This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:
00:03:00 1 Early life and education
00:03:10 1.1 Family
00:05:10 1.2 School
00:06:57 1.3 Christopher Morcom
00:09:22 1.4 University and work on computability
00:12:29 2 Career and research
00:13:05 2.1 Cryptanalysis
00:17:18 2.2 Bombe
00:20:05 2.3 Hut 8 and the naval Enigma
00:23:00 2.4 Turingery
00:24:07 2.5 Delilah
00:25:15 2.6 Early computers and the Turing test
00:29:19 2.7 Pattern formation and mathematical biology
00:32:17 3 Personal life
00:32:46 3.1 Conviction for indecency
00:35:01 3.2 Death
00:38:43 3.3 Government apology and pardon
00:45:02 4 Awards, honours, and tributes
00:45:26 4.1 Posthumous tributes
00:52:35 4.2 Centenary celebrations
00:55:37 4.3 Portrayal
00:55:45 4.3.1 In theatre
00:57:01 4.3.2 In literature
00:58:01 4.3.3 In music
00:59:34 4.3.4 In film
01:00:47 5 See also
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Speaking Rate: 0.9415736196699929
Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-C
"I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think."
Alan Mathison Turing (; 23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician, computer scientist, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher and theoretical biologist. Turing was highly influential in the development of theoretical computer science, providing a formalisation of the concepts of algorithm and computation with the Turing machine, which can be considered a model of a general-purpose computer. Turing is widely considered to be the father of theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence. Despite these accomplishments, he was never fully recognised in his home country during his lifetime, due to his homosexuality, which was then a crime in the UK.
During the Second World War, Turing worked for the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) at Bletchley Park, Britain's codebreaking centre that produced Ultra intelligence. For a time he led Hut 8, the section that was responsible for German naval cryptanalysis. Here, he devised a number of techniques for speeding the breaking of German ciphers, including improvements to the pre-war Polish bombe method, an electromechanical machine that could find settings for the Enigma machine.
Turing played a pivotal role in cracking intercepted coded messages that enabled the Allies to defeat the Nazis in many crucial engagements, including the Battle of the Atlantic, and in so doing helped win the war. Counterfactual history is difficult with respect to the effect Ultra intelligence had on the length of the war, but at the upper end it has been estimated that this work shortened the war in Europe by more than two years and saved over 14 million lives.After the war, Turing worked at the National Physical Laboratory, where he designed the Automatic Computing Engine, which was one of the first designs for a stored-program computer. In 1948, Turing joined Max Newman's Computing Machine Laboratory at the Victoria University of Manchester, where he helped develop the Manchester computers and became interested in mathematical biology. He wrote a paper on the chemical basis of morphogenesis and predicted oscillating chemical reactions such as the Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction, first observed in the 1960s.
Turing was prosecuted in 1952 for homosexual acts; the Labouchere Amendment had mandated that "gross indecency" was a criminal offence in the UK. He accepted chemical castration treatment, with DES, as an alternative to prison. Turing died in 1954, 16 days before his 42nd birthday, from cyanide poisoning. An inquest determined his death as a suicide, but it has been noted that the known evidence is also consistent with accidental poisoning.In 2009, following an Internet campaign, British Prime Minister Gordon Brown made an official public apology on behalf of the British government for "the appalling way he was treated". Queen Elizabeth II granted Turing a posthumous pardon in 2013. The Alan Turing law is now an informal term for a 201 ...