Modern day encryption is performed in two different ways. Check out http://YouTube.com/ITFreeTraining or http://itfreetraining.com for more of our always free training videos. Using the same key or using a pair of keys called the public and private keys. This video looks at how these systems work and how they can be used together to perform encryption.
Download the PDF handout
http://itfreetraining.com/Handouts/Ce...
Encryption Types
Encryption is the process of scrambling data so it cannot be read without a decryption key. Encryption prevents data being read by a 3rd party if it is intercepted by a 3rd party. The two encryption methods that are used today are symmetric and public key encryption.
Symmetric Key
Symmetric key encryption uses the same key to encrypt data as decrypt data. This is generally quite fast when compared with public key encryption. In order to protect the data, the key needs to be secured. If a 3rd party was able to gain access to the key, they could decrypt any data that was encrypt with that data. For this reason, a secure channel is required to transfer the key if you need to transfer data between two points. For example, if you encrypted data on a CD and mail it to another party, the key must also be transferred to the second party so that they can decrypt the data. This is often done using e-mail or the telephone. In a lot of cases, sending the data using one method and the key using another method is enough to protect the data as an attacker would need to get both in order to decrypt the data.
Public Key Encryption
This method of encryption uses two keys. One key is used to encrypt data and the other key is used to decrypt data. The advantage of this is that the public key can be downloaded by anyone. Anyone with the public key can encrypt data that can only be decrypted using a private key. This means the public key does not need to be secured. The private key does need to be keep in a safe place. The advantage of using such a system is the private key is not required by the other party to perform encryption. Since the private key does not need to be transferred to the second party there is no risk of the private key being intercepted by a 3rd party. Public Key encryption is slower when compared with symmetric key so it is not always suitable for every application. The math used is complex but to put it simply it uses the modulus or remainder operator. For example, if you wanted to solve X mod 5 = 2, the possible solutions would be 2, 7, 12 and so on. The private key provides additional information which allows the problem to be solved easily. The math is more complex and uses much larger numbers than this but basically public and private key encryption rely on the modulus operator to work.
Combing The Two
There are two reasons you want to combine the two. The first is that often communication will be broken into two steps. Key exchange and data exchange. For key exchange, to protect the key used in data exchange it is often encrypted using public key encryption. Although slower than symmetric key encryption, this method ensures the key cannot accessed by a 3rd party while being transferred. Since the key has been transferred using a secure channel, a symmetric key can be used for data exchange. In some cases, data exchange may be done using public key encryption. If this is the case, often the data exchange will be done using a small key size to reduce the processing time.
The second reason that both may be used is when a symmetric key is used and the key needs to be provided to multiple users. For example, if you are using encryption file system (EFS) this allows multiple users to access the same file, which includes recovery users. In order to make this possible, multiple copies of the same key are stored in the file and protected from being read by encrypting it with the public key of each user that requires access.
References
"Public-key cryptography" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public-k...
"Encryption" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Encryption

Views: 496716
itfreetraining

RSA Public Key Encryption Algorithm (cryptography). How & why it works. Introduces Euler's Theorem, Euler's Phi function, prime factorization, modular exponentiation & time complexity.
Link to factoring graph: http://www.khanacademy.org/labs/explorations/time-complexity

Views: 582279
Art of the Problem

The history behind public key cryptography & the Diffie-Hellman key exchange algorithm.
We also have a video on RSA here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wXB-V_Keiu8

Views: 640667
Art of the Problem

This is a segment of this full video:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YEBfamv-_do
Diffie-Hellman key exchange was one of the earliest practical implementations of key exchange within the field of cryptography. It relies on the discrete logarithm problem. This test clip will be part of the final chapter of Gambling with Secrets!

Views: 452069
Art of the Problem

What is PUBLIC-KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY? What does PUBLIC-KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY mean? PUBLIC-KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY meaning - PUBLIC-KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY definition - PUBLIC-KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY explanation.
Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.
Public-key cryptography, or asymmetric cryptography, is any cryptographic system that uses pairs of keys: public keys that may be disseminated widely paired with private keys which are known only to the owner. There are two functions that can be achieved: using a public key to authenticate that a message originated with a holder of the paired private key; or encrypting a message with a public key to ensure that only the holder of the paired private key can decrypt it.
In a public-key encryption system, any person can encrypt a message using the public key of the receiver, but such a message can be decrypted only with the receiver's private key. For this to work it must be computationally easy for a user to generate a public and private key-pair to be used for encryption and decryption. The strength of a public-key cryptography system relies on the degree of difficulty (computational impracticality) for a properly generated private key to be determined from its corresponding public key. Security then depends only on keeping the private key private, and the public key may be published without compromising security.
Public-key cryptography systems often rely on cryptographic algorithms based on mathematical problems that currently admit no efficient solution—particularly those inherent in certain integer factorization, discrete logarithm, and elliptic curve relationships. Public key algorithms, unlike symmetric key algorithms, do not require a secure channel for the initial exchange of one (or more) secret keys between the parties.
Because of the computational complexity of asymmetric encryption, it is usually used only for small blocks of data, typically the transfer of a symmetric encryption key (e.g. a session key). This symmetric key is then used to encrypt the rest of the potentially long message sequence. The symmetric encryption/decryption is based on simpler algorithms and is much faster.
Message authentication involves hashing the message to produce a "digest," and encrypting the digest with the private key to produce a digital signature. Thereafter anyone can verify this signature by (1) computing the hash of the message, (2) decrypting the signature with the signer's public key, and (3) comparing the computed digest with the decrypted digest. Equality between the digests confirms the message is unmodified since it was signed, and that the signer, and no one else, intentionally performed the signature operation — presuming the signer's private key has remained secret. The security of such procedure depends on a hash algorithm of such quality that it is computationally impossible to alter or find a substitute message that produces the same digest - but studies have shown that even with the MD5 and SHA-1 algorithms, producing an altered or substitute message is not impossible. The current hashing standard for encryption is SHA-2. The message itself can also be used in place of the digest.
Public-key algorithms are fundamental security ingredients in cryptosystems, applications and protocols. They underpin various Internet standards, such as Transport Layer Security (TLS), S/MIME, PGP, and GPG. Some public key algorithms provide key distribution and secrecy (e.g., Diffie–Hellman key exchange), some provide digital signatures (e.g., Digital Signature Algorithm), and some provide both (e.g., RSA).
Public-key cryptography finds application in, among others, the information technology security discipline, information security. Information security (IS) is concerned with all aspects of protecting electronic information assets against security threats. Public-key cryptography is used as a method of assuring the confidentiality, authenticity and non-repudiability of electronic communications and data storage.

Views: 849
The Audiopedia

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) More about MAC and hash functions for authentication and Introduction to public key cryptography in this IT Lecture.
Public-key cryptography, also known as asymmetric cryptography, is a class of cryptographic algorithms which require two separate keys, one of which is secret (or private) and one of which is public.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public-key_cryptography
This video was made by another YouTube user and made available for the use under the Creative Commons licence "CC-BY". His channel can be found here:
https://www.youtube.com/user/StevesLectures

Views: 1809
Lernvideos und Vorträge

This is part two in my basic visual introduction to the concepts behind a blockchain. We build on the concepts from the previous video and introduce public / private key pairs and signing using an interactive web demo.
If you missed it, part 1 is here: https://youtu.be/_160oMzblY8
If you are interested in playing with this on your own, it is available online at:
http://anders.com/blockchain/public-private-keys/
The code that runs this demo is also on GitHub:
https://github.com/anders94/public-private-key-demo
If you want to know more about how public key cryptography works, see the Wikipedia page on it: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public-key_cryptography
The details of how public keys relate to private keys are hard to summarize, but it has to do with Euler's theorem. Basically, using Euler's theorem there is some math you can do to a number given some parameters (which I'll call the public key) which allows someone with some other parameters (which I'll call the private key) to decipher the original number without having to do brute force factorization because there is a shortcut way to find the phi of a prime number. Rather than me butchering the explanation, check this video series out for a more detailed explanation: https://www.khanacademy.org/computing/computer-science/cryptography/modern-crypt/v/the-fundamental-theorem-of-arithmetic-1
I'm @anders94 on Twitter and @andersbrownworth on Steemit.
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ETC: 0xab75ad757c89fa33b92090193a797e6700769ef8

Views: 99299
Anders Brownworth

A quick and dirty explanation of SSL from the point of view of the SSL handshake and a quick look at Self-Signed Certificates and what they are for.
For a more basic overview of SSL check this very nice video: http://youtu.be/SJJmoDZ3il8
If you want to know more about public key cryptography see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public-key_cryptography
In the video here http://youtu.be/LHUbQtUeQ0o I show how to create a self-signed SSL certificate.
Here http://youtu.be/yjZOyANmKWU is part 1 of how to install an SSL certificate in the Apache webserver.
For more tutorials, see https://brightminded.com/updates/

Views: 106974
BrightMindedLtd

What is HYBRID CRYPTOSYSTEM? What does HYBRID CRYPTOSYSTEM mean? HYBRID CRYPTOSYSTEM meaning - HYBRID CRYPTOSYSTEM definition - HYBRID CRYPTOSYSTEM explanation.
Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.
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In cryptography, a hybrid cryptosystem is one which combines the convenience of a public-key cryptosystem with the efficiency of a symmetric-key cryptosystem. Public-key cryptosystems are convenient in that they do not require the sender and receiver to share a common secret in order to communicate securely (among other useful properties). However, they often rely on complicated mathematical computations and are thus generally much more inefficient than comparable symmetric-key cryptosystems. In many applications, the high cost of encrypting long messages in a public-key cryptosystem can be prohibitive. This is addressed by hybrid systems by using a combination of both.
A hybrid cryptosystem can be constructed using any two separate cryptosystems:
a key encapsulation scheme, which is a public-key cryptosystem, and
a data encapsulation scheme, which is a symmetric-key cryptosystem.
The hybrid cryptosystem is itself a public-key system, whose public and private keys are the same as in the key encapsulation scheme.
Note that for very long messages the bulk of the work in encryption/decryption is done by the more efficient symmetric-key scheme, while the inefficient public-key scheme is used only to encrypt/decrypt a short key value.
All practical implementations of public key cryptography today employ the use of a hybrid system. Examples include the TLS protocol which uses a public-key mechanism for key exchange (such as Diffie-Hellman) and a symmetric-key mechanism for data encapsulation (such as AES). The OpenPGP (RFC 4880) file format and the PKCS #7 (RFC 2315) file format are other examples.
Example:
To encrypt a message addressed to Alice in a hybrid cryptosystem, Bob does the following:
1. Obtains Alice's public key.
2. Generates a fresh symmetric key for the data encapsulation scheme.
3. Encrypts the message under the data encapsulation scheme, using the symmetric key just generated.
4. Encrypt the symmetric key under the key encapsulation scheme, using Alice's public key.
5. Send both of these encryptions to Alice.
To decrypt this hybrid ciphertext, Alice does the following:
Uses her private key to decrypt the symmetric key contained in the key encapsulation segment.
Uses this symmetric key to decrypt the message contained in the data encapsulation segment.
If both the key encapsulation and data encapsulation schemes are secure against adaptive chosen ciphertext attacks, then the hybrid scheme inherits that property as well. However, it is possible to construct a hybrid scheme secure against adaptive chosen ciphertext attack even if the key encapsulation has a slightly weakened security definition (though the security of the data encapsulation must be slightly stronger).

Views: 1477
The Audiopedia

Video Dash 101 Series by Aaron Koenig
via Budget Proposal by Jan Heinrich Meyer :
https://www.dashcentral.org/p/dash101
Dash Wiki:
https://dashpay.atlassian.net/wiki/spaces/DOC/pages/1146949/Site+map
https://www.dash.org

Views: 4613
Dash - Digital Cash

Before we delve into the inner workings of a bitcoin transaction I wanted to explain how the actual bitcoin address is derived from the public key which in turn is derived from the private key.
I take through step by step all the steps required to derived the checksums etc and show with a real example of a real bitcoin transaction.
Also discuss why checksums are included in Bitcoin addresses in order to eliminate the possibility of characters being corrupted, or modified in transit.
This is the cool tool for converted from base 58 encoded value to hex value.
http://lenschulwitz.com/base58
Good link talking about base 58 encoding.
https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Base58Check_encoding

Views: 12361
Matt Thomas

In this video we cover basic terminology in cryptography, including what is a ciphertext, plaintext, keys, public key crypto, and private key crypto.

Views: 284682
Pico Cetef

This short video introduces the concept of a lattice, why they are being considered as the basis for the next generation of public key cryptography, and a short walkthrough of a specific encryption algorithm. For a very thorough paper designed to be readable for undergraduates I highly recommend https://eprint.iacr.org/2015/938.pdf.
*One technical note: At 1:30 I claim that lattices are composed only of integers. This is not true. Some lattices only contain integers, but in general, any rational number will do.

Views: 8203
Matthew Dozer

Subscribe today and give the gift of knowledge to yourself or a friend
a public key cryptosystem and a signature scheme based on discrete logarithms
A Public Key Cryptosystem and a Signature Scheme Based on Discrete Logarithms. TAHER ELGAMAL IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY, JULY 1985 Suhyung Kim Yeojeong Yoon 2010. 2. 25. Outline. Introduction Diffie -Hellman key distribution Elgamal Public Key System Slideshow 3060366 by hogan
show1 : A public key cryptosystem and a signature scheme based on discrete logarithms
show2 : Outline
show3 : Introduction
show4 : Introduction1
show5 : A public key cryptosystem and a signature scheme based on discrete logarithms
show6 : Diffie hellman key distribution
show7 : Elgamal public key system
show8 : Elgamal public key system1
show9 : Elgamal digital signature scheme
show10 : Elgamal digital signature scheme1
show11 : Property
show12 : Property1
show13 : Property2
show14 : Comparison
show15 : Attacks on the signature scheme
show16 : Attack total break 1 2
show17 : Attack total break 2 2
show18 : Attack selective forgery 1 2
show19 : Attack selective forgery 2 2
show20 : Attack existential forgery
show21 : Conclusion
show22 : Question or comment

Views: 99
slideshow today

What are prime numbers and public key cryptosystem? What are the applications of prime numbers? How prime numbers are used in public key cryptosystems??
RSA is the first public key cryptosystems......READ MORE https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RSA_(cryptosystem)
To learn more about maths, subscribe to the youtube channel:
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCJtqXcqNTAsv2gqeOWwGSBA?view_as=subscriber

Views: 16
iWiz Education

What is ID-BASED CRYPTOGRAPHY? What does ID-BASED CRYPTOGRAPHY mean? ID-BASED CRYPTOGRAPHY meaning - ID-BASED CRYPTOGRAPHY definition - ID-BASED CRYPTOGRAPHY explanation.
Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.
SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ
Identity-based cryptography is a type of public-key cryptography in which a publicly known string representing an individual or organization is used as a public key. The public string could include an email address, domain name, or a physical IP address.
The first implementation of identity-based signatures and an email-address based public-key infrastructure (PKI) was developed by Adi Shamir in 1984, which allowed users to verify digital signatures using only public information such as the user's identifier. Under Shamir's scheme, a trusted third party would deliver the private key to the user after verification of the user's identity, with verification essentially the same as that required for issuing a certificate in a typical PKI.
Shamir similarly proposed identity-based encryption, which appeared particularly attractive since there was no need to acquire an identity's public key prior to encryption. However, he was unable to come up with a concrete solution, and identity-based encryption remained an open problem for many years. The first practical implementations were finally devised by Sakai in 2000, and Boneh and Franklin in 2001. These solutions were based on bilinear pairings. Also in 2001, a solution was developed independently by Clifford Cocks.
Identity-based systems allow any party to generate a public key from a known identity value such as an ASCII string. A trusted third party, called the private key generator (PKG), generates the corresponding private keys. To operate, the PKG first publishes a master public key, and retains the corresponding master private key (referred to as master key). Given the master public key, any party can compute a public key corresponding to the identity ID by combining the master public key with the identity value. To obtain a corresponding private key, the party authorized to use the identity ID contacts the PKG, which uses the master private key to generate the private key for identity ID.
Identity-based systems have a characteristic problem in operation. Suppose Alice and Bob are users of such a system. Since the information needed to find Alice's public key is completely determined by Alice's ID and the master public key, it is not possible to revoke Alice's credentials and issue new credentials without either (a) changing Alice's ID (usually a phone number or an email address which will appear in a corporate directory); or (b) changing the master public key and re-issusing private keys to all users, including Bob.
This limitation may be overcome by including a time component (e.g. the current month) in the identity.

Views: 432
The Audiopedia

How SSL works by leadingcoder.
This is a full tutorial how to setup SSL that requires client certificate for reference: http://www.windowsecurity.com/articles/Client-Certificate-Authentication-IIS6.html .

Views: 1446837
tubewar

This video is part of the Udacity course "Intro to Information Security". Watch the full course at https://www.udacity.com/course/ud459

Views: 62170
Udacity

This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post-quantum_cryptography
00:01:45 1 Algorithms
00:01:59 1.1 Lattice-based cryptography
00:02:55 1.2 Multivariate cryptography
00:03:30 1.3 Hash-based cryptography
00:04:52 1.4 Code-based cryptography
00:05:42 1.5 Supersingular elliptic curve isogeny cryptography
00:06:54 1.6 Symmetric key quantum resistance
00:07:41 2 Security reductions
00:08:22 2.1 Lattice-based cryptography – Ring-LWE Signature
00:09:15 2.2 Lattice-based cryptography – NTRU, BLISS
00:09:55 2.3 Multivariate cryptography – Rainbow
00:10:29 2.4 Hash-based cryptography – Merkle signature scheme
00:11:19 2.5 Code-based cryptography – McEliece
00:11:49 2.6 Code-based cryptography – RLCE
00:12:19 2.7 Supersingular elliptic curve isogeny cryptography
00:12:53 3 Comparison
00:13:59 3.1 Lattice-based cryptography – LWE key exchange and Ring-LWE key exchange
00:15:27 3.2 Lattice-based Cryptography – NTRU encryption
00:16:10 3.3 Multivariate cryptography – Rainbow signature
00:16:52 3.4 Hash-based cryptography – Merkle signature scheme
00:17:18 3.5 Code-based cryptography – McEliece
00:23:35 3.6 Supersingular elliptic curve isogeny cryptography
00:24:41 3.7 Symmetric–key-based cryptography
00:25:26 4 Forward secrecy
00:26:50 5 Open Quantum Safe project
00:27:46 6 Implementation
00:28:18 7 See also
Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago.
Learning by listening is a great way to:
- increases imagination and understanding
- improves your listening skills
- improves your own spoken accent
- learn while on the move
- reduce eye strain
Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone.
Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio:
https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91
Other Wikipedia audio articles at:
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Upload your own Wikipedia articles through:
https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts
"There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance."
- Socrates
SUMMARY
=======
Post-quantum cryptography (sometimes referred to as quantum-proof, quantum-safe or quantum-resistant) refers to cryptographic algorithms (usually public-key algorithms) that are thought to be secure against an attack by a quantum computer. As of 2018, this is not true for the most popular public-key algorithms, which can be efficiently broken by a sufficiently strong hypothetical quantum computer. The problem with currently popular algorithms is that their security relies on one of three hard mathematical problems: the integer factorization problem, the discrete logarithm problem or the elliptic-curve discrete logarithm problem. All of these problems can be easily solved on a sufficiently powerful quantum computer running Shor's algorithm. Even though current, publicly known, experimental quantum computers lack processing power to break any real cryptographic algorithm, many cryptographers are designing new algorithms to prepare for a time when quantum computing becomes a threat. This work has gained greater attention from academics and industry through the PQCrypto conference series since 2006 and more recently by several workshops on Quantum Safe Cryptography hosted by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) and the Institute for Quantum Computing.In contrast to the threat quantum computing poses to current public-key algorithms, most current symmetric cryptographic algorithms and hash functions are considered to be relatively secure against attacks by quantum computers. While the quantum Grover's algorithm does speed up attacks against symmetric ciphers, doubling the key size can effectively block these attacks. Thus post-quantum symmetric cryptography does not need to differ significantly from current symmetric cryptography. See section on symmetric-key approach below.

Views: 15
wikipedia tts

This is a tutorial on PyCrypto, looking at encrypting and decrypting files using AES-256. All Links and Slides will be in the description. Subscribe for more cool stuff!
Block Cipher Modes - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Block_cipher_mode_of_operation
Slides & files - https://www.mediafire.com/folder/b4om18885dp0k/Tutorial_10_-_PyCrypto
Python - http://python.org/
Ubuntu - http://www.ubuntu.com/
DrapsTV Twitter - https://twitter.com/DrapsTV
If you like what you see be sure to subscribe and thumbs up!

Views: 48417
DrapsTV

To learn more about Cryptography and other forms of encryption, we recommend you turn to an unbiased source of information. You can learn more about this subject by visiting the following websites.
http://www.villanovau.com/resources/iss/what-is-cryptography/
or
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryptography
What is Cryptography? Cryptography is the art of writing and solving codes. There are various forms of cryptography that includes public key encryption, secret key encryption, and other types of encryption.
This subject expands from classic computer era encryption to cryptanalysis in the modern era. In this video, we briefly cover three types of cryptographic encryption in 60 seconds.

Views: 3076
60SecondEDU

A simple lesson on Encryption and Decryption. I actually used caesar cipher (shift cipher) to encrypt the message, but the point was just to show how an encrypted message makes no sense.
To learn more about public-key encryption, check out this Wikipedia article:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public-key_cryptography

Views: 786
hacks4class

This Tutorial Explain What is Digital Signature in Hindi.
A Digital Signature in Hindi (not to be confused with a digital certificate) is a mathematical technique used to validate the authenticity and integrity of a message, software or digital document.
It Covers Points like digital signature in cryptography in hindi, digital signature in network security and digital signature in dbms(advance database management system)
Digital Signature Use Asymatric Key to Encrypt Data.
Digital signatures are often used to implement electronic signatures, a broader term that refers to any electronic data that carries the intent of a signature
How digital signatures work
Digital signatures are based on public key cryptography, also known as asymmetric cryptography. Using a public key algorithm such as RSA, one can generate two keys that are mathematically linked: one private and one public. To create a digital signature, signing software (such as an email program) creates a one-way hash of the electronic data to be signed. The private key is then used to encrypt the hash. The encrypted hash -- along with other information, such as the hashing algorithm -- is the digital signature. The reason for encrypting the hash instead of the entire message or document is that a hash function can convert an arbitrary input into a fixed length value, which is usually much shorter. This saves time since hashing is much faster than signing.
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Reference Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_signature

Views: 9201
Introtuts

Certificates are used to prove identity and used for creating secure communication. Check out http://itfreetraining.com for more of our always free training videos. This video looks at how a certificate works, what is a certificate and how they are used for identification and secure communication.
Download the PDF handout
http://itfreetraining.com/Handouts/Certificates/WhatAreCertificates.pdf
What is a certificate?
A certificate is an electronic document that contains data fields. When compared to a traditional paper certificate there are some similarities between an electronic certificate and a physical certificate. Digital certificates like a physical certificate are issued by an authority. For example, a university may issue a certificate to a student to show that they have completed the necessary work in order to graduate. The next question is, would you trust a physically certificate? Digital certificates work the same way. They are issued from an authority and the question becomes would you trust the authority that issued the certificate? Electronic certificates also contain other fields like who or what the certificate was issued to, how long it is valid, the public key and the digital signature. If a digital certificate is presented to a user or computer, the user or computer is able to check the certificate to ensure the person using it should be using it. Also the certificate contains a digital signature which allows the certificate to be checked to make sure it has not been modified.
Digital Signature
A digital signature provides a method for a certificate to be checked to ensure it has not been modified. In order to do this, a hash value is created for the certificate. To generate a hash value the certificate is put through a function to create a single value. Hash functions are designed so different certificates will not produce the same value, however the hash value cannot be used to generate the original certificate. The same principal applies to a person's fingerprints. They can be used to identify a person, however using a finger print you could not work out the features of a person like what color hair they have. When a certificate is created, the hash value for that certificate is also created. Using a function involving the private key, a digital signature is created and added to the certificate.
Digital Signature Example
When a certificate is used, in order to check the certificate has not been changed, the following is done: The computer generates the hash value for the certificate. Next, the digital signature is put through a function using the public key which should result in the same hash value. If both values match, the certificate has not been modified. This prevents a 3rd party taking a certificate, changing the values in the certificate and using the certificate.
Trust Model
Certificates work off a trust model. An example of a trust model in computers is that a computer may have a sticker on it indicating which operating systems it will run. The consumer, seeing this sticker, must trust that the manufacture would not put this sticker on the laptop unless it will run that operating system. The customer must also trust the creator of that operating system would not allow a computer manufacturer to put a sticker on a computer that would not run that operating system.
Certificate Trust Model
Certificates are generally deployed in a hierarchy. At the top is the root certificate authority. This can be an internal Certificate Authority or an external authority like VeriSign. When an authority like VeriSign issues a certificate, they will perform a number of checks on the individual purchasing the certificate to ensure that they are a valid business. When a certificate is used it can be checked to see which authority issued that certificate. In order for the certificate to be used, the computer must trust the authority that it was issued from. Authorities like VeriSign are trusted by default on most operating systems.
Certificate Error
If a certificate is presented to the computer and it is not trusted, the computer will generate an error asking if the users want to trust the certificate. It is up to the user to decide if they believe the certificate is valid.
Certificate Hierarchy
Certificates use a hierarchy. At the top is the root CA, below these are subordinate CA's. Any level can issue certificates to subordinate CA's or direct to users, computers or devices. If the user, computer or device trusts the root CA, then any certificate that is issued by any CA in the hierarchy will automatically be trusted and thus used by the client.
References
"MCTS 70-640 Configuring Windows Server 2008 Active Directory Second edition" pg 771-775
"Public key certificate" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_key_certificate

Views: 529926
itfreetraining

What is PROBABILISTIC ENCRYPTION? What does PROBABILISTIC ENCRYPTION mean? PROBABILISTIC ENCRYPTION meaning - PROBABILISTIC ENCRYPTION definition - PROBABILISTIC ENCRYPTION explanation.
Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.
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Probabilistic encryption is the use of randomness in an encryption algorithm, so that when encrypting the same message several times it will, in general, yield different ciphertexts. The term "probabilistic encryption" is typically used in reference to public key encryption algorithms, however various symmetric key encryption algorithms achieve a similar property (e.g., block ciphers when used in a chaining mode such as CBC). To be semantically secure, that is, to hide even partial information about the plaintext, an encryption algorithm must be probabilistic.
The first provably-secure probabilistic public-key encryption scheme was proposed by Shafi Goldwasser and Silvio Micali, based on the hardness of the quadratic residuosity problem and had a message expansion factor equal to the public key size. More efficient probabilistic encryption algorithms include Elgamal, Paillier, and various constructions under the random oracle model, including OAEP.
Probabilistic encryption is particularly important when using public key cryptography. Suppose that the adversary observes a ciphertext, and suspects that the plaintext is either "YES" or "NO", or has a hunch that the plaintext might be "ATTACK AT CALAIS". When a deterministic encryption algorithm is used, the adversary can simply try encrypting each of his guesses under the recipient's public key, and compare each result to the target ciphertext. To combat this attack, public key encryption schemes must incorporate an element of randomness, ensuring that each plaintext maps into one of a large number of possible ciphertexts.
An intuitive approach to converting a deterministic encryption scheme into a probabilistic one is to simply pad the plaintext with a random string before encrypting with the deterministic algorithm. Conversely, decryption involves applying a deterministic algorithm and ignoring the random padding. However, early schemes which applied this naive approach were broken due to limitations in some deterministic encryption schemes. Techniques such as Optimal Asymmetric Encryption Padding (OAEP) integrate random padding in a manner that is secure using any trapdoor permutation.

Views: 333
The Audiopedia

For slides, a problem set and more on learning cryptography, visit www.crypto-textbook.com

Views: 73762
Introduction to Cryptography by Christof Paar

A beginners guide to RSA Public Key Encryption (Cryptography). This video covers detailed explanation on RSA Key Generation, Key Distribution, and Implementation.
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Amrita InCTF Junior

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85650789657397829 + 1402 more digits is an illegal number. To understand why this is, we need to learn a little bit of cryptology, a little bit of math, and a little bit of programming.
If you enjoyed this episode, please share it on Reddit, Twitter, Facebook, etc. For a small channel like this, it helps a lot.
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Wendover Productions

This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryptography
00:03:38 1 Terminology
00:07:53 2 History of cryptography and cryptanalysis
00:08:55 2.1 Classic cryptography
00:16:37 2.2 Computer era
00:19:13 2.3 Advent of modern cryptography
00:21:54 3 Modern cryptography
00:23:02 3.1 Symmetric-key cryptography
00:23:13 3.2 Public-key cryptography
00:23:28 3.3 Cryptanalysis
00:27:58 3.4 Cryptographic primitives
00:34:01 3.5 Cryptosystems
00:40:06 4 Legal issues
00:41:12 4.1 Prohibitions
00:43:02 4.2 Export controls
00:43:12 4.3 NSA involvement
00:45:45 4.4 Digital rights management
00:48:46 4.5 Forced disclosure of encryption keys
00:50:51 5 See also
00:53:36 6 References
00:55:46 7 Further reading
Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago.
Learning by listening is a great way to:
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- improves your listening skills
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Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone.
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"I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think."
- Socrates
SUMMARY
=======
Cryptography or cryptology (from Ancient Greek: κρυπτός, translit. kryptós "hidden, secret"; and γράφειν graphein, "to write", or -λογία -logia, "study", respectively) is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties called adversaries. More generally, cryptography is about constructing and analyzing protocols that prevent third parties or the public from reading private messages; various aspects in information security such as data confidentiality, data integrity, authentication, and non-repudiation are central to modern cryptography. Modern cryptography exists at the intersection of the disciplines of mathematics, computer science, electrical engineering, communication science, and physics. Applications of cryptography include electronic commerce, chip-based payment cards, digital currencies, computer passwords, and military communications.
Cryptography prior to the modern age was effectively synonymous with encryption, the conversion of information from a readable state to apparent nonsense. The originator of an encrypted message shares the decoding technique only with intended recipients to preclude access from adversaries. The cryptography literature often uses the names Alice ("A") for the sender, Bob ("B") for the intended recipient, and Eve ("eavesdropper") for the adversary. Since the development of rotor cipher machines in World War I and the advent of computers in World War II, the methods used to carry out cryptology have become increasingly complex and its application more widespread.
Modern cryptography is heavily based on mathematical theory and computer science practice; cryptographic algorithms are designed around computational hardness assumptions, making such algorithms hard to break in practice by any adversary. It is theoretically possible to break such a system, but it is infeasible to do so by any known practical means. These schemes are therefore termed computationally secure; theoretical advances, e.g., improvements in integer factorization algorithms, and faster computing technology require these solutions to be continually adapted. There exist information-theoretically secure schemes that provably cannot be broken even with unlimited computing power—an example is the one-time pad—but these schemes are more difficult to use in practice than the best theoretically breakable but computationally secure mechanisms.
The growth of cryptographic technology has raised a number of legal issues in the information age. Cryptography's potential for use as a tool for espionage and sedition has led many governments to classify it as a weapon and to limit or even prohibit its use and export. In some jurisdictions where the use of cryptography is legal, laws permit investigators to compel the disclosure of encryption keys for documents relevant to an investigation. Cryptography also plays a major role in digital rights management and copyright infringement of digital media.

Views: 3
wikipedia tts

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Views: 2484
Dhrubajyoti Dey

This episode is brought to you by Squarespace: http://www.squarespace.com/physicsgirl
With recent high-profile security decryption cases, encryption is more important than ever. Much of your browser usage and your smartphone data is encrypted. But what does that process actually entail? And when computers get smarter and faster due to advances in quantum physics, how will encryption keep up?
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Music: APM and YouTube

Views: 279118
Physics Girl

Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: https://to.pbs.org/donateinfi
Only 4 steps stand between you and the secrets hidden behind RSA cryptography. Find out how to crack the world’s most commonly used form of encryption.
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Previous Episode:
Can We Combine pi & e into a Rational Number?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bG7cCXqcJag&t=25s
Links to other resources:
Shor's paper: https://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/9508027v2
Lecture on Shor's Algorithm: https://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0010034.pdf
Blog on Shor's algorithm: http://www.scottaaronson.com/blog/?p=208
Video on RSA cryptography: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wXB-V_Keiu8
Another video on RSA cryptography: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4zahvcJ9glg
Euler's Big Idea: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euler%27s_theorem (I can find a non-wiki article, but I don't actually use this in the video. It's just where to learn more about the relevant math Euler did.)
Written and Hosted by Kelsey Houston-Edwards
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Challenge Winner - Reddles37
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bG7cCXqcJag&lc=z135cnmgxlbwch1ds233sbzgaojkivaz004
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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bG7cCXqcJag&lc=z135w324kw21j1qi104cdzvrpoixslmq1jw

Views: 195063
PBS Infinite Series

2^x=E^y
where :
x - bit key encryption value
Y - password lenght (considered here 127 characters)
E - total number of characters from which you can choose ( most common is 128 but there are some planes like "CJK Unified Ideographs Extension B" which contains 42711 different characters so your password complexity in this case will be considerably increased.
for a 127 character long password and choosing only from basic latin plane which is 128 chars long results an 889 bit key encrypted password
online calculator used : http://www.mathpapa.com/algebra-calculator.html

Views: 587
Superblue

In cryptography, the strong RSA assumption states that the RSA problem is intractable even when the solver is allowed to choose the public exponent e (for e ≥ 3). More specifically, given a modulus N of unknown factorization, and a ciphertext C, it is infeasible to find any pair (M, e) such that C ≡ M e mod N.
The strong RSA assumption was first used for constructing signature schemes provably secure against existential forgery without resorting to the random oracle model.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strong_RSA_assumption
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Views: 47
WikiTubia

Using the greatest common divisor (GCD) to factorize the public modulo into the secret primes, so we can forge a RSA signature.
Source for the rhme2 challenges: https://github.com/Riscure/Rhme-2016
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LiveOverflow

Get the Good and Geeky Book - Email Privacy and Security. - https://goodandgeeky.com/PrivacyUS
SEND me an email - My Public key is below...
http://goo.gl/ycKwa - Mac 20Q - Free file encryption software for Macs is available at gpgtools.org. It works really well and is easy too.
GPGTools encrypt text selection and Setting up services - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QlNqjSzJor8
A newer video that might help - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iziHyMKc1BI
Here is my public key = send me an email and I will send you an encrypted email in return.
https://goodandgeeky.com/extra/A56033C1.asc
Or go to https://goodandgeeky.com/gpg-public-key-send-email/
select and copy the public key text - Then add to your GPG Keyring
Looking forward to hearing from you.
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Views: 46062
David Allen

◕ RSA = Rivest Shamir Adler
Wiki: http://adf.ly/iO9H5
◕ RC4 = ARCFOUR
Wiki: http://adf.ly/iO9LB
◕ Numere Prime: http://adf.ly/iO9PB

Views: 11399
Cyber Code

What is QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY? What does QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY mean? QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY meaning - QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY definition - QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY explanation.
Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.
Quantum cryptography is the science of exploiting quantum mechanical properties to perform cryptographic tasks. The best known example of quantum cryptography is quantum key distribution which offers an information-theoretically secure solution to the key exchange problem. Currently used popular public-key encryption and signature schemes (e.g., RSA and ElGamal) can be broken by quantum adversaries. The advantage of quantum cryptography lies in the fact that it allows the completion of various cryptographic tasks that are proven or conjectured to be impossible using only classical (i.e. non-quantum) communication (see below for examples). For example, it is impossible to copy data encoded in a quantum state and the very act of reading data encoded in a quantum state changes the state. This is used to detect eavesdropping in quantum key distribution.
History:
Quantum cryptography uses Heisenberg's uncertainty principle formulated in 1927, and the No-cloning theorem first articulated by Wootters and Zurek and Dieks in 1982. Werner Heisenberg discovered one of the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics: "At the instant at which the position of the electron is known, its momentum therefore can be known only up to magnitudes which correspond to that discontinuous change; thus, the more precisely the position is determined, the less precisely the momentum is known, and conversely” (Heisenberg, 1927: 174–5). This simply means that observation of quanta changes its behavior. By measuring the velocity of quanta we would affect it, and thereby change its position; if we want to find a quant's position, we are forced to change its velocity. Therefore, we cannot measure a quantum system's characteristics without changing it (Clark, n.d.) and we cannot record all characteristics of a quantum system before those characteristics are measured. The No-cloning theorem demonstrates that it is impossible to create a copy of an arbitrary unknown quantum state. This makes unobserved eavesdropping impossible because it will be quickly detected, thus greatly improving assurance that the communicated data remains private.
Quantum cryptography was proposed first by Stephen Wiesner, then at Columbia University in New York, who, in the early 1970s, introduced the concept of quantum conjugate coding. His seminal paper titled "Conjugate Coding" was rejected by IEEE Information Theory Society, but was eventually published in 1983 in SIGACT News (15:1 pp. 78–88, 1983). In this paper he showed how to store or transmit two messages by encoding them in two "conjugate observables", such as linear and circular polarization of light, so that either, but not both, of which may be received and decoded. He illustrated his idea with a design of unforgeable bank notes. In 1984, building upon this work, Charles H. Bennett, of the IBM's Thomas J. Watson Research Center, and Gilles Brassard, of the Université de Montréal, proposed a method for secure communication based on Wiesner's "conjugate observables", which is now called BB84. In 1991 Artur Ekert developed a different approach to quantum key distribution based on peculiar quantum correlations known as quantum entanglement.
Random rotations of the polarization by both parties (usually called Alice and Bob) have been proposed in Kak's three-stage quantum cryptography protocol. In principle, this method can be used for continuous, unbreakable encryption of data if single photons are used. The basic polarization rotation scheme has been implemented.
The BB84 method is at the basis of quantum key distribution methods. Companies that manufacture quantum cryptography systems include MagiQ Technologies, Inc. (Boston, Massachusetts, United States), ID Quantique (Geneva, Switzerland), QuintessenceLabs (Canberra, Australia) and SeQureNet (Paris, France).

Views: 1721
The Audiopedia

ssl certificate website security Free Here http://yourbusinessleads.com/ssl-certificate/
What is https?
How does https work?
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Server certificate of *.wikipedia.org
In cryptography, a public key certificate, also known as a digital certificate or identity certificate, is an electronic document used to prove the ownership of a public key. The certificate includes information about the key, information about the identity of its owner (called the subject), and the digital signature of an entity that has verified the certificate's contents (called the issuer). If the signature is valid, and the software examining the certificate trusts the issuer, then it can use that key to communicate securely with the certificate's subject.[1] In email encryption, code signing, and e-signature systems, a certificate's subject is typically a person or organization. However, in Transport Layer Security (TLS) a certificate's subject is typically a computer or other device, though TLS certificates may identify organizations or individuals in addition to their core role in identifying devices. TLS, sometimes called by its older name Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), is notable for being a part of HTTPS, a protocol for securely browsing the web.
In a typical public-key infrastructure (PKI) scheme, the certificate issuer is a certificate authority (CA), usually a company that charges customers to issue certificates for them. By contrast, in a web of trust scheme, individuals sign each other's keys directly, in a format that performs a similar function to a public key certificate.
The most common format for public key certificates is defined by X.509. Because X.509 is very general, the format is further constrained by profiles defined for certain use cases, such as Public Key Infrastructure (X.509) as defined in RFC 5280.
Verify the successful installation of SSL?
ssl certificate website security Free Here http://yourbusinessleads.com/ssl-certificate/

Views: 29
Your Business Leads

If you find our videos helpful you can support us by buying something from amazon.
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ElGamal encryption
In cryptography, the ElGamal encryption system is an asymmetric key encryption algorithm for public-key cryptography which is based on the Diffie–Hellman key exchange.It was described by Taher Elgamal in 1985.
-Video is targeted to blind users
Attribution:
Article text available under CC-BY-SA
image source in video
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hFc2yeVrBg0

Views: 3298
WikiAudio

This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Privacy-Enhanced_Mail
00:02:20 Examples
00:08:31 Privacy-enhanced mail
Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago.
Learning by listening is a great way to:
- increases imagination and understanding
- improves your listening skills
- improves your own spoken accent
- learn while on the move
- reduce eye strain
Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone.
Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio:
https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91
Other Wikipedia audio articles at:
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Upload your own Wikipedia articles through:
https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts
Speaking Rate: 0.9123547330438969
Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-E
"I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think."
- Socrates
SUMMARY
=======
Privacy-Enhanced Mail (PEM) is a de facto file format for storing and sending cryptographic keys, certificates, and other data, based on a set of 1993 IETF standards defining "privacy-enhanced mail." While the original standards were never broadly adopted, and were supplanted by PGP and S/MIME, the textual encoding they defined became very popular. The PEM format was eventually formalized by the IETF in RFC 7468.
Many cryptography standards use ASN.1 to define their data structures, and Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER) to serialize those structures. Because DER produces binary output, it can be challenging to transmit the resulting files through systems, like electronic mail, that only support ASCII. The PEM format solves this problem by encoding the binary data using base64. PEM also defines a one-line header, consisting of "-----BEGIN ", a label, and "-----", and a one-line footer, consisting of "-----END ", a label, and "-----". The label determines the type of message encoded. Common labels include "CERTIFICATE", "CERTIFICATE REQUEST", and "PRIVATE KEY".
PEM data is commonly stored in files with a ".pem" suffix, a ".cer" or ".crt" suffix (for certificates), or a ".key" suffix (for public or private keys). The label inside a PEM file represents the type of the data more accurately than the file suffix, since many different types of data can be saved in a ".pem" file.
A PEM file may contain multiple instances. For instance, an operating system might provide a file containing a list of trusted CA certificates, or a web server might be configured with a "chain" file containing an end-entity certificate plus a list of intermediate certificates.

Views: 20
wikipedia tts

Alice and Bob need to arrange to have a shared secret key. The difficulty is that they suspect Eve may be eavesdropping on their conversation.
See wikipedia for a more detailed explanation of how the Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange works:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diffie%E2%80%93Hellman_key_exchange
Created with Plotagon. http://youtube.com/plotagon

Views: 292
Topics, Techniques and Tidbits

Supplement to the cryptocurrency video: How hard is it to find a 256-bit hash just by guessing and checking? What kind of computer would that take?
Cryptocurrency video: https://youtu.be/bBC-nXj3Ng4
Home page: https://www.3blue1brown.com/
Several people have commented about how 2^256 would be the maximum number of attempts, not the average. This depends on the thing being attempted. If it's guessing a private key, you are correct, but for something like guessing which input to a hash function gives the desired output (as in bitcoin mining, for example), which is the kind of thing I had in mind here, 2^256 would indeed be the average number of attempts needed, at least for a true cryptographic hash function. Think of rolling a die until you get a 6, how many rolls do you need to make, on average?
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3Blue1Brown

Wie man ein Schlüsselpaar erstellt, Publickey-Authentifizierung auf dem Server aktiviert und eine Verbindung mit PuTTY herstellt.
Etwas wichtiges habe ich im Video vergessen, aber dafür lohnt es nicht ein neues zu machen:
Beim Passwortverfahren wird der Hash des Passworts auf dem Server gespeichert, kann von einem Eindringling (z.B. per PHP) gelesen und dann eventuell geknackt werden. Das ist beim PubKey-Verfahren unmöglich.
PuTTY:
http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty/download.html
http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public-Key-Authentifizierung

Views: 4822
x96.in

In this course you will learn about everything you need to understand cryptography. In this course you will expose to following topics:
- Number theory
- Vigenere cipher
- One time pad
- CPC MAC
- Computational Secrecy
- Digital Signature
- Public key cryptography
- Diffie Helman key exchange
- Mode of encryption
- RSA public key
- Secure communication session
- Pseudorandomness
and so on..
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This course is offered by University of Maryland through online popular course platform coursera. This course is part of Cyber security specialization.
Course Link: https://www.coursera.org/specializations/cyber-security
This video is provided here for research and educational purposes in the field of Cryptography. No copyright intended. If you are the content owner would like to remove this video from YouTube
Please contact me through email: [email protected]
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Views: 8214
Geek's Lesson

What is POST-QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY? What does POST-QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY mean? POST-QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY meaning - POST-QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY definition - POST-QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY explanation.
Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.
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Post-quantum cryptography refers to cryptographic algorithms (usually public-key algorithms) that are thought to be secure against an attack by a quantum computer. This is not true for the most popular public-key algorithms, which can be efficiently broken by a sufficiently large quantum computer. The problem with the currently popular algorithms is that their security relies on one of three hard mathematical problems: the integer factorization problem, the discrete logarithm problem or the elliptic-curve discrete logarithm problem. All of these problems can be easily solved on a sufficiently powerful quantum computer running Shor's algorithm. Even though current, publicly known, experimental quantum computers are too small to attack any real cryptographic algorithm, many cryptographers are designing new algorithms to prepare for a time when quantum computing becomes a threat. This work has gained greater attention from academics and industry through the PQCrypto conference series since 2006 and more recently by several workshops on Quantum Safe Cryptography hosted by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) and the Institute for Quantum Computing.
In contrast to the threat quantum computing poses to current public-key algorithms, most current symmetric cryptographic algorithms and hash functions are considered to be relatively secure against attacks by quantum computers. While the quantum Grover's algorithm does speed up attacks against symmetric ciphers, doubling the key size can effectively block these attacks. Thus post-quantum symmetric cryptography does not need to differ significantly from current symmetric cryptography.

Views: 249
The Audiopedia

Advanced Encryption Standard
InCTFj is a Capture The Flag contest exclusive for school students in India.
REGISTER NOW : https://junior.inctf.in/
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Amrita University : https://www.amrita.edu/

Views: 438
Amrita InCTF Junior

What is KNAPSACK CRYPTOSYSTEM? What does KNAPSACK CRYPTOSYSTEM mean? KNAPSACK CRYPTOSYSTEM meaning - KNAPSACK CRYPTOSYSTEM definition - KNAPSACK CRYPTOSYSTEM explanation.
Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.
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Knapsack Cryptosystems are cryptosystems which security is based on the hardness of solving the knapsack problem. While such systems have been existing for quite a long time, they remain quite unpopular because a lot of such systems have been broken. However that type of cryptosystem is a good candidate for post-quantum cryptography
The most famous knapsack cryptosystem is the Merkle-Hellman Public Key Cryptosystem, one of the first public key cryptosystem, published the same year as the RSA cryptosystem. However this system has been broken by several attacks : one from Shamir, one by Adleman, and the low density attack.
However, there exist modern knapsack cryptosystems that are considered secure so far: among them is Nasako-Murakami 2006.
What is interesting with those systems is that the Knapsack problem, in the settings where no attack were found, is believed to be difficult to solve even by a quantum computer. This is not the case for systems as RSA relying on the problem of factoring big integers, a problem that is solved in linear time by Shor's quantum algorithm.

Views: 919
The Audiopedia

Bitcoin is a decentralized digital currency that enables instant payments to anyone, anywhere in the world. Bitcoin uses peer-to-peer technology to operate with no central authority: transaction management and money issuance are carried out collectively by the network.
The original Bitcoin software by Satoshi Nakamoto was released under the MIT license. Most client software, derived or "from scratch", also use open source licensing.
Bitcoin is the first successful implementation of a distributed crypto-currency, described in part in 1998 by Wei Dai on the cypherpunks mailing list. Building upon the notion that money is any object, or any sort of record, accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts in a given country or socio-economic context, Bitcoin is designed around the idea of using cryptography to control the creation and transfer of money, rather than relying on central authorities.
Bitcoins have all the desirable properties of a money-like good. They are portable, durable, divisible, recognizable, fungible, scarce and difficult to counterfeit.
wiki link: https://www.youtube.com/upload

Views: 451
IT- Guy

How the NSA Hacked ECC CRYPTO and BITCOIN
http://primealgorithm.com
The special relationships between primes is how the NSA cooked seed keys for ECC crypto. Since 1995 the NSA has known that all primes exist on only 8 Prime Spirals and the relationships between numbers on these spirals is special and that relationship allows seed keys for ECC to be backdoored or cooked.
Wiki and NSA are actively banning any info about the PRIME ALGORITHM or 8 Prime Spirals as well as any info about Dr. Sol Adoni the mathematician that discovered them in 1995.
Wiki is under obvious NSA control and banning any information about the PRIME ALGORIRTHM
They have deleted the 8 PRIMES SPIRALS page and banned all users who have tried to put information about how the NSA used the 8 Prime Spirals to backdoor ECC Crypto.
Look for yourself
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/8_prime_spirals
They even deleted a page about the mathematician that discovered it in 1995
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dr_sol_adoni
They have banned anyone posting positive information about the original user that created the page. Go create a wiki account and post on the page below something positive, you will be accused of being a sock puppet of that user by NSA Mods that control wiki.
Try it, here is the original user that got banned and all positive posts on his page get banned too.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User_talk:Drprinceton
You can view info about this major new discovery for prime theory at
http://247news.net/news/sieve-eratosthenes-meet-adoni-prime-spirals/

Views: 1360
Prime Algorithm