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Evidence of common descent | Wikipedia audio article
 
02:51:53
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evidence_of_common_descent 00:06:41 1 Evidence from comparative physiology and biochemistry 00:06:54 1.1 Genetics 00:09:30 1.1.1 Universal biochemical organisation and molecular variance patterns 00:11:12 1.1.2 DNA sequencing 00:14:09 1.1.3 Proteins 00:15:59 1.1.4 Pseudogenes 00:17:13 1.1.5 Other mechanisms 00:19:40 1.2 Specific examples from comparative physiology and biochemistry 00:19:54 1.2.1 Chromosome 2 in humans 00:21:52 1.2.2 Cytochrome c and b 00:25:25 1.2.3 Endogenous retroviruses 00:27:18 1.2.4 Recent African origin of modern humans 00:28:43 2 Evidence from comparative anatomy 00:29:30 2.1 Atavisms 00:32:03 2.2 Evolutionary developmental biology and embryonic development 00:34:00 2.3 Homologous structures and divergent (adaptive) evolution 00:35:46 2.4 Nested hierarchies and classification 00:36:59 2.4.1 Evolutionary trees 00:39:27 2.5 Vestigial structures 00:46:15 2.6 Specific examples from comparative anatomy 00:46:27 2.6.1 Insect mouthparts and appendages 00:47:56 2.6.2 Pelvic structure of dinosaurs 00:49:05 2.6.3 Pentadactyl limb 00:51:45 2.6.4 Recurrent laryngeal nerve in giraffes 00:53:06 2.6.5 Route of the vas deferens 00:53:59 3 Evidence from paleontology 00:56:38 3.1 Fossil record 00:59:17 3.1.1 Extent of the fossil record 01:01:08 3.2 Limitations 01:04:39 3.3 Specific examples from paleontology 01:04:51 3.3.1 Evolution of the horse 01:07:56 3.3.2 Transition from fish to amphibians 01:09:26 4 Evidence from biogeography 01:09:52 4.1 Continental distribution 01:14:34 4.2 Island biogeography 01:14:44 4.2.1 Types of species found on islands 01:17:15 4.2.2 Endemism 01:19:20 4.2.3 Adaptive radiations 01:21:45 4.3 Ring species 01:22:55 4.4 Specific examples from biogeography 01:23:07 4.4.1 Distribution of iGlossopteris/i 01:24:23 4.4.2 Metatherian distribution 01:26:39 4.4.3 Migration, isolation, and distribution of the camel 01:27:44 5 Evidence from selection 01:29:53 5.1 Artificial selection and experimental evolution 01:32:53 5.2 Invertebrates 01:33:02 5.2.1 Historical lead tolerance in iDaphnia/i 01:34:29 5.2.2 Peppered moths 01:34:51 5.3 Microbes 01:35:00 5.3.1 Antimicrobial resistance 01:36:42 5.3.2 Nylon-eating bacteria 01:37:38 5.4 Plants and fungi 01:37:48 5.4.1 Monkeyflower radiation 01:39:24 5.4.2 Radiotrophic fungi 01:40:33 5.5 Vertebrates 01:40:42 5.5.1 Guppies 01:43:56 5.5.2 Humans 01:46:32 5.5.3 Italian wall lizards 01:49:53 5.5.4 PAH resistance in killifish 01:50:51 5.5.5 PCB resistance in codfish 01:52:50 5.5.6 Urban wildlife 01:54:30 5.5.7 White Sands lizards 01:57:27 6 Evidence from speciation 02:01:50 6.1 Fossils 02:04:20 6.1.1 iGloborotalia/i 02:05:53 6.1.2 Radiolaria 02:07:24 6.1.3 iRhizosolenia/i 02:08:29 6.1.4 iTurborotalia/i 02:10:24 6.1.5 Vertebrates 02:12:13 6.2 Invertebrates 02:12:22 6.2.1 iDrosophila melanogaster/i 02:14:23 6.2.2 Gall wasps 02:16:10 6.2.3 Hawthorn fly 02:17:29 6.2.4 London Underground mosquito 02:20:00 6.2.5 Snapping shrimp and the isthmus of Panama 02:21:33 6.3 Plants 02:27:00 6.3.1 iMimulus peregrinus/i 02:28:13 6.3.2 iRaphanobrassica/i 02:29:32 6.3.3 iSenecio/i (groundsel) 02:32:02 6.3.4 Thale cress 02:33:54 6.3.5 iTragopogon/i (salsify) 02:36:37 6.4 Vertebrates 02:36:46 6.4.1 Blackcap 02:37:59 6.4.2 Mollies 02:39:31 6.4.3 Polar bear 02:42:44 7 Evidence from coloration 02:43:47 7.1 Mimicry and aposematism 02:44:44 7.2 Camouflage 02:45:57 8 Evidence from mathematical modeling 02:51:36 9 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.7456196515241479 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-D "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Evidence of common descent of living organisms has been discovered by scientists researching in a variety of disciplines over many decades, demonstrating that all life on Earth comes from a single ancestor. This forms an important part of the evidence on which evolutionary theory rests, demonstrates that evolution does occur, and illust ...
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