of Surface Mining Enforcement and Reclamation, 2008; fig. 2). Altogether, 15 States have combined cumulative OSM coal-fire project costs exceeding $1 million, with the greatest overall expense occurring in States where underground coal fires are predominant over surface fires, reflecting the greater cost of extinguishing underground fires. This table by the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM) of the Abandoned Mine Lands (AML) reclamation accomplishments (1978-1996) states that 1,245 burning underground fires (in 10 states) and 1,314 burning surface firs (in 21 states had been eliminated. http://www.osmre.gov/Reports/AnnualReport/1996/1996_stat_table13_AMLCoalRecAccomplishments.pdf Distribution and Characteristics of Outcrop Fires in Horizontal Strata in Eastern and Western Coal Providences Bernard R. Maynard, U,S. Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement Proceedings of the 1990 Mining and Reclamation Conference in Morgantown, WV: OSM Abandoned Mine Land Inventory System (AMLIS) is includes high priority problems, both those still in need of reclamation and the ones that have been reclaimed. http://www.osmre.gov/aml/amlis/amlis.shtm In 1884, striking miners pushed burning coal cars into a mine owned by the New Straitsville Mining Company, setting the mine ablaze. The fire still burns underground to this day in Ohio. More: http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=521 11/22/2010 NELSONVILLE, Ohio — A five-acre area of Wayne National Forest remained closed Monday because of an 20-foot underground coal fire. See video: http://www.onntv.com/live/content/onnnews/stories/2010/11/22/story-coal-fire-wayne-county.html?sid=102 10/29/2010 http://www.courthousenews.com/2010/10/29/31466.htm (Excerpt) The class adds that any evidence that the fire actually endangered Centralia was "contrived," and that "no court has ever held a hearing to determine whether the fire is, or ever was, a threat," that "certainly it does not threaten Centralia now and is retreating at its worst." 11/4/09 http://news.discovery.com/earth/coal-fire-pollution-global.html (Excerpt) Right now, thousands of coal fires are burning out of control around the world. The fires are heaving untold amounts of mercury, the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) and other pollutants into the air. 4/13/10 http://www.gillettenewsrecord.com/articles/2010/04/13/news/sunday/news01.txt (Excerpt) In fact, the coal on Mooney's land has burned at least three times in the last 100 years. It was the site of the Felix mine, started by the railroad in the late 1800s to supply trains with coal as they rumbled through Campbell County. The underground mine was abandoned in the late 1800s, but wasn't reclaimed. http://www.wsgs.uwyo.edu/coalweb/WyomingCoal/remarkable.aspx 1/31/08 - Video: http://www.clipsyndicate.com/video/play/506262/coal_vein_fire A strange site can be seen from the interstate just west of Mandan. Smoke is coming from the side of this hill. Jim Deutsch with the North Dakota Public Service Commission says the cause of the smoke is a coal vein fire just under the ground. Deutsch expects a large grass fire this past fall ignited the coal that has since continued to burn. He says a grass fire near Watford City in the late nineties sparked about thirty coal vein fires in the area. World map of coal fires http://www.coalfire.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=section&id=13&Itemid=61
Views: 11316 rhmooney3
Earth Month 2009: Clean Coal
 
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Environmentalism is a global priority. That's a fact no one is willing to contest. But within the sustainability arena, there is still plenty of room for debate on how to best achieve goals. In conjunction with Ohio University's designation of April as Earth Month, Sustainability Coordinator Sonia Marcus takes on faculty members from across the academic spectrum, addressing some of the most controversial issues facing the environment, both locally and globally. These debates showcase the wide diversity of opinions that coexist within the community of environmental advocates. In today's debate, Marcus and Associate Professor of Journalism Bernhard Debatin discuss the legitimacy of clean coal -- or methods used by coal producers and utilities to reduce coal's environmental impact. Debatin addresses this topic among many local environmental concerns in his recently created journalism course, "Localizing Environmental and Science Journalism." The course was triggered by Debatin's involvement in the Kanawha Environmental Education Project, a professional development series that aims to integrate concepts of environmental sustainability into Ohio University's curriculum. In addition to teaching environmental journalism, Debatin has devoted the past two years to researching the environmental and social impacts of coal mining in Athens County.
Views: 197 Ohio University
The Carbon Conundrum in :60
 
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It's been on the lips of the president, a concern of the new pontiff, and on the minds of millions: global warming. Lucy Hutyra has heard the call and is seeking answers in her own backyard. The assistant professor of earth and environment says nearly 70 percent of global carbon dioxide emissions come from cities, which cover only 3 percent of our planet's surface but are home to more than half of the world's population. Until recently, few scientists were studying urban areas as unique ecosystems. Hutyra and a team of researchers, however, have spent the past year dissecting the origin of Boston's carbon emissions, and have begun tracing how urban-generated carbon is stored and processed over time. "If we are going to have a prayer of actually reducing greenhouse gas emissions, meeting commitments, and creating international treaties," says Hutyra, "we need to know where carbon dioxide is coming from within cities. It's the canary in the coal mine, so to speak." Read the story on the Annual Report: http://www.bu.edu/ar
Views: 631 Boston University
Want the truth about Australia's coal industry?
 
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The future doesn’t belong to coal, it belongs to us. Check out our new video voiced by Australian film and television legend Sigrid Thornton for our CEO, David Ritter’s new book: The Coal Truth: The fight to stop Adani, defeat the big polluters and reclaim our democracy. The Coal Truth provides a timely and colourful contribution to one of the most important struggles in our national history - over the future of the coal industry. Contributors from the movement include Adrian Burragubba, Tara Moss and Berndt Sellheim, Lesley Hughes, John Quiggin, Hilary Bambrick, Ruchira Talukdar and Geoffrey Cousins. Grab your copy of the book here and let us know what you think: https://bit.ly/2qIpoxE
Rethinking carbon capture and sequestration
 
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Capturing CO2 and injecting it in the subsurface is often presented as a major tool to prevent man-made global warming. Several successful pilot projects on carbon sequestration have been carried. In order to assess the degree to which this technique can have an impact on mitigation of man-made global warming, one needs to consider the amount of CO2 that needs to be injected. This leads to a number of questions that must be answered before this carbon capture and sequestration can be used on a scale that actually makes a difference in preventing climate change. (1) How can the cost of this process be reduced from its projected cost of 150 billion dollars per year? (2) How can the capture and injection be up-scaled by a factor of 1000 beyond current capabilities? (3) How can we predict and monitor leakage? Many action alternative to carbon capture and sequestration likely to be much cheaper and save energy as well. This talk was presented on April 10, 2013 as part of the IHS Markit Seminar Series, co-sponsored with the Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences. About the speaker: Roel Snieder holds the Keck Foundation Endowed Chair of Basic Exploration Science at the Colorado School of Mines. He received in 1984 a Masters degree in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics from Princeton University, and in 1987 a Ph.D. in seismology from Utrecht University. In 1993 he was appointed as professor of seismology at Utrecht University, where from 1997-2000 he was appointed as Dean of the Faculty of Earth Sciences. In 1997 he was a visiting professor at the Center for Wave Phenomena. Roel served on the editorial boards of Geophysical Journal International, Inverse Problems, and Reviews of Geophysics. In 2000 he was elected as Fellow of the American Geophysical Union for important contributions to geophysical inverse theory, seismic tomography, and the theory of surface waves. He is author of the textbooks "A Guided Tour of Mathematical Methods for the Physical Sciences" and "The Art of Being a Scientist" that are published by Cambridge University Press. Since 2000 he is a firefighter in Genesee Fire Rescue. ___ The MIT Energy Initiative is MIT’s hub for energy research, education, and outreach. Learn more at http://energy.mit.edu.
Views: 1955 MIT Energy Initiative
The Role of Coal in a New Energy Age
 
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The Role of Coal in a New Energy Age - Select Committee on Energy Independence and Global Warming - 2010-04-14 - For the first time in recent memory, the CEOs of America's top two coal mining companies, and a leading international company, came to Capitol Hill to answer questions on their positions on climate change, clean energy policy, and the challenges that face their industry. "Just as our national energy policy is at a crossroads, so, too, is the coal industry," said Rep. Edward J. Markey, who chairs the Select Committee on Energy Independence and Global Warming, the committee that hosted the CEOs. "Whether it's climate science, the viability of 'clean coal,' or safety concerns, I believe Congress requires answers from the coal industry on their ability to be a part of our clean energy future." As Congress continues to push for a comprehensive clean energy and climate bill, questions remain regarding the coal industry's position on the essential science of climate change and their potential to provide cleaner, lower-carbon fuel in the decades to come. The House-passed Waxman-Markey bill offered a pathway for coal to transition to carbon capture and sequestration technologies. The coal mining industry has seen significant developments over the last two weeks. A mining accident in West Virginia has renewed questions about the safety of coal extraction, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has offered new rules on the environmental and health impacts of mountaintop mining. TESTIMONY: Gregory Boyce, President and Chief Executive Officer, Peabody Energy Corporation; Steven F. Leer, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Arch Coal, Inc.; Preston Chiaro, Chief Executive for Energy and Minerals, Rio Tinto; Michael Carey, President, Ohio Coal Association. Video provided by the U.S. House of Representatives.
Views: 3220 HouseResourceOrg
Drill Water Capture System - for safer, drier working environments in Underground Coal Mines
 
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The Drill Water Capture System is designed to capture spent drill water, remove drill fines, and discharge captured water directly into the pump – providing a safer drier working environment. The Drill Water Capture System has been manufactured to be attached to various types of air tracks, drill rigs, QDS bolters and handheld bolters.
The Collapse of Coal
 
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American coal is in crisis. Production is down. Mining companies have declared bankruptcy. So how did America's coal industry get in this situation? And what will happen to America's coal communities? Inside Energy and The Allegheny Front teamed up to look at the collapse of coal.
Views: 44767 Inside Energy
Coal and Petroleum explanation and question answers - CBSE NCERT Class  8 Science  Chapter 5
 
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CBSE NCERT class 8 science chapter 5 "coal and petroleum" - explanation and question answers. Topics covered are as follows - What is energy. Types of Natural resources Sources of energy - biomass, hydel power, geothermal, wind, solar, petrol. Renewable and Non Renewable resources Fractional distillation energy and environment Our website ( https://www.successcds.net ) is one of the leading portal on Latest Entrance Exams 2018 and Admissions in India. Also visit our Channel for Entrance Exams in India FAQs & Application Process, GK & Current Affairs, Communication Skills Get Entrance Exam Alerts / Admission Alerts/ Study Tips on Whatsapp! Register Now https://goo.gl/RSxXmW #examalerts #entranceexams #admission #cbse #class10 #class12 Follow us: https://www.facebook.com/SuccessCD https://google.com/+successcds https://twitter.com/entranceexam https://twitter.com/successcds https://www.youtube.com/successcds1 https://www.youtube.com/englishacademy1
Views: 46486 SuccessCDs Education
Coal Mining Documentary - The Most Dangerous Job On Earth - Classic History
 
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Coal Mining Documentary - The Most Dangerous Job On Earth - Classic History Coal mining is the process of extracting coal from the ground. Coal is valued for its energy content, and, since the 1880s, has been widely used to generate electricity. Steel and cement industries use coal as a fuel for extraction of iron from iron ore and for cement production. In the United Kingdom and South Africa a coal mine and its structures are a colliery, a coal mine a pit, and the above-ground structures the pit head. In Australia, "colliery" generally refers to an underground coal mine. In the United States "colliery" has been used to describe a coal mine operation but nowadays the word is not commonly used. Coal mining has had many developments over the recent years, from the early days of men tunnelling, digging and manually extracting the coal on carts, to large open cut and long wall mines. Mining at this scale requires the use of draglines, trucks, conveyors, hydraulic jacks and shearers. Small-scale mining of surface deposits dates back thousands of years. For example, in Roman Britain, the Romans were exploiting most of the major coalfields by the late 2nd century AD. Read More: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coal_mining
Views: 5972 Classic History
UNDERGROUND MINES.mp4
 
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coal mines in central jharkhand few pictures and videos my experience inside there
Views: 439 souvik ghosh
Coal Seam Gas - The Fight For Our Lives - Spread Virally
 
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Coal seam gas mining (CSG) is developing rapidly in New South Wales and Queensland and is commencing in other states. The legal and administrative protections are inadequate to ensure that public health is not harmed and that environmental damage does not leave a legacy for generations. The public health responsibilities of state and federal governments are to prevent harm by careful scientific assessment of possible hazards, their risks and methods of prevention. Therefore they deal particularly with clean air, clean water and uncontaminated food. Industry and state governments have frequently reassured the public that there are no dangers from CSG to water supplies and to their health. But what is their evidence? Overseas health concerns are emerging. A ban on shale gas mining in France and moratoriums in parts of the USA and South Africa are recent developments. The United States Environmental Protection Authority has begun a comprehensive study to investigate the potential adverse impacts that hydraulic fracturing may have on water quality and public health. There are differences between shale gas mining -- the predominant process overseas, particularly in the US -- and coal seam gas mining in Australia, in the depth of drilling and the volume of water brought to the surface, but there are health impacts common to both: the potential for contamination of water for drinking and agricultural use and for air pollution around wells. Hydraulic fracturing (fracking), often used in the mining process, involves the pressurised injection of a large volume of water, as well as chemical additives, into rock. The large volume of saline water returning to the surface contains injected contaminants and those leached from rocks and sediments. Nearby aquifers, ground water, soil and air may be contaminated. Some chemicals used in mining or leached from underground into water have the potential to harm human health given sufficient dose and duration of exposure, and this potential harm includes increased risks of cancer and other serious long-term outcomes. In a recent submission to the Senate Inquiry into Management of the Murray Darling Basin and the impact of CSG mining operations, Doctors for the Environment Australia has highlighted these concerns, recommending application of the precautionary principle, putting in place protections until sufficient research can be undertaken to adequately document health risks. Food quality and security is essential for good health. Agriculture, already under threat from more severe and prolonged drought conditions associated with climate change, will be further compromised by the CSG industry. As the industry expands, the vast quantities of water diverted from agricultural use to CSG operations and the loss of productive cropland may well diminish Australia's ability to feed itself and the world. Water and air pollution, water shortages, permanent degradation of productive agricultural land and loss of livelihood and landscape, all have mental health consequences for communities living in a gas field. The CSG process can divide previously close-knit rural communities, increasing tension and disharmony, impact on local economies, and threaten other industries such as tourism. But climate change is also an important health issue, and the carbon footprint of CSG over coal is said to be lower. Does this override other considerations? Not at all. Proper monitoring of fugitive emissions is needed to enable accurate comparisons with coal. The International Energy Agency has warned that there is a danger that over reliance on CSG will delay the vital transition to renewable energy. What needs to be done to protect human health? In any new development, health should be an integral part of the assessment process. State Departments of Health should have had a major role on the safety of a CSG development via a health risk assessment process. This is not currently happening in each state, and logically there should be one best practice national process. Adequate information is needed to support risk assessment and health protection and this is largely lacking. Greater transparency of industry practices and improved monitoring would start to fill this gap. There is a strong case for an independent, national Health Impact Assessment process, providing a uniform regulatory framework for the industry in all states and territories. While these protections are being developed, the precautionary principle should be exercised to recognise potential harms and err on the side of caution with any new CSG development. Human health relies on the maintenance of a healthy environment, clean drinking water, secure food production, the cohesion of community and family life. The new gold rush represented by coal seam mining should not be allowed to endanger these basic health needs of Australians.
Views: 6470 TheUnitedAustralia
An Impending Catastrophe Part 1: Climate Change and Neoliberalism
 
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Are we all screwed? Well some of us definitely are. Twitter: https://twitter.com/arachnomutalisk ___ Addendum 1: this is slightly incorrect. 2795 Gt CO2 figure is the current declared reserves of fossil fuels that companies are planning to dig up. The real projected amount of all CO2 underground is much higher since new oil and gas fields are still being discovered. Addendum 2: As pointed out by Kevin Anderson himself, “emissions reductions of 3-4% is incompatible with growing economy” is more of an assertion rather than empirical fact. However, there has been other studies that supports the idea that limiting global warming to under 2° C requires significant consumption reduction (Raftery et al 2017 [40], Ward et al 2016 [41]) and consumption reduction means slow to no economic growth. ___ sources: [f] fake article [1] https://report.ipcc.ch/sr15/pdf/sr15_spm_final.pdf [2] https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/03/160321-coral-bleaching-great-barrier-reef-climate-change/ [3] https://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2015/03/150302-syria-war-climate-change-drought/ [4] https://www.ft.com/content/f350020e-b206-11e7-a398-73d59db9e399 [5] https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/neoliberalism-is-increasing-inequality-and-stunting-economic-growth-the-imf-says-a7052416.html [6] https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421518304063 [7] https://www.jasonhickel.org/blog/2019/2/3/pinker-and-global-poverty [8] https://www.cbsnews.com/news/carbon-dioxide-emissions-rise-to-24-million-pounds-per-second/ [9] https://phys.org/news/2017-11-global-carbon-dioxide-emissions-stable.html [10] https://www.globalpolicyjournal.com/blog/19/11/2018/interview-climate-change-product-how-capitalism-values-nature [11] https://climateactiontracker.org/ [12] https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/sites/2/2019/02/SR15_Chapter3_Low_Res.pdf [13] http://nymag.com/intelligencer/2017/07/climate-change-earth-too-hot-for-humans-annotated.html?gtm=bottom&gtm=top [14] https://climateactiontracker.org/global/temperatures/ [15] http://time.com/4209510/climate-change-poor-countries/ [16] https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10455752.2017.1356494#aHR0cHM6Ly93d3cudGFuZGZvbmxpbmUuY29tL2RvaS9wZGYvMTAuMTA4MC8xMDQ1NTc1Mi4yMDE3LjEzNTY0OTQ/bmVlZEFjY2Vzcz10cnVlQEBAMA== [17] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IgJlsBCmrUA [18] https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/dec/02/worlds-richest-10-produce-half-of-global-carbon-emissions-says-oxfam [19] http://web.stanford.edu/~mburke/climate/ [20] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clathrate_gun_hypothesis [21] https://www.nature.com/articles/s41561-019-0310-1 [22] https://thinkprogress.org/worst-case-global-warming-uninhabitable-earth-c25cd97007fe/ [23] https://www.reuters.com/article/us-oil-shale-texas/texas-and-new-mexico-shale-basins-hold-49-years-worth-of-oil-usgs-idUSKBN1O52IV [24] https://www.theguardian.com/environment/keep-it-in-the-ground-blog/2015/mar/25/what-numbers-tell-about-how-much-fossil-fuel-reserves-cant-burn [25] https://www.ucsusa.org/clean-energy/coal-impacts [26] https://www.nbc4i.com/news/u-s-world/coal-mines-closing-at-a-faster-rate-under-pres-trump-than-obama/1690261093 [27] http://watt-logic.com/2018/07/21/ccs/ [28] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XY_lzonfE3I&t=360s [29] https://www.reuters.com/article/us-climatechange-ccs-idUSBREA2P1LK20140326 [30] https://www.wired.com/story/carbon-capture-is-messy-and-fraughtbut-might-be-essential/ [31] https://www.iaea.org/topics/nuclear-power-and-climate-change [32] https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2018/02/ipcc_wg3_ar5_annex-iii.pdf [33] https://mainichi.jp/english/articles/20170313/p2a/00m/0na/006000c [34] https://news.gallup.com/poll/190064/first-time-majority-oppose-nuclear-energy.aspx [35] https://www.forbes.com/sites/michaelshellenberger/2019/02/07/green-new-deal-excludes-nuclear-and-would-thus-increase-emissions-just-like-it-did-in-vermont/#7676d0509afd [36] https://www.carbontax.org/where-carbon-is-taxed/ [37] https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/carbon-prices-are-too-low-to-reduce-emissions/ [38] https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/dashboards/emissions-trading-viewer-1 [39] https://kevinanderson.info/blog/avoiding-dangerous-climate-change-demands-de-growth-strategies-from-wealthier-nations/ [40] https://www.researchgate.net/publication/318802769_Less_Than_2_C_Warming_by_2100_Unlikely [41] https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0164733
Views: 952 Ray Ramses
India's Environment Destroyed By Dangerous 'Rat-Hole' Mining
 
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Broken Landscape: In rural India, the demand for coal has drastically altered the environment and the lives of those who depend on it. Unregulated 'rat-hole' mining serves the economy, but endangers both landscape and livelihood. “This place was pure and clean before. We used the river for drinking and cooking.” One fisherman recalls with painful nostalgia his memories of the river the village used to enjoy. “Now the people do not touch it. They are repulsed by it.” This is the result of the thousands of small-hold mines in the northeast Indian state of Meghalaya. They have run with no restriction – until now. The National Green Tribunal recently shut down mining in the region at the expense of the local economy, leading to coal mine owners and workers staging protests. With coal in such high demand, India has been forced to chose between economy and environment. For similar stories, see: The Children Risking Their Lives In Underwater Gold Mines https://youtu.be/P1L_pxYZVwE Gold Miners in Guyana Are Destroying the Amazon https://youtu.be/wlxCu_zIt0c How China's Pollution Became A National Emergency https://youtu.be/LkdXkaFVFsE Subscribe to journeyman for daily uploads: http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=journeymanpictures For downloads and more information visit: https://www.journeyman.tv/film/6873/broken-landscape Like us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/journeymanpictures Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/JourneymanVOD https://twitter.com/JourneymanNews Follow us on Instagram: https://instagram.com/journeymanpictures Think Out Loud Productions LLC – Ref. 6873 Journeyman Pictures is your independent source for the world's most powerful films, exploring the burning issues of today. We represent stories from the world's top producers, with brand new content coming in all the time. On our channel you'll find outstanding and controversial journalism covering any global subject you can imagine wanting to know about.
Views: 12547 Journeyman Pictures
Methane & Exposure Concerns
 
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Methane (CH4) is a colorless, odorless and extremely flammable gas that can be explosive when mixed with air. It is a primary component of natural gas and is a major greenhouse gas. It is used to make ammonia, formaldehyde, hydrogen and methanol. According to the U.S. National Library of Medicine, human-related sources of methane include emissions from burning fossil fuels (such as coal, gasoline, natural gas and oil). These emissions can come from vehicles, fuel-burning equipment, operations on oil and gas fields, the processing, storage, and transport of natural gas, and the generation of electricity at coal-fired power plants. Hydraulic fracturing can also emit methane and methane is released from coal deposits during underground and surface mining. Other sources of methane include the decomposition of waste in open dumps and landfills. Methane can be emitted from the digestive processes of domesticated livestock (such as cattle, goats and sheep, and from agricultural feeding operations), be produced during the decomposition of animal waste and be released through liquid manure management systems (such as lagoons and holding tanks). It can also be produced when manure is deposited on crop fields or pastures as fertilizer. Processes during wastewater treatment can emit methane, as can some of the sludge produced. People are exposed to low levels of methane by breathing outdoor air. Those living by or working in an oil or gas field, coal mine, abandoned mine, farm, landfill, wastewater treatment plant, coal-fired power plant, hydraulic fracturing operation or a facility that uses methane to manufacture other chemicals could be exposed to higher levels. Methane in its gas form is an asphyxiant, which in high concentrations may displace a person’s oxygen supply, especially in confined spaces. Decreased oxygen can cause suffocation and loss of consciousness. It can also cause headache, dizziness, weakness, nausea, vomiting and loss of coordination. Skin contact with liquid methane can cause frostbite. These are just a few things to know about methane and potential exposure concerns. To learn more about this or other air quality, health, safety, occupational or property issues, please visit the websites shown below. Clark Seif Clark http://www.csceng.com EMSL Analytical, Inc. http://www.emsl.com LA Testing http://www.latesting.com Zimmetry Environmental http://www.zimmetry.com Healthy Indoors Magazine http://www.iaq.net Hudson Douglas Public Adjusters http://HudsonDouglasPublicAdjusters.com VOETS - Verification, Operations and Environmental Testing Services http://www.voets.nyc
Views: 8821 Paul Cochrane
Fakodih,The Fire Within
 
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Every single video that Community Correspondent Mohan Bhuiyan has made in the last year has documented various ways in which his village is battling for survival. Mohan's village is nestled between the minefields of Tata and Central Coalfields Ltd, India. These companies have mined recklessly leading to multiple health hazards for the people of Fakodih village and at least ten other villages. Depletion of water resources, dumping of mining debris, large scale deforestation and degradation of the land and soil, toxic fumes and the threat of eviction are crises that Mohan and his people live with everyday. Today Mohan brings us yet another video showing how his village is literally burning up from within. About the video: Not 500 meters from Mohan's house, a coal fire rages below the surface of the earth engulfing kilometers of precious coal. This fire started almost three years ago, and very little is being done to control it. In fact, it seems like more efforts are being made to hide the fire! The villagers are suffering from tuberculosis and respiratory problems. They are fully aware of the fact that this fire, if not controlled, will ultimately lead to the subsidence of the meager infrastructure on the surface. It is a well known fact that coal fires are extremely hazardous for health and safety. Coal fires are fast becoming a global threat as they have significant economic, social & economic impacts. They release fly ash and smoke laden with greenhouse gases and toxic chemicals like carbon-monoxide (CO), carbon-dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrous oxides (NOx) amongst others. They also lead to rising surface temperatures and contamination of soil and groundwater. While the villagers are holding on to their houses and land tenaciously in the hope for some compensation, the fight seems to be getting increasingly futile. IU Community Correspondent Mohan says " Tata & CCL companies came to our village almost 20 years ago with promises of water, education, health, employment & development. Today, CCL is conducting the surveys which come prior to our eviction, and Tata requires us to apply 10-15 days in advance for clean drinking water. They have rarely given a thought to us, and how their indiscriminate mining affects us. They haven't even given us any kind of compensation for the land acquisition, which is why we are refusing to move. We have been living a life of hell -- everything we know and have been dependent on has been destroyed. From a self sufficient agricultural village we have been pushed into destitution. And make matters worse, this fire is about to consume us. Coal is a natural resource that takes years to form. These companies are mining indiscriminately, with no regard to the lives of those affected. Now they are also being irresponsible about the mining and wasting this valuable resource." Call to Action: Mohan requests you to call the General Manager of TATA, Mr Rajoria on 06545262486 and demand that concrete steps be taken to stop the fire and prevent the damage being caused to the environment and communities. More Links: http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/campaigns/climate-change/coal/Mining-impacts/?accept=4fda9cab3d972dc7477d95f69d23f62f http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coal_seam_fire http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Environmental_impacts_of_coal http://www.coalfire.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=12:.. Article by: Radhika Gupta Help us caption & translate this video! http://amara.org/v/C3ac/
Views: 403 VideoVolunteers
San Francisco Pollution Liability: Coal Mining
 
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Although the usage of coal for electricity has gone down in recent years, coal mining still remains a valuable industry in the energy sector. Despite rising concerns about global warming in the U.S., large coal companies maintain that coal-fired power can be environmentally sustainable, and beneficial to the energy practices of Americans. Still though, coal mining comes with risks; with the environmental impact of the coal industry affecting land use, waste management, water, and air pollution. Atmospheric pollution is not the only type of pollution that raises concern; coal burning produces many solid waste products annually. These products include fly ash, bottom ash, flue-gas desulfurization sludge that contains mercury, among other chemicals, and more. According to environmental advocates, such as the writers for DeSmogBlog.com, research has found that a typical-sized coal-burning electricity plant in the U.S. puts out approximately 3.7 million tons of carbon dioxide, 10,000 tons of sulfur dioxide, 10,200 tons of nitrogen oxide, and more, per year. These sources say that a standard 500 megawatt coal-fired electrical plant burns about 1,430,000 tons of coal, uses 2.2 billion gallons of water, and uses 146,000 tons of limestone each year as well. Needless to say, owning and operating a coal mining company or any other type of energy production company comes with inherent risks. At DiNicola Insurance Services, we understand these risks; which is why we offer a comprehensive San Francisco Pollution Liability Program for business in the energy sector, as well as other various industries. Please contact us today for more information at (855) 247-1912. http://www.dinicolains.com/sf-pollution-liability-value-risks-coal-mining/
Views: 128 DiNicolaInsurance
Coal Ash Regulations: Health, Economic and Environmental Effects
 
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Congressman Shimkus chairs a hearing of the Environment and the Economy Subcommittee examining the effects of proposed EPA regulations on fossil fuel combustion byproducts like coal ash.
Views: 671 RepShimkus
Killing Carbon Jobs: Environmentalists blamed for 500 Workers Fired in West Virginia
 
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Please watch video through completely - A Pittsburgh-based coal company, CONSOL Energy, will lay off nearly 500 of its West Virginia workers next year and its CEO blames environmentalists dead-set against mountaintop mining who have waged nuisance lawsuits for the job loss. But CONSOL Energys political problems are not unique to the mining industry, which has suffered under the Obama Administration. The Environmental Protection Agency is already holding 79 surface mining permits in West Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio and Tennessee. The EPA says these permits could violate the Clean Water Act and warrant enhanced review. And, agency went even further in October, announcing plans to revoke a permit for the Spruce No. 1 Mine in West Virginia. The latest setback for the coal industry was announced on Tuesday when CONSOL Energy said close to 500 workers would lose jobs at their Fola Operations location near Bickmore, West Virginia in February 2010. CEO Nicholas J. DeIuliis said the poor economy compounded by legal challenges by environmental activists forced CONSOL to slash jobs. PLease visit http://PushBackNow.com and fight to keep America free.
Views: 1378 Push Back Now - PBN
How to mine for coal - underground gasification
 
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12 Hour MBA in Coal Get to grips with coal mining in just 12 hours with this comprehensive online training course - understand the different types of mining and techniques used, the geotechnical and environmental issues, risk management, and much more. The 12 Hour MBA in Coal is an introductory-level online training course designed to bridge knowledge gaps. It is most useful to new entrants, senior managers needing a big picture refresher and professional advisors and suppliers to the field. Explore real-world lessons they don't teach you on the job, from the comfort of your desk. In just 12 hours, you will: - Gain a comprehensive overview of coal mining - Learn the basics of coal, including the different coal types and grades and the chemistry and measurements involved - Understand the different types of mining and the various techniques involved - Consider the geotechnical and environmental issues, such as how to keep workers safe - Look at the similarities and differences between mining open cast and mining underground and the techniques involved - Consider the Health & Saftey issues involved For more information: http://www.terrapinntraining.com/training/12-Hour-MBA-in-Coal
Views: 122 TerrapinnTraining
Forum Syd - the coal mine Cerrejón in Colombia
 
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The coal mine Cerrejón in Colombia has caused environmental desctruction and violations of human rights for over 30 years.
Views: 570 ForumSydOfficial
Australia: mining quarry or natural paradise?
 
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Australia's plans to increase coal exports are at odds with the country's new carbon tax, and broader efforts to protect its environmental assets. Duration: 02:18.
Views: 1746 AFP news agency
There is no such thing as clean coal!
 
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Whilst you can make the use of coal cleaner, it is still the most polluting form of major energy production. The steps that you can use to reduce the impact of coal on the environment relate to how coal was created in the first place and issues such as mining, transportation and disposal of the ash need to be considered to make coal cleaner if not actually clean.
Views: 503 m j murcott
coal mining in the us.
 
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Analyze the global effects of human modifications to the physical environment-- Created using PowToon -- Free sign up at http://www.powtoon.com/youtube/ -- Create animated videos and animated presentations for free. PowToon is a free tool that allows you to develop cool animated clips and animated presentations for your website, office meeting, sales pitch, nonprofit fundraiser, product launch, video resume, or anything else you could use an animated explainer video. PowToon's animation templates help you create animated presentations and animated explainer videos from scratch. Anyone can produce awesome animations quickly with PowToon, without the cost or hassle other professional animation services require.
Views: 11 Whitney Laurie
Obama Administration Halts New Coal Mining Leases
 
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The Obama administration will halt new coal mining on public land for the next three years with immediate effect as it undertakes a review of the “environmental and public health impacts” of coal production. The wide-ranging review, applauded by climate and environmental groups, will assess how federal coal production fits in with the US’s commitment to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions. The department of interior stressed that coal would continue to be an important part of the US’s energy mix and that current operations would not be affected by the freeze in new leases. http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/jan/15/obama-administration-halts-new-coal-mining-leases-on-public-land http://www.wochit.com This video was produced by YT Wochit News using http://wochit.com
Views: 74 Wochit Explains
Moratorium Requested for Surface Mining Permits
 
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At the National Press Club today, a group of scientists from the University of Maryland cited environmental and health risks as the main reason for stopping the mass issues of mountain top removal permits.
Views: 173 CleanSkiesNews
What is COAL SEAM FIRE? What does COAL SEAM FIRE mean? COAL SEAM FIRE meaning & explanation
 
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What is COAL SEAM FIRE? What does COAL SEAM FIRE mean? COAL SEAM FIRE meaning - COAL SEAM FIRE definition - COAL SEAM FIRE explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ A coal seam fire or mine fire is the underground smouldering of a coal deposit, often in a coal mine. Such fires have economic, social and ecological impacts. They are often started by lightning, grass, or forest fires, and are particularly insidious because they continue to smoulder underground after surface fires have been extinguished, sometimes for many years, before flaring up and restarting forest and brush fires nearby. They propagate in a creeping fashion along mine shafts and cracks in geologic structures. Coal fires are a serious health and safety hazard, affecting the environment by releasing toxic fumes, reigniting grass, brush, or forest fires, and causing subsidence of surface infrastructure such as roads, pipelines, electric lines, bridge supports, buildings and homes. Whether started by humans or by natural causes, coal seam fires continue to burn for decades or even centuries until either the fuel source is exhausted, a permanent groundwater table is encountered, the depth of the burn becomes greater than the ground’s capacity to subside and vent, or humans intervene. Because they burn underground, coal seam fires are extremely difficult and costly to extinguish, and are unlikely to be suppressed by rainfall. There are strong similarities between coal fires and peat fires. Across the world, thousands of underground coal fires are burning at any given moment. The problem is most acute in industrializing, coal-rich nations such as China. Global coal fire emissions are estimated to cause 40 tons of mercury to enter the atmosphere annually, and to represent three percent of the world's annual CO2 emissions. Coal seam fires can be divided into near-surface fires, in which seams extend to the surface and the oxygen required for their ignition comes from the atmosphere, and fires in deep underground mines, where the oxygen comes from the ventilation. Mine fires may begin as a result of an industrial accident, generally involving a gas explosion. Historically, some mine fires were started when bootleg mining was stopped by authorities, usually by blowing the mine up. Many recent mine fires have started from people burning trash in a landfill that was in proximity to abandoned coal mines, including the much-publicized Centralia, Pennsylvania, fire, which has been burning since 1962. Of the hundreds of mine fires in the United States burning today, most are found in the state of Pennsylvania. Some fires along coal seams are natural occurrences. Some coals may self-ignite at temperatures as low as 40 °C (104 °F) for brown coal in the right conditions of moisture and grain size. The fire usually begins a few decimeters inside the coal at a depth in which the permeability of the coal allows the inflow of air but in which the ventilation does not remove the heat which is generated. Two basic factors determine whether spontaneous combustion occurs or not, the ambient temperature and the grain size: The higher the ambient temperature, the more quickly the oxidation reactions proceed. The grain size and structure determine its surface area. Kinetics will be limited by availability of reactant, which in this case is carbon exposed to oxygen. Wildfires (lightning-caused or others) can ignite the coal closer to the surface or entrance, and the smouldering fire can spread through the seam, creating subsidence that may open further seams to oxygen and spawn future wildfires when the fire breaks to the surface. Prehistoric clinker outcrops in the American West are the result of prehistoric coal fires that left a residue that resists erosion better than the matrix, leaving buttes and mesa. It is estimated that Australia's Burning Mountain, the oldest known coal fire, has burned for 6,000 years. Globally, thousands of inextinguishable mine fires are burning, especially in China where poverty, lack of government regulations and runaway development combine to create an environmental disaster. Modern strip mining exposes smoldering coal seams to the air, revitalizing the flames.
Views: 435 The Audiopedia