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8 Structure Secrets of Gemstones
 
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Gems are more than just pretty rocks! Hosted by: Michael Aranda ---------- Support SciShow by becoming a patron on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/scishow ---------- Dooblydoo thanks go to the following Patreon supporters—we couldn't make SciShow without them! Shout out to Kevin Bealer, Mark Terrio-Cameron, KatieMarie Magnone, Patrick Merrithew, Charles Southerland, Fatima Iqbal, Benny, Kyle Anderson, Tim Curwick, Scott Satovsky Jr, Philippe von Bergen, Bella Nash, Bryce Daifuku, Chris Peters, Patrick D. Ashmore, Charles George, Bader AlGhamdi ---------- Looking for SciShow elsewhere on the internet? Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/scishow Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/scishow Tumblr: http://scishow.tumblr.com Instagram: http://instagram.com/thescishow ---------- Sources: http://scifun.chem.wisc.edu/chemweek/gemstones/gemstones.html https://www.gia.edu/gems-gemology/fall-2014-introduction-pleochroism-faceted-gems https://nature.berkeley.edu/classes/eps2/wisc/pleo.html http://www.minerals.net/resource/property/magnetic.aspx http://geology.com/gemstones/chatoyancy/ http://www.geologyin.com/2016/12/how-do-asterism-minerals-form.html http://academic.emporia.edu/abersusa/whatis.htm http://geology.com/gemstones/jet/ http://www.bwsmigel.info/lesson3/dephysical.properties.html http://www.minerals.net/Quartz_polymorphs.aspx https://www.britannica.com/science/mineral-chemical-compound/Polymorphism https://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/Petrology/Silica%20Poly.HTM http://www.minerals.net/mineral/quartz.aspx http://www.minerals.net/Quartz_polymorphs.aspx http://www.resourcesandenergy.nsw.gov.au/miners-and-explorers/applications-and-approvals/opal-mining/about-opal/formation-of-opal http://www.australiangeographic.com.au/news/2013/05/uncovered-the-truth-about-opal-formation/ http://www.minerals.net/mineral/opal.aspx http://canmin.geoscienceworld.org/content/46/1/139.short http://io9.gizmodo.com/5987941/eric-the-pliosaur-one-of-the-most-interesting-fossils-on-the-planet http://scifun.chem.wisc.edu/chemweek/gemstones/gemstones.html http://www.gemstonemagnetism.com/overview_of_magnetism_in_gemstones.html http://geminnovations.net/sitebuildercontent/sitebuilderfiles/article.pdf https://www.boundless.com/chemistry/textbooks/boundless-chemistry-textbook/periodic-properties-8/electron-configuration-68/diamagnetism-and-paramagnetism-320-10520/ http://www.minerals.net/resource/property/magnetic.aspx http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Solids/ferro.html#c1 http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Solids/magpr.html http://www.scipress.org/journals/forma/pdf/1401/14010147.pdf https://www.wolframscience.com/nksonline/page-993c-text http://www.amazingrust.com/Experiments/how_to/Bismuth_Crystals.html http://www.gemselect.com/gem-info/coral/coral-info.php https://nature.berkeley.edu/classes/eps2/wisc/Lect17.html http://www.ruby-sapphire.com/the-silk-road-rutile-in-corundum.htm http://images-of-elements.com/iron.php http://images-of-elements.com/neodymium.php
Views: 652786 SciShow
10 Most Dangerous Minerals You Shouldn't Try!
 
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10 Most Dangerous Minerals You Should Not Try! ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Facebook Page:- MESSEGE ME https://www.facebook.com/top10informationssss/?fref=ts ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Videos from Creative Commons https://creativecommons.org/ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10 Pyrite https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyrite https://www.energymuse.com/pyrite-meaning https://www.crystalvaults.com/crystal-encyclopedia/pyrite 9 Feldspar https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feldspar https://geology.com/minerals/feldspar.shtml https://mineralseducationcoalition.org/minerals-database/feldspar/ 8 Hydroxyapatite https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydroxylapatite https://www.fluidinova.com/hydroxyapatite-properties-uses-and-applications https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0010854517301601 7 Galena https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galena https://geology.com/minerals/galena.shtml https://www.minerals.net/mineral/galena.aspx 6 Fluorspar https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluorite https://www.reade.com/products/fluorspar-calcium-fluoride-powder-caf2 https://www.masangroup.com/masanresources/commodities/fluorspar-highlights 5 Quartz https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quartz https://www.minerals.net/mineral/quartz.aspx 4 Cinnabar https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cinnabar https://www.mindat.org/min-1052.html 3 Phenacite https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phenakite https://www.healing-crystals-for-you.com/phenacite.html https://meanings.crystalsandjewelry.com/phenacite/ 2 Erionite https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erionite https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/substances/erionite https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK304368/ 1 Crocidolite https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK304374/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riebeckite https://www.sandatlas.org/crocidolite/ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Music Credit Marvel Style / Cinematic Music / Royalty Free https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EtdiTrD6YKE The Avengers Theme Song Different Remake https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hDGbRuLjhOw Batman Vs Superman Remake / Royalty Free https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CJIxYc2bvIc Erang - Forever Lost In An Endless Dream https://erang.bandcamp.com/track/forever-lost-in-an-endless-dream Erang - Forever Lost In An Endless Dream https://erang.bandcamp.com/track/forever-lost-in-an-endless-dream Bensound - Deep Blue https://www.bensound.com/royalty-free-music/track/deep-blue Doug Maxwell - Space Chatter https://www.youtube.com/audiolibrary/music izioq - First Day at School https://izioq.bandcamp.com/track/first-day-at-school Chris Zabriskie - What Does Anybody Know About Anything https://soundcloud.com/chriszabriskie/what-does-anybody-know-about-anything
Views: 627124 TOP 10 INFORMATION - TTI
19) Carbonate Minerals
 
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Calcite, Aragonite, Dolomite, and the subset carbonate minerals take up the majority of the carbon on our planet.
Views: 12532 CVshorey
FLUORINE - Everything You Need To Know About It
 
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Fluorine - Everything You Need To Know Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9. It is the lightest halogen and exists as a highly toxic pale yellow diatomic gas at standard conditions. As the most electronegative element, it is extremely reactive: almost all other elements, including some noble gases, form compounds with fluorine. Among the elements, fluorine ranks 24th in universal abundance and 13th in terrestrial abundance. Fluorite, the primary mineral source of fluorine, was first described in 1529; as it was added to metal ores to lower their melting points for smelting, the Latin verb fluo meaning "flow" became associated with it. Proposed as an element in 1810, fluorine proved difficult and dangerous to separate from its compounds, and several early experimenters died or sustained injuries from their attempts. Only in 1886 did French chemist Henri Moissan isolate elemental fluorine using low-temperature electrolysis, a process still employed for modern production. Industrial production of fluorine gas for uranium enrichment, its largest application, began during the Manhattan Project in World War II. Owing to the expense of refining pure fluorine, most commercial applications use fluorine compounds, with about half of mined fluorite used in steelmaking. The rest of the fluorite is converted into corrosive hydrogen fluoride en route to various organic fluorides, or into cryolite which plays a key role in aluminium refining. Organic fluorides have very high chemical and thermal stability; their major uses are as refrigerants, electrical insulation and cookware, the last as P T F E (Teflon). Pharmaceuticals such as atorvastatin and fluoxetine also contain fluorine, and the fluoride ion inhibits dental cavities, and so finds use in toothpaste and water fluoridation. Global fluorochemical sales amount to more than US$15 billion a year. Fluorocarbon gases are generally greenhouse gases with global-warming potentials 100 to 20,000 times that of carbon dioxide. Organofluorine compounds persist in the environment due to the strength of the carbon–fluorine bond. Fluorine has no known metabolic role in mammals; a few plants synthesize organofluorine poisons that deter herbivores.
Views: 3794 Knowledge Archive
What is FLUORINE? What does FLUORINE mean? FLUORINE meaning, definition & explanation
 
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What is FLUORINE? What does FLUORINE mean? FLUORINE meaning, definition & explanation. Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9. It is the lightest halogen and exists as a highly toxic pale yellow diatomic gas at standard conditions. As the most electronegative element, it is extremely reactive: almost all other elements, including some noble gases, form compounds with fluorine. Among the elements, fluorine ranks 24th in universal abundance and 13th in terrestrial abundance. Fluorite, the primary mineral source of fluorine, was first described in 1529; as it was added to metal ores to lower their melting points for smelting, the Latin verb fluo meaning "flow" became associated with it. Proposed as an element in 1810, fluorine proved difficult and dangerous to separate from its compounds, and several early experimenters died or sustained injuries from their attempts. Only in 1886 did French chemist Henri Moissan isolate elemental fluorine using low-temperature electrolysis, a process still employed for modern production. Industrial production of fluorine gas for uranium enrichment, its largest application, began during the Manhattan Project in World War II. Owing to the expense of refining pure fluorine, most commercial applications use fluorine compounds, with about half of mined fluorite used in steelmaking. The rest of the fluorite is converted into corrosive hydrogen fluoride en route to various organic fluorides, or into cryolite which plays a key role in aluminium refining. Organic fluorides have very high chemical and thermal stability; their major uses are as refrigerants, electrical insulation and cookware, the last as PTFE (Teflon). Pharmaceuticals such as atorvastatin and fluoxetine also contain fluorine, and the fluoride ion inhibits dental cavities, and so finds use in toothpaste and water fluoridation. Global fluorochemical sales amount to more than US$15 billion a year. Fluorocarbon gases are generally greenhouse gases with global-warming potentials 100 to 20,000 times that of carbon dioxide. Organofluorine compounds persist in the environment due to the strength of the carbon–fluorine bond. Fluorine has no known metabolic role in mammals; a few plants synthesize organofluorine poisons that deter herbivores.
Views: 1663 The Audiopedia
Copper Presentation By: Rayyan H.
 
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Bibliography: -(1998-2017) Chemical properties of copper - Health effects of copper - Environmental effects of copper. Retrieved from http://www.lenntech.com/periodic/elements/cu.htm. -(2017-?) The Biological Importance of Copper. Retrieved from www.copper.org/environment/impact/ica_review/ica_review.htmlBentor, Y. - (1996-2012) Periodic Table : Copper. Retrieved from http://www.chemicalelements.com/elements/cu.htmlCrystal Structure of the elements. Retrieved from http://www.periodictable.com/Properties/A/CrystalStructure.html(2012- 2017) History of Copper. Retrieved from http://www. copperalliance.org/history-of-copper/
Views: 57 Rayyan Hasan
Mineral | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Mineral 00:02:43 1 Definition 00:02:52 1.1 Basic definition 00:05:47 1.2 Recent advances 00:09:58 1.3 Rocks, ores, and gems 00:12:08 1.4 Nomenclature and classification 00:15:11 2 Chemistry 00:22:21 3 Physical properties 00:23:17 3.1 Crystal structure and habit 00:29:26 3.2 Hardness 00:30:21 3.3 Lustre and diaphaneity 00:31:58 3.4 Colour and streak 00:34:43 3.5 Cleavage, parting, fracture, and tenacity 00:38:36 3.6 Specific gravity 00:40:20 3.7 Other properties 00:42:32 4 Classification 00:44:40 4.1 Silicates 00:47:03 4.1.1 Tectosilicates 00:50:33 4.1.2 Phyllosilicates 00:53:01 4.1.3 Inosilicates 00:55:41 4.1.4 Cyclosilicates 00:57:07 4.1.5 Sorosilicates 00:58:24 4.1.6 Orthosilicates 01:01:06 4.2 Non-silicates 01:01:14 4.2.1 Native elements 01:02:39 4.2.2 Sulfides 01:04:07 4.2.3 Oxides 01:05:58 4.2.4 Halides 01:06:47 4.2.5 Carbonates 01:08:49 4.2.6 Sulfates 01:10:20 4.2.7 Phosphates 01:11:26 4.2.8 Organic minerals 01:12:04 5 Astrobiology 01:13:06 6 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes. A mineral has one specific chemical composition, whereas a rock can be an aggregate of different minerals or mineraloids. The study of minerals is called mineralogy. Minerals are classified by variety, species, series and group, in order of increasing generality. As of November 2018, there are more than 5,500 known mineral species; 5,389 of these have been approved by the International Mineralogical Association (IMA).Minerals are distinguished by various chemical and physical properties. Differences in chemical composition and crystal structure distinguish the various species, which were determined by the mineral's geological environment when formed. Changes in the temperature, pressure, or bulk composition of a rock mass cause changes in its minerals. Within a mineral species there may be variation in physical properties or minor amounts of impurities that are recognized by mineralogists or wider society as a mineral variety, for example amethyst, a purple variety of the mineral species quartz. Minerals can be described by their various physical properties, which are related to their chemical structure and composition. Common distinguishing characteristics include crystal structure and habit, hardness, lustre, diaphaneity, colour, streak, tenacity, cleavage, fracture, parting, specific gravity, magnetism, taste or smell, radioactivity, and reaction to acid. Minerals are classified by key chemical constituents; the two dominant systems are the Dana classification and the Strunz classification. Silicon and oxygen constitute approximately 75% of the Earth's crust, which translates directly into the predominance of silicate minerals. The silicate minerals compose over 90% of the Earth's crust. The silicate class of minerals is subdivided into six subclasses by the degree of polymerization in the chemical structure. All silicate minerals have a base unit of a [SiO4]4− silica tetrahedron—that is, a silicon cation coordinated by four oxygen anions, which gives the shape of a tetrahedron. These tetrahedra can be polymerized to give the subclasses: orthosilicates (no polymerization, thus single tetrahedra), disilicates (two tetrahedra bonded together), cyclosilicates (rings of tetrahedra), inosilicates (chains of tetrahedra), phyllosilicates (sheets of tetrahedra), and tectosilicates (three-dimensional network of tetrahedra). Other important mineral groups include the native elements, sulfides, oxides, halides, carbonates, sulfates, and phosphates.
Views: 15 wikipedia tts
Environmental impact of the energy industry
 
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The environmental impact of the energy industry is diverse. Energy has been harnessed by human beings for millennia. Initially it was with the use of fire for light, heat, cooking and for safety, and its use can be traced back at least 1.9 million years. In recent years there has been a trend towards the increased commercialization of various renewable energy sources. Consumption of fossil fuel resources leads to global warming and climate change. In most parts of the world little change is being made to slow these changes. If the peak oil theory proves true, and more explorations of viable alternative energy sources are made, our impact could be less hostile to our environment. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 57 Audiopedia
Forget Fluoride! Make Your Own Toothpaste with These 3 Easy Recipes
 
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Disregard Fluoride! Make Your Own Toothpaste with These 3 Easy Recipes. Fixings found in regular toothpastes — including sodium fluoride, engineered colors got from oil or coal tar, sodium hydroxide (otherwise called lye or burning pop), sodium lauryl sulfate, titanium dioxide, simulated sweeteners, and triclosan — might influence us to mull over the items we utilize for our teeth. Obviously, we're not currently gulping the stuff, but rather the gums assimilate it, and it's unavoidable that a bit will sneak down the neck every once in a while. What's more, given that a large portion of us brush our teeth more than 700 times each year, there's no lack of chance to ingest fixings better left in the lab. It's a great opportunity to get sly and make your own toothpaste that will leave your breath minty clean. The most dubious of the considerable number of fixings is fluoride. In spite of the fact that fluoride has been demonstrated to cause neurotoxicity, next to no distributed research has explained on intense fluoride harming and neurotoxicity in grown-ups and kids. An investigation distributed in Neurologia demonstrated that the drawn out ingestion of fluoride may make noteworthy harm wellbeing and especially to the sensory system. A report in a companion explored open access diary distributed by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences played out a deliberate survey and meta-examination of distributed examinations to research the impacts of expanded fluoride introduction and postponed neurobehavioral improvement. The outcomes affirmed danger to the cerebrum. The vast majority are very stunned when they survey the accompanying information realistic on fluoride levels in water and toothpaste:. Make Your Own Toothpaste Formula #1 – . *1 teaspoon preparing pop. *1/2 teaspoon ocean salt, finely ground. *10 drops peppermint, clove, or citrus unadulterated fundamental oil. *few drops of water. Formula #2 – . *6 teaspoon preparing pop. *1/4 teaspoon hydrogen peroxide. *2 tablespoons coconut oil (must be fluid). *10 drops peppermint, clove, or citrus unadulterated fundamental oil. Formula #3 – . *5 parts Calcium Magnesium Powder *2 parts Baking Soda. *3-5 sections coconut oil to get wanted surface. *Optional fixings: Essential oils for enhance (mint, cinnamon, and orange are for the most part great), Grapefruit Seed Extract, Myrrh and Trace Minerals. *3 parts Xylitol powder (liquor sugar) – this fixing isn't totally vital, yet just shields it from tasting biting. Guidelines:. To keep things basic, simply utilize a teaspoon or tablespoon, contingent upon the size cluster you are making. 1. Blend every single powdered fixing great in a bowl. In the event that you are beginning with tablets, powder them in a sustenance processor. In the event that you are beginning with containers, dump them out into the bowl. 2. Include oil one section at any given moment until the point that you get wanted consistency. 3. Include any discretionary fixings, including Essential Oils for season. 4. Store in little compartment like 1/2 half quart glass jolt. To utilize, either dunk clean toothbrush into it, or utilize popsicle stick or spoon to put on toothbrush. All Photos Licensed Under CC Source : www.pexels.com www.pixabay.com www.commons.wikimedia.org
Views: 2145 5 Minute Remedies
Nasa Revives 'Weird Life Forms' Trapped In Giant Underworld Crystals
 
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Nasa Revives 'Weird Life Forms' Trapped In Giant Underworld Crystals NASA decided to revive lifeforms which had been dormant for nearly 60,000 years. The reanimation of these organisms, which had been surviving inside of crystals, raises the troubling prospect that alien organisms could be found - and revived - in extreme environments on other planets... SOURCES: Website: http://disclose.tv Check the article here: https://www.disclose.tv/nasa-revives-weird-life-forms-trapped-in-giant-underworld-crystals-323634 Video's Free Royal Music source: https://musopen.org LIKE & SUBSCRIBE & COMMENT BELOW ********************************** WELCOME! 😃 SUBSCRIBE ► http://bit.ly/2fu2wQF | ★ PREVIOUS VIDEOS ► http://bit.ly/2vHZRJk | ★ PLAYLISTS ► http://bit.ly/2ihjMJZ ★ SUBSCRIBE TO MY CHANNEL TO BE INFORMED FOR NEW VIDEOS! Use The Subtitles/Closed Captions provided if necessary that you can find on the right bottom of the videos with the words CC. ► Become a Holy Guardian Angel contributer! Send your own articles (related to the Playlists) to the channel for consideration. You can also record them with your own voice, or send them via email to me. Send everything to: [email protected] LIKE & SUBSCRIBE & COMMENT BELOW ********************************** Social Media & Other Links: SUBSCRIBE ► http://bit.ly/2fu2wQF PAYPAL DONATIONS WELCOME [email protected] ► http://bit.ly/2w3B5mP LIKE MY FACEBOOK ► http://bit.ly/2usDEeA FOLLOW ME ON TWITTER ► http://bit.ly/2urLb1e FOLLOW GOOGLE+1 ME ► http://bit.ly/2vSmewd CHECK OUT MY OTHER VIDEOS ► http://bit.ly/2vHZRJk THANK YOU FOR WATCHING THIS VIDEO! LIKE & SUBSCRIBE & COMMENT BELOW Be Blessed **********************************
Fluoride | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluoride 00:00:49 1 Nomenclature 00:01:49 2 Occurrence 00:04:22 3 Chemical properties 00:04:31 3.1 Basicity 00:05:30 3.2 Structure of fluoride salts 00:06:24 3.3 Inorganic chemistry 00:07:15 3.4 Naked fluoride 00:07:51 3.5 Biochemistry 00:09:39 4 Applications 00:10:36 4.1 Cavity prevention 00:11:54 4.2 Biochemical reagent 00:12:30 5 Dietary recommendations 00:14:54 6 Estimated daily intake 00:16:05 7 Safety 00:16:14 7.1 Ingestion 00:19:09 7.1.1 Hazard maps for fluoride in groundwater 00:19:42 7.2 Topical 00:20:10 8 Other derivatives 00:20:44 9 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Fluoride () is an inorganic, monatomic anion with the chemical formula F− (also written [F]−), whose salts are typically white or colorless. Fluoride salts typically have distinctive bitter tastes, and are odorless. Its salts and minerals are important chemical reagents and industrial chemicals, mainly used in the production of hydrogen fluoride for fluorocarbons. Fluoride is classified as a weak base since it only partially associates in solution, but concentrated fluoride is corrosive and can attack the skin. Fluoride is the simplest fluorine anion. In terms of charge and size, the fluoride ion resembles the hydroxide ion. Fluoride ions occur on earth in several minerals, particularly fluorite, but are present only in trace quantities in bodies of water in nature.
Views: 4 wikipedia tts
Mineral | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:13:28
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mineral 00:02:44 1 Definition 00:02:52 1.1 Basic definition 00:05:49 1.2 Recent advances 00:10:01 1.3 Rocks, ores, and gems 00:12:11 1.4 Nomenclature and classification 00:15:15 2 Chemistry 00:22:25 3 Physical properties 00:23:22 3.1 Crystal structure and habit 00:29:32 3.2 Hardness 00:30:26 3.3 Lustre and diaphaneity 00:32:03 3.4 Colour and streak 00:34:48 3.5 Cleavage, parting, fracture, and tenacity 00:38:41 3.6 Specific gravity 00:40:25 3.7 Other properties 00:42:38 4 Classification 00:44:46 4.1 Silicates 00:47:09 4.1.1 Tectosilicates 00:50:39 4.1.2 Phyllosilicates 00:53:07 4.1.3 Inosilicates 00:55:48 4.1.4 Cyclosilicates 00:57:13 4.1.5 Sorosilicates 00:58:31 4.1.6 Orthosilicates 01:01:12 4.2 Non-silicates 01:01:21 4.2.1 Native elements 01:02:46 4.2.2 Sulfides 01:04:14 4.2.3 Oxides 01:06:05 4.2.4 Halides 01:06:54 4.2.5 Carbonates 01:08:56 4.2.6 Sulfates 01:10:28 4.2.7 Phosphates 01:11:34 4.2.8 Organic minerals 01:12:12 5 Astrobiology 01:13:14 6 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes. A mineral has one specific chemical composition, whereas a rock can be an aggregate of different minerals or mineraloids. The study of minerals is called mineralogy. Minerals are classified by variety, species, series and group, in order of increasing generality. As of November 2018, there are more than 5,500 known mineral species; 5,389 of these have been approved by the International Mineralogical Association (IMA).Minerals are distinguished by various chemical and physical properties. Differences in chemical composition and crystal structure distinguish the various species, which were determined by the mineral's geological environment when formed. Changes in the temperature, pressure, or bulk composition of a rock mass cause changes in its minerals. Within a mineral species there may be variation in physical properties or minor amounts of impurities that are recognized by mineralogists or wider society as a mineral variety, for example amethyst, a purple variety of the mineral species quartz. Minerals can be described by their various physical properties, which are related to their chemical structure and composition. Common distinguishing characteristics include crystal structure and habit, hardness, lustre, diaphaneity, colour, streak, tenacity, cleavage, fracture, parting, specific gravity, magnetism, taste or smell, radioactivity, and reaction to acid. Minerals are classified by key chemical constituents; the two dominant systems are the Dana classification and the Strunz classification. Silicon and oxygen constitute approximately 75% of the Earth's crust, which translates directly into the predominance of silicate minerals. The silicate minerals compose over 90% of the Earth's crust. The silicate class of minerals is subdivided into six subclasses by the degree of polymerization in the chemical structure. All silicate minerals have a base unit of a [SiO4]4− silica tetrahedron—that is, a silicon cation coordinated by four oxygen anions, which gives the shape of a tetrahedron. These tetrahedra can be polymerized to give the subclasses: orthosilicates (no polymerization, thus single tetrahedra), disilicates (two tetrahedra bonded together), cyclosilicates (rings of tetrahedra), inosilicates (chains of tetrahedra), phyllosilicates (sheets of tetrahedra), and tectosilicates (three-dimensional network of tetrahedra). Other important mineral groups include the native elements, sulfides, oxides, halides, carbonates, sulfates, and phosphates.
Views: 17 wikipedia tts
Fluoride | Wikipedia audio article
 
21:04
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Fluoride 00:00:49 1 Nomenclature 00:01:49 2 Occurrence 00:04:20 3 Chemical properties 00:04:30 3.1 Basicity 00:05:29 3.2 Structure of fluoride salts 00:06:22 3.3 Inorganic chemistry 00:07:13 3.4 Naked fluoride 00:07:49 3.5 Biochemistry 00:09:37 4 Applications 00:10:34 4.1 Cavity prevention 00:11:51 4.2 Biochemical reagent 00:12:27 5 Dietary recommendations 00:14:51 6 Estimated daily intake 00:16:02 7 Safety 00:16:11 7.1 Ingestion 00:19:06 7.1.1 Hazard maps for fluoride in groundwater 00:19:39 7.2 Topical 00:20:06 8 Other derivatives 00:20:40 9 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Fluoride () is an inorganic, monatomic anion with the chemical formula F− (also written [F]−), whose salts are typically white or colorless. Fluoride salts typically have distinctive bitter tastes, and are odorless. Its salts and minerals are important chemical reagents and industrial chemicals, mainly used in the production of hydrogen fluoride for fluorocarbons. Fluoride is classified as a weak base since it only partially associates in solution, but concentrated fluoride is corrosive and can attack the skin. Fluoride is the simplest fluorine anion. In terms of charge and size, the fluoride ion resembles the hydroxide ion. Fluoride ions occur on earth in several minerals, particularly fluorite, but are present only in trace quantities in bodies of water in nature.
Views: 5 wikipedia tts
Aragonite
 
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Aragonite is a carbonate mineral, one of the two common, naturally occurring, crystal forms of calcium carbonate, CaCO3. It is formed by biological and physical processes, including precipitation from marine and freshwater environments. Aragonite's crystal lattice differs from that of calcite, resulting in a different crystal shape, an orthorhombic system with acicular crystals. Repeated twinning results in pseudo-hexagonal forms. Aragonite may be columnar or fibrous, occasionally in branching stalactitic forms called flos-ferri from their association with the ores at the Carinthian iron mines. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 1164 Audiopedia
Fluorine | Wikipedia audio article
 
51:39
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluorine 00:02:18 1 Characteristics 00:02:28 1.1 Electron configuration 00:02:57 1.2 Reactivity 00:03:31 1.3 Phases 00:06:11 1.4 Isotopes 00:07:25 2 Occurrence 00:08:35 2.1 Universe 00:08:44 2.2 Earth 00:09:44 3 History 00:11:38 3.1 Early discoveries 00:11:47 3.2 Isolation 00:13:18 3.3 Later uses 00:14:57 4 Compounds 00:16:25 4.1 Metals 00:16:56 4.2 Hydrogen 00:18:15 4.3 Other reactive nonmetals 00:19:00 4.4 Noble gases 00:20:45 4.5 Organic compounds 00:21:40 4.5.1 Discrete molecules 00:22:10 4.5.2 Polymers 00:23:18 5 Production 00:24:21 5.1 Industrial 00:24:30 5.2 Chemical 00:25:51 6 Industrial applications 00:26:59 6.1 Inorganic fluorides 00:29:39 6.2 Organic fluorides 00:30:49 6.2.1 Refrigerant gases 00:31:48 6.2.2 Polymers 00:33:03 6.2.3 Surfactants 00:35:18 6.2.4 Agrichemicals 00:36:03 7 Medicinal applications 00:37:15 7.1 Dental care 00:37:25 7.2 Pharmaceuticals 00:38:53 7.3 PET scanning 00:40:45 7.4 Oxygen carriers 00:41:20 8 Biological role 00:42:29 9 Toxicity 00:43:23 9.1 Hydrofluoric acid 00:44:06 9.2 Fluoride ion 00:45:45 10 Environmental concerns 00:47:32 10.1 Atmosphere 00:47:41 10.2 Biopersistence 00:49:20 11 See also 00:50:40 12 Notes 00:50:49 13 Sources 00:50:57 13.1 Citations 00:51:06 13.2 Indexed references 00:51:15 14 External links 00:51:24 External links Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9. It is the lightest halogen and exists as a highly toxic pale yellow diatomic gas at standard conditions. As the most electronegative element, it is extremely reactive, as it reacts with almost all other elements, except for helium and neon. Among the elements, fluorine ranks 24th in universal abundance and 13th in terrestrial abundance. Fluorite, the primary mineral source of fluorine which gave the element its name, was first described in 1529; as it was added to metal ores to lower their melting points for smelting, the Latin verb fluo meaning "flow" gave the mineral its name. Proposed as an element in 1810, fluorine proved difficult and dangerous to separate from its compounds, and several early experimenters died or sustained injuries from their attempts. Only in 1886 did French chemist Henri Moissan isolate elemental fluorine using low-temperature electrolysis, a process still employed for modern production. Industrial production of fluorine gas for uranium enrichment, its largest application, began during the Manhattan Project in World War II. Owing to the expense of refining pure fluorine, most commercial applications use fluorine compounds, with about half of mined fluorite used in steelmaking. The rest of the fluorite is converted into corrosive hydrogen fluoride en route to various organic fluorides, or into cryolite, which plays a key role in aluminium refining. Organic fluorides have very high chemical and thermal stability; their major uses are as refrigerants, electrical insulation and cookware, the last as PTFE (Teflon). Pharmaceuticals such as atorvastatin and fluoxetine also contain fluorine, and the fluoride ion inhibits dental cavities, and so finds use in toothpaste and water fluoridation. Global fluorochemical sales amount to more than US$15 billion a year. Fluorocarbon gases are generally greenhouse gases with global-warming potentials 100 to 20,000 times that of carbon dioxide. Organofluorine compounds persist in the environment due to the strength of the carbon–fluorine bond. Fluorine has no known metabolic role in mammals; a few plants synthesize organofluorine poisons that deter herbivores.
Views: 11 wikipedia tts
Galena
 
06:12
Galena, also called lead glance, is the natural mineral form of lead(II) sulfide. It is the most important ore of lead and an important source of silver. Galena is one of the most abundant and widely distributed sulfide minerals. It crystallizes in the cubic crystal system often showing octahedral forms. It is often associated with the minerals sphalerite, calcite and fluorite. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 2909 Audiopedia
Golden Selenite - Winnepeg Mud Flats
 
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http://stores.ebay.com/stonesgemsandopal Golden Selenite crystals like this are extremely rare and difficult to come by. This mineral specimen is perfect with no "dings". Blades are up to 6mm thick. Dug in Winnepeg, Canada in 1995-6.
Views: 349 gemnutaz
CADMIUM, THE PSEUDO MASCULINE MINERAL AND A DEATH MINERAL
 
45:28
http://drlwilson.com/Articles/cadmium.htm
Views: 69 dragonfly111cute
My Paradise home in Costa Rica Part 2
 
14:50
be sure to see part one super stunning pictures
The Making of Aluminium
 
28:51
Views: 67214 dian mughni
Big Data, Big Copyright
 
53:55
Event held: October 6, 2014 This talk covers recent and ongoing litigation involving new bulk uses of copyrighted work, and offers some thoughts about the coming age of Big Copyright. Presenter James Grimmelmann is Professor of Law at the University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law and a Visiting Professor at the University of Maryland Institute for Advanced Computer Studies. He studies how laws regulating software affect freedom, wealth, and power. As a lawyer and technologist, he helps these two groups understand each other by writing about copyright, search engines, privacy, and other topics in computer and Internet law.
Views: 129 AU Library
At Issue #2419 "Fulton County Coal Mining"
 
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Capital Resources Development Company plans a coal mine bordering Copperas Creek northeast of Canton. The Illinois EPA has granted preliminary approval for water quality certification and a pollution control permit. An organizer for Prairie Rivers Network and an individual who helped start the ine project will discuss the merits of the planned North Canton Coal Mine. Guests: Greg Arnett - President, Black Nugget, LLC Brian Perbix - Prairie Rivers Network Original Air Date: 1/12/2012
Views: 86 WTVP
Alabaster | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alabaster 00:02:08 1 Etymology 00:03:11 2 Properties and usability 00:04:10 3 Modern processing 00:04:20 3.1 Working techniques 00:04:53 3.2 Marble imitation 00:05:35 3.3 Dyeing 00:06:09 4 Types, occurrence, history 00:06:37 4.1 Window panels 00:07:25 4.2 Calcite alabaster 00:08:11 4.2.1 Egypt and the Middle East 00:09:26 4.2.2 North America 00:09:53 4.3 Gypsum alabaster 00:10:14 4.3.1 Ancient and Classical Near East 00:11:43 4.3.2 Aragon, Spain 00:13:48 4.3.3 Volterra (Tuscany) 00:16:32 4.3.4 England and Wales 00:18:34 4.3.5 Black alabaster 00:19:11 4.4 Gallery 00:19:19 4.4.1 Ancient and Classical Near East 00:19:28 4.4.2 European Middle Ages 00:19:37 4.4.3 Modern 00:19:45 5 See also 00:19:53 5.1 Mineralogy 00:20:47 5.2 Window and roof panels Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8710060853209098 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-C "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Alabaster is a mineral or rock that is soft, often used for carving, and is processed for plaster powder. Archaeologists and the stone processing industry use the word differently from geologists. The former use is in a wider sense that includes varieties of two different minerals: the fine-grained massive type of gypsum and the fine-grained banded type of calcite. Geologists define alabaster only as the gypsum type. Chemically, gypsum is a hydrous sulfate of calcium, while calcite is a carbonate of calcium.Both types of alabaster have similar properties. They are usually lightly colored, translucent, and soft stones. They have been used throughout history primarily for carving decorative artifacts.The calcite type is also denominated "onyx-marble", "Egyptian alabaster", and "Oriental alabaster" and is geologically described as either a compact banded travertine or "a stalagmitic limestone marked with patterns of swirling bands of cream and brown". "Onyx-marble" is a traditional, but geologically inaccurate, name because both onyx and marble have geological definitions that are distinct from even the broadest definition of "alabaster". In general, ancient alabaster is calcite in the wider Middle East, including Egypt and Mesopotamia, while it is gypsum in medieval Europe. Modern alabaster is probably calcite but may be either. Both are easy to work and slightly soluble in water. They have been used for making a variety of indoor artwork and carving, and they will not survive long outdoors. The two kinds are readily distinguished by their different hardnesses: gypsum alabaster is so soft that a fingernail scratches it (Mohs hardness 1.5 to 2), while calcite cannot be scratched in this way (Mohs hardness 3), although it yields to a knife. Moreover, calcite alabaster, being a carbonate, effervesces when treated with hydrochloric acid, while gypsum alabaster remains almost unaffected when thus treated.
Views: 7 wikipedia tts
Fluorine | Wikipedia audio article
 
51:53
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Fluorine 00:02:18 1 Characteristics 00:02:27 1.1 Electron configuration 00:02:56 1.2 Reactivity 00:03:30 1.3 Phases 00:06:11 1.4 Isotopes 00:07:24 2 Occurrence 00:08:34 2.1 Universe 00:08:43 2.2 Earth 00:09:43 3 History 00:11:37 3.1 Early discoveries 00:11:45 3.2 Isolation 00:13:16 3.3 Later uses 00:14:55 4 Compounds 00:16:22 4.1 Metals 00:16:53 4.2 Hydrogen 00:18:12 4.3 Other reactive nonmetals 00:18:57 4.4 Noble gases 00:20:42 4.5 Organic compounds 00:21:37 4.5.1 Discrete molecules 00:22:07 4.5.2 Polymers 00:23:15 5 Production 00:24:17 5.1 Industrial 00:24:26 5.2 Chemical 00:25:47 6 Industrial applications 00:26:54 6.1 Inorganic fluorides 00:29:34 6.2 Organic fluorides 00:30:45 6.2.1 Refrigerant gases 00:31:43 6.2.2 Polymers 00:32:58 6.2.3 Surfactants 00:35:12 6.2.4 Agrichemicals 00:35:57 7 Medicinal applications 00:37:09 7.1 Dental care 00:37:19 7.2 Pharmaceuticals 00:38:48 7.3 PET scanning 00:40:39 7.4 Oxygen carriers 00:41:14 8 Biological role 00:42:23 9 Toxicity 00:43:17 9.1 Hydrofluoric acid 00:44:01 9.2 Fluoride ion 00:45:39 10 Environmental concerns 00:47:26 10.1 Atmosphere 00:47:35 10.2 Biopersistence 00:49:14 11 See also 00:50:33 12 Notes 00:51:03 13 Sources 00:51:11 13.1 Citations 00:51:20 13.2 Indexed references 00:51:29 14 External links 00:51:38 undefined Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9. It is the lightest halogen and exists as a highly toxic pale yellow diatomic gas at standard conditions. As the most electronegative element, it is extremely reactive, as it reacts with almost all other elements, except for helium and neon. Among the elements, fluorine ranks 24th in universal abundance and 13th in terrestrial abundance. Fluorite, the primary mineral source of fluorine which gave the element its name, was first described in 1529; as it was added to metal ores to lower their melting points for smelting, the Latin verb fluo meaning "flow" gave the mineral its name. Proposed as an element in 1810, fluorine proved difficult and dangerous to separate from its compounds, and several early experimenters died or sustained injuries from their attempts. Only in 1886 did French chemist Henri Moissan isolate elemental fluorine using low-temperature electrolysis, a process still employed for modern production. Industrial production of fluorine gas for uranium enrichment, its largest application, began during the Manhattan Project in World War II. Owing to the expense of refining pure fluorine, most commercial applications use fluorine compounds, with about half of mined fluorite used in steelmaking. The rest of the fluorite is converted into corrosive hydrogen fluoride en route to various organic fluorides, or into cryolite, which plays a key role in aluminium refining. Organic fluorides have very high chemical and thermal stability; their major uses are as refrigerants, electrical insulation and cookware, the last as PTFE (Teflon). Pharmaceuticals such as atorvastatin and fluoxetine also contain fluorine, and the fluoride ion inhibits dental cavities, and so finds use in toothpaste and water fluoridation. Global fluorochemical sales amount to more than US$15 billion a year. Fluorocarbon gases are generally greenhouse gases with global-warming potentials 100 to 20,000 times that of carbon dioxide. Organofluorine compounds persist in the environment due to the strength of the carbon–fluorine bond. Fluorine has no known metabolic role in mammals; a few plants synthesize organofluorine poisons that deter herbivores.
Views: 24 wikipedia tts
SNNLive with Angkor Gold Corp., "Gold Exploration in Cambodia"
 
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SNNLive spoke with Scott Donahue, COO of Angkor Gold Corp. (TSX-V:ANK) at the New Orleans Resource Investment Conference 2012. For more information: http://angkorgold.ca/ On StockNewsNow.com: http://stocknewsnow.com/scott-donahue-coo-angkor-gold-corp-junior-gold-exploration-and-development-in-cambodia-at-the-new-orleans-investment-conference-2012/
Views: 245 Stock News Now
Week 12 - Lecture 60
 
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Overall Summary
Iron-process percentage of iron from siderite
 
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Photos of Natural Iron Ore, Iron minerals and:http://www.gyratorycrusher.com/quarry/process-line/iron-ore-processing-plant.html Geology 135 Sedimentation:http://www.gyratorycrusher.com/quarry/process-line/iron-ore-processing-plant.html :http://www.gyratorycrusher.com/quarry/process-line/iron-ore-processing-plant.html How is Iron Refined From the:http://www.gyratorycrusher.com/quarry/process-line/iron-ore-processing-plant.html iron processing : Ores -:http://www.gyratorycrusher.com/quarry/process-line/iron-ore-processing-plant.html Iron Ores definition of Iron Ores in the Free Online:http://www.gyratorycrusher.com/quarry/process-line/iron-ore-processing-plant.html Iron is fairly reactive and will react with acids. An exposed iron surface quickly develops a coating of rust, which is a hydrated form of iron(III) oxide. This process is acceleretd in a moist environment. Finely divided iron will burst into flame when heated in an atmosphere of pure oxygen. Iron is a ferromagnetic material. In a ferromagnetic substance, the magnetic fields of individual atoms are aligned and reinforce each other to produce a large magnetic field. The phenomenon is most pronounced for iron but also occurs in cobalt and nickel to a lesser extent. Iron and alloys of iron are used to make such things as magnets and transfomer cores. World mining and processing of iron ores clearly shows a tendency toward a considerable increase in production of poor ores that beneficiate well, particularly magnetitic iron quartzites and to a lesser extent disseminated titanomagnetite ores. The profitability of use of such ores is attained by large-scale mining and beneficiating enterprises and by the perfection of methods of beneficiation and sintering of the concentrates produced, particularly the production of so-called pellets. However, the problem of increasing the re-sources of iron ore that does not require beneficiation is still important. The chief ores of iron are the oxides: red hematite, containing 70 percent Fe when pure; brown hematite or limonite, containing 56.9 percent; magnetite containing 72.4 percent Fe; and the carbonate, siderite, or spathic iron ore, containing 48.3 percent. Ma
Views: 127 Jacqueline Sabrina
Minéralogie - une invitation au voyage : du cosmos au centre de la Terre
 
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"La minéralogie a plusieurs volets ici, et ce qui nous rassemble tous, ce sont des méthodes, les échelles d'observations..." Entretiens avec Guillaume Fiquet, chercheur CNRS-IPGP-IMPMC, et des membres de l'équipe. La vocation des films de l'IPGP est d'ouvrir les portes des laboratoires et d'accompagner les scientifiques dans l'univers des géosciences. http://www.ipgp.fr/docs/notreterre/FilmsEquipes/podcast_video.php Ce film fait partie d'une série de 14 films de format court qui sont une invitation à un voyage du cosmos au centre de la Terre. • Conception & réalisation : [email protected], IPGP - 2009 • Durée : 13'48" • Télécharger (clic droit, puis enregistrer sous...) le film http://www.ipgp.fr/docs/notreterre/FilmsEquipes/Mineralogie.avi Merci à tous les intervenants, aux correspondants de communication, à l'ensemble de l'équipe ainsi qu'au CNRS et aux autres institutions pour leur précieux concours.
Views: 1849 Chaîne IPGP
Lead | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:04:14
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Lead 00:02:20 1 Physical properties 00:02:29 1.1 Atomic 00:04:37 1.2 Bulk 00:07:15 1.3 Isotopes 00:11:18 2 Chemistry 00:12:25 2.1 Inorganic compounds 00:14:02 2.1.1 Lead(II) 00:16:38 2.1.2 Lead(IV) 00:17:51 2.1.3 Other oxidation states 00:19:37 2.2 Organolead 00:21:38 3 Origin and occurrence 00:21:48 3.1 In space 00:24:35 3.2 On Earth 00:26:16 4 Etymology 00:27:35 5 History 00:27:44 5.1 Prehistory and early history 00:28:52 5.2 Classical era 00:31:31 5.2.1 Confusion with tin and antimony 00:32:30 5.3 Middle Ages and the Renaissance 00:34:40 5.4 Outside Europe and Asia 00:35:22 5.5 Industrial Revolution 00:36:50 5.6 Modern era 00:39:11 6 Production 00:40:51 6.1 Primary 00:41:44 6.1.1 Two-stage process 00:43:42 6.1.2 Direct process 00:44:39 6.1.3 Alternatives 00:45:11 6.2 Secondary 00:46:24 7 Applications 00:46:49 7.1 Elemental form 00:50:55 7.2 Compounds 00:52:23 8 Biological effects 00:53:07 8.1 Toxicity 00:54:02 8.2 Effects 00:55:52 8.3 Exposure sources 00:58:17 8.4 Treatment 00:58:51 9 Environmental effects 01:01:13 10 Restriction and remediation 01:03:52 11 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82. It is a heavy metal that is denser than most common materials. Lead is soft and malleable, and also has a relatively low melting point. When freshly cut, lead is silvery with a hint of blue; it tarnishes to a dull gray color when exposed to air. Lead has the highest atomic number of any stable element and three of its isotopes each conclude a major decay chain of heavier elements. Lead is a relatively unreactive post-transition metal. Its weak metallic character is illustrated by its amphoteric nature; lead and lead oxides react with acids and bases, and it tends to form covalent bonds. Compounds of lead are usually found in the +2 oxidation state rather than the +4 state common with lighter members of the carbon group. Exceptions are mostly limited to organolead compounds. Like the lighter members of the group, lead tends to bond with itself; it can form chains, rings, and polyhedral structures. Lead is easily extracted from its ores; prehistoric people in Western Asia knew of it. Galena, a principal ore of lead, often bears silver, interest in which helped initiate widespread extraction and use of lead in ancient Rome. Lead production declined after the fall of Rome and did not reach comparable levels until the Industrial Revolution. In 2014, the annual global production of lead was about ten million tonnes, over half of which was from recycling. Lead's high density, low melting point, ductility and relative inertness to oxidation make it useful. These properties, combined with its relative abundance and low cost, resulted in its extensive use in construction, plumbing, batteries, bullets and shot, weights, solders, pewters, fusible alloys, white paints, leaded gasoline, and radiation shielding. In the late 19th century, lead's toxicity was recognized, and its use has since been phased out of many applications. Lead is a toxin that accumulates in soft tissues and bones, it acts as a neurotoxin damaging the nervous system and interfering with the function of biological enzymes. It is particularly problematic in children: even if blood levels are promptly normalized with treatment, neurological disorders, such as brain damage and behavioral problems, may result.
Views: 28 wikipedia tts
Thorium | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:05:02
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thorium 00:01:59 1 Bulk properties 00:05:43 2 Isotopes 00:11:04 2.1 Radiometric dating 00:12:59 3 Chemistry 00:15:57 3.1 Reactivity 00:17:16 3.2 Inorganic compounds 00:20:04 3.3 Coordination compounds 00:20:20 3.4 Organothorium compounds 00:22:34 4 Occurrence 00:23:07 4.1 Formation 00:23:16 4.2 On Earth 00:24:59 5 History 00:26:07 5.1 Erroneous report 00:26:16 5.2 Discovery 00:29:42 5.3 Initial chemical classification 00:29:51 5.4 First uses 00:30:03 5.5 Radioactivity 00:30:58 5.6 Further classification 00:32:43 5.7 Phasing out 00:33:42 5.8 Nuclear power 00:34:23 5.9 Nuclear weapons 00:36:24 6 Production 00:38:11 6.1 Concentration 00:39:11 6.1.1 Acid digestion 00:40:36 6.1.2 Alkaline digestion 00:41:14 6.2 Purification 00:42:15 7 Modern applications 00:43:57 8 Potential use for nuclear energy 00:45:37 8.1 Advantages 00:47:35 8.2 Disadvantages 00:48:24 9 Hazards 00:52:48 9.1 Radiological 00:54:26 9.2 Biological 00:56:02 9.3 Chemical 00:59:04 9.4 Exposure routes 00:59:12 10 Notes 01:01:12 11 References 01:02:43 12 Bibliography 01:03:50 13 Further reading Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90. Thorium is silvery and tarnishes black when it is exposed to air, forming thorium dioxide; it is moderately hard, malleable, and has a high melting point. Thorium is an electropositive actinide whose chemistry is dominated by the +4 oxidation state; it is quite reactive and can ignite in air when finely divided. All known thorium isotopes are unstable. The most stable isotope, 232Th, has a half-life of 14.05 billion years, or about the age of the universe; it decays very slowly via alpha decay, starting a decay chain named the thorium series that ends at stable 208Pb. In the universe, thorium and uranium are the only two radioactive elements that still occur naturally in large quantities as primordial elements. It is estimated to be over three times more abundant than uranium in the Earth's crust, and is chiefly refined from monazite sands as a by-product of extracting rare-earth metals. Thorium was discovered in 1829 by the Norwegian amateur mineralogist Morten Thrane Esmark and identified by the Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius, who named it after Thor, the Norse god of thunder. Its first applications were developed in the late 19th century. Thorium's radioactivity was widely acknowledged during the first decades of the 20th century. In the second half of the century, thorium was replaced in many uses due to concerns about its radioactivity. Thorium is still being used as an alloying element in TIG welding electrodes but is slowly being replaced in the field with different compositions. It was also a material in high-end optics and scientific instrumentation, and as the light source in gas mantles, but these uses have become marginal. It has been suggested as a replacement for uranium as nuclear fuel in nuclear reactors, and several thorium reactors have been built.
Views: 22 wikipedia tts
Lead | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:04:52
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lead 00:02:19 1 Physical properties 00:02:29 1.1 Atomic 00:04:37 1.2 Bulk 00:07:16 1.3 Isotopes 00:11:22 2 Chemistry 00:12:29 2.1 Inorganic compounds 00:14:06 2.1.1 Lead(II) 00:16:42 2.1.2 Lead(IV) 00:17:54 2.1.3 Other oxidation states 00:19:41 2.2 Organolead 00:21:42 3 Origin and occurrence 00:21:52 3.1 In space 00:24:39 3.2 On Earth 00:26:21 4 Etymology 00:27:41 5 History 00:27:50 5.1 Prehistory and early history 00:28:59 5.2 Classical era 00:31:40 5.2.1 Confusion with tin and antimony 00:32:38 5.3 Middle Ages and the Renaissance 00:35:02 5.4 European age of discovery 00:35:33 5.5 Industrial Revolution 00:37:01 5.6 Modern era 00:39:23 6 Production 00:41:04 6.1 Primary 00:41:57 6.1.1 Two-stage process 00:44:02 6.1.2 Direct process 00:44:59 6.1.3 Alternatives 00:45:35 6.2 Secondary 00:46:52 7 Applications 00:47:17 7.1 Elemental form 00:51:23 7.2 Compounds 00:52:52 8 Biological effects 00:53:36 8.1 Toxicity 00:54:31 8.2 Effects 00:56:21 8.3 Exposure sources 00:58:46 8.4 Treatment 00:59:20 9 Environmental effects 01:01:42 10 Restriction and remediation 01:04:29 11 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82. It is a heavy metal that is denser than most common materials. Lead is soft and malleable, and also has a relatively low melting point. When freshly cut, lead is silvery with a hint of blue; it tarnishes to a dull gray color when exposed to air. Lead has the highest atomic number of any stable element and three of its isotopes each conclude a major decay chain of heavier elements. Lead is a relatively unreactive post-transition metal. Its weak metallic character is illustrated by its amphoteric nature; lead and lead oxides react with acids and bases, and it tends to form covalent bonds. Compounds of lead are usually found in the +2 oxidation state rather than the +4 state common with lighter members of the carbon group. Exceptions are mostly limited to organolead compounds. Like the lighter members of the group, lead tends to bond with itself; it can form chains, rings, and polyhedral structures. Lead is easily extracted from its ores; prehistoric people in Western Asia knew of it. Galena, a principal ore of lead, often bears silver, interest in which helped initiate widespread extraction and use of lead in ancient Rome. Lead production declined after the fall of Rome and did not reach comparable levels until the Industrial Revolution. In 2014, the annual global production of lead was about ten million tonnes, over half of which was from recycling. Lead's high density, low melting point, ductility and relative inertness to oxidation make it useful. These properties, combined with its relative abundance and low cost, resulted in its extensive use in construction, plumbing, batteries, bullets and shot, weights, solders, pewters, fusible alloys, white paints, leaded gasoline, and radiation shielding. In the late 19th century, lead's toxicity was recognized, and its use has since been phased out of many applications. Lead is a toxin that accumulates in soft tissues and bones, it acts as a neurotoxin damaging the nervous system and interfering with the function of biological enzymes. It is particularly problematic in children: even if blood levels are promptly normalized with treatment, neurological disorders, such as brain damage and behavioral problems, may result.
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Fluorescence
 
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Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation. It also occurs when molecules are excited to higher electronic states by energetic electron bombardment, such as occurs, for example, in the natural aurora, high-altitude nuclear explosions, and rocket-borne electron gun experiments. It is a form of luminescence. In most cases, the emitted light has a longer wavelength, and therefore lower energy, than the absorbed radiation. However, when the absorbed electromagnetic radiation is intense, it is possible for one electron to absorb two photons; this two-photon absorption can lead to emission of radiation having a shorter wavelength than the absorbed radiation. The emitted radiation may also be of the same wavelength as the absorbed radiation, termed "resonance fluorescence". The most striking examples of fluorescence occur when the absorbed radiation is in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum, and thus invisible to the human eye, and the emitted light is in the visible region. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 443 Audiopedia
Gyeongju
 
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Gyeongju, historically known as "Seorabeol", is a coastal city in the far southeastern corner of North Gyeongsang Province in South Korea. It is the second largest city by area in the province after Andong, covering 1,324 km2 with a population of 264,091 people Gyeongju is 370 km southeast of Seoul, and 55 km east of the provincial capital, Daegu. The city borders Cheongdo and Yeongcheon to the west, Ulsan to the south and Pohang to the north, while to the east lies the coast of the Sea of Japan. Numerous low mountains—outliers of the Taebaek range—are scattered around the city. Gyeongju was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Silla which ruled about two-thirds of the Korean Peninsula between the 7th and 9th centuries. A vast number of archaeological sites and cultural properties from this period remain in the city. Gyeongju is often referred to as "the museum without walls". Among such historical treasures, Seokguram grotto, Bulguksa temple, Gyeongju Historic Areas and Yangdong Folk Village are designated as World Heritage Sites by UNESCO. The many major historical sites have helped Gyeongju become one of the most popular tourist destinations in South Korea. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 95 Audiopedia
Fluorine
 
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Fluorine is a chemical element with the symbol F and atomic number 9. It is the lightest halogen and exists as a highly toxic pale yellow diatomic gas at standard conditions. As the most electronegative element, it is extremely reactive: almost all other elements, including some noble gases, form compounds with fluorine. Among the elements, fluorine ranks 24th in universal abundance and 13th in terrestrial abundance. Fluorite, the primary mineral source of fluorine, was first described in 1529; as it was added to metal ores to lower their melting points for smelting, the Latin verb fluo meaning "flow" became associated with it. Proposed as an element in 1810, fluorine proved difficult and dangerous to separate from its compounds, and several early experimenters died or sustained injuries from their attempts. Only in 1886 did French chemist Henri Moissan isolate elemental fluorine using low-temperature electrolysis, a process still employed for modern production. Industrial synthesis of fluorine gas for uranium enrichment, its largest application, began during the Manhattan Project in World War II. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 1258 Audiopedia
Helium | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Helium 00:03:56 1 History 00:04:04 1.1 Scientific discoveries 00:08:55 1.2 Extraction and use 00:15:10 2 Characteristics 00:15:19 2.1 The helium atom 00:15:28 2.1.1 Helium in quantum mechanics 00:16:14 2.1.2 The related stability of the helium-4 nucleus and electron shell 00:20:01 2.2 Gas and plasma phases 00:22:03 2.3 Liquid helium 00:23:36 2.3.1 Helium I 00:24:55 2.3.2 Helium II 00:28:12 3 Isotopes 00:31:09 4 Compounds 00:34:07 5 Occurrence and production 00:34:17 5.1 Natural abundance 00:36:38 5.2 Modern extraction and distribution 00:40:55 5.3 Conservation advocates 00:41:40 6 Applications 00:42:39 6.1 Controlled atmospheres 00:43:10 6.2 Gas tungsten arc welding 00:43:42 6.3 Minor uses 00:43:50 6.3.1 Industrial leak detection 00:45:01 6.3.2 Flight 00:45:53 6.3.3 Minor commercial and recreational uses 00:47:42 6.3.4 Scientific uses 00:48:46 7 As a contaminant 00:49:04 8 Inhalation and safety 00:49:14 8.1 Effects 00:50:10 8.2 Hazards Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Helium (from Greek: ἥλιος, translit. Helios, lit. 'Sun') is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, inert, monatomic gas, the first in the noble gas group in the periodic table. Its boiling point is the lowest among all the elements. After hydrogen, helium is the second lightest and second most abundant element in the observable universe, being present at about 24% of the total elemental mass, which is more than 12 times the mass of all the heavier elements combined. Its abundance is similar to this figure in the Sun and in Jupiter. This is due to the very high nuclear binding energy (per nucleon) of helium-4 with respect to the next three elements after helium. This helium-4 binding energy also accounts for why it is a product of both nuclear fusion and radioactive decay. Most helium in the universe is helium-4, the vast majority of which was formed during the Big Bang. Large amounts of new helium are being created by nuclear fusion of hydrogen in stars. Helium is named for the Greek Titan of the Sun, Helios. It was first detected as an unknown yellow spectral line signature in sunlight during a solar eclipse in 1868 by Georges Rayet, Captain C. T. Haig, Norman R. Pogson, and Lieutenant John Herschel, and was subsequently confirmed by French astronomer Jules Janssen. Janssen is often jointly credited with detecting the element along with Norman Lockyer. Janssen recorded the helium spectral line during the solar eclipse of 1868 while Lockyer observed it from Britain. Lockyer was the first to propose that the line was due to a new element, which he named. The formal discovery of the element was made in 1895 by two Swedish chemists, Per Teodor Cleve and Nils Abraham Langlet, who found helium emanating from the uranium ore cleveite. In 1903, large reserves of helium were found in natural gas fields in parts of the United States, which is by far the largest supplier of the gas today. Liquid helium is used in cryogenics (its largest single use, absorbing about a quarter of production), particularly in the cooling of superconducting magnets, with the main commercial application being in MRI scanners. Helium's other industrial uses—as a pressurizing and purge gas, as a protective atmosphere for arc welding and in processes such as growing crystals to make silicon wafers—account for half of the gas produced. A well-known but minor use is as a lifting gas in balloons and airships. As with any gas whose density differs from that of air, inhaling a small volume of helium temporarily changes the timbre and quality of the human voice. In scientific research, the behavior of the two fluid phases of helium-4 (helium I and helium II) is important to researchers studying quantum mechanics (in particular the property of superfluidity) and to those looking at the phenomena, such as superconductivity, produced in matter near absolute zero. On Earth it is relatively rare—5.2 ppm by vol ...
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Helium | Wikipedia audio article | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Helium | Wikipedia audio article Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Helium (from Greek: ἥλιος, translit. Helios, lit. 'Sun') is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, inert, monatomic gas, the first in the noble gas group in the periodic table. Its boiling point is the lowest among all the elements. After hydrogen, helium is the second lightest and second most abundant element in the observable universe, being present at about 24% of the total elemental mass, which is more than 12 times the mass of all the heavier elements combined. Its abundance is similar to this figure in the Sun and in Jupiter. This is due to the very high nuclear binding energy (per nucleon) of helium-4 with respect to the next three elements after helium. This helium-4 binding energy also accounts for why it is a product of both nuclear fusion and radioactive decay. Most helium in the universe is helium-4, the vast majority of which was formed during the Big Bang. Large amounts of new helium are being created by nuclear fusion of hydrogen in stars. Helium is named for the Greek Titan of the Sun, Helios. It was first detected as an unknown yellow spectral line signature in sunlight during a solar eclipse in 1868 by Georges Rayet, Captain C. T. Haig, Norman R. Pogson, and Lieutenant John Herschel, and was subsequently confirmed by French astronomer Jules Janssen. Janssen is often jointly credited with detecting the element along with Norman Lockyer. Janssen recorded the helium spectral line during the solar eclipse of 1868 while Lockyer observed it from Britain. Lockyer was the first to propose that the line was due to a new element, which he named. The formal discovery of the element was made in 1895 by two Swedish chemists, Per Teodor Cleve and Nils Abraham Langlet, who found helium emanating from the uranium ore cleveite. In 1903, large reserves of helium were found in natural gas fields in parts of the United States, which is by far the largest supplier of the gas today. Liquid helium is used in cryogenics (its largest single use, absorbing about a quarter of production), particularly in the cooling of superconducting magnets, with the main commercial application being in MRI scanners. Helium's other industrial uses—as a pressurizing and purge gas, as a protective atmosphere for arc welding and in processes such as growing crystals to make silicon wafers—account for half of the gas produced. A well-known but minor use is as a lifting gas in balloons and airships. As with any gas whose density differs from that of air, inhaling a small volume of helium temporarily changes the timbre and quality of the human voice. In scientific research, the behavior of the two fluid phases of helium-4 (helium I and helium II) is important to researchers studying quantum mechanics (in particular the property of superfluidity) and to those looking at the phenomena, such as superconductivity, produced in matter near absolute zero. On Earth it is relatively rare—5.2 ppm by volume in the atmosphere. Most terrestrial helium present today is created by the natural radioactive decay of heavy radioactive elements (thorium and uranium, although there are other examples), as the alpha particles emitted by such decays consist of helium-4 nuclei. This radiogenic helium is trapped with natural gas in concentrations as great as 7% by volume, from which it is extracted commercially by a low-temperature separation process called fractional distillation. Previously, terrestrial helium—a non-renewable resource, because once released into the atmosphere it readily escapes into space—was thought to be in increasingly short supply. However, recent studies suggest that helium produced deep in the earth by radioactive decay can collect in natural gas reserves in larger than expected quantities, in some cases having been released by volcanic activity.
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Namibia
 
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Namibia /nəˈmɪbiə/, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:  Republik Namibia ; Afrikaans: Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean. It shares land borders with Angola and Zambia to the north, Botswana to the east and South Africa to the south and east. Although it does not border Zimbabwe, less than 200 metres of riverbed (essentially the Zambia/Botswana border) separates them at their closest points. It gained independence from South Africa on 21 March 1990, following the Namibian War of Independence. Its capital and largest city is Windhoek. Namibia is a member state of the United Nations (UN), the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Commonwealth of Nations. The dry lands of Namibia were inhabited since early times by San, Damara, and Namaqua, and since about the 14th century AD by immigrating Bantu who came with the Bantu expansion. Most of the territory became a German Imperial protectorate in 1884 and remained a German colony until the end of World War I. In 1920, the League of Nations mandated the country to South Africa, which imposed its laws and, from 1948, its apartheid policy. The port of Walvis Bay and the offshore Penguin Islands had been annexed by the Cape Colony under the British crown by 1878 and had become an integral part of the new Union of South Africa at its creation in 1910. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 567 Audiopedia
Groundwater pollution | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Groundwater pollution 00:01:41 1 Pollutant types 00:02:10 1.1 Arsenic and fluoride 00:03:37 1.2 Pathogens 00:04:28 1.3 Nitrate 00:05:33 1.4 Organic compounds 00:07:22 1.5 Metals 00:08:13 1.6 Pharmaceuticals 00:09:08 1.7 Others 00:10:23 2 Causes 00:10:53 2.1 Naturally-occurring (geogenic) 00:13:06 2.2 On-site sanitation systems 00:15:08 2.3 Sewage (treated and untreated) 00:16:42 2.4 Fertilizers and pesticides 00:19:02 2.5 Commercial and industrial leaks 00:22:06 2.6 Hydraulic fracturing 00:26:33 2.7 Landfill leachate 00:27:20 2.8 Other 00:27:56 3 Mechanisms 00:29:17 3.1 Interactions with surface water 00:30:31 4 Prevention 00:30:39 4.1 Precautionary principle 00:31:19 4.2 Groundwater quality monitoring 00:32:27 4.3 Land zoning for groundwater protection 00:32:51 4.3.1 Aquifer vulnerability map 00:34:26 4.3.2 Source protection map 00:35:22 4.4 Locating on-site sanitation systems 00:37:33 4.5 Legislation 00:37:51 4.5.1 United States 00:38:51 5 Management 00:39:00 5.1 Point-of-use treatment 00:40:07 5.2 Groundwater remediation 00:41:47 5.3 Abandonment 00:42:08 6 Society and culture 00:42:18 6.1 Examples 00:42:26 6.1.1 Hinkley, U.S. 00:42:49 6.1.2 Walkerton, Canada 00:43:24 6.1.3 Lusaka, Zambia Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Groundwater pollution (also called groundwater contamination) occurs when pollutants are released to the ground and make their way down into groundwater. This type of water pollution can also occur naturally due to the presence of a minor and unwanted constituent, contaminant or impurity in the groundwater, in which case it is more likely referred to as contamination rather than pollution. The pollutant often creates a contaminant plume within an aquifer. Movement of water and dispersion within the aquifer spreads the pollutant over a wider area. Its advancing boundary, often called a plume edge, can intersect with groundwater wells or daylight into surface water such as seeps and springs, making the water supplies unsafe for humans and wildlife. The movement of the plume, called a plume front, may be analyzed through a hydrological transport model or groundwater model. Analysis of groundwater pollution may focus on soil characteristics and site geology, hydrogeology, hydrology, and the nature of the contaminants. Pollution can occur from on-site sanitation systems, landfills, effluent from wastewater treatment plants, leaking sewers, petrol filling stations or from over application of fertilizers in agriculture. Pollution (or contamination) can also occur from naturally occurring contaminants, such as arsenic or fluoride. Using polluted groundwater causes hazards to public health through poisoning or the spread of disease. Different mechanisms have influence on the transport of pollutants, e.g. diffusion, adsorption, precipitation, decay, in the groundwater. The interaction of groundwater contamination with surface waters is analyzed by use of hydrology transport models.
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Beryllium | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beryllium 00:01:52 1 Characteristics 00:02:02 1.1 Physical properties 00:03:13 1.2 Nuclear properties 00:05:45 1.3 Isotopes and nucleosynthesis 00:09:15 1.4 Occurrence 00:10:40 2 Production 00:13:07 3 Chemical properties 00:18:28 4 History 00:23:17 4.1 Etymology 00:24:11 5 Applications 00:24:21 5.1 Radiation windows 00:26:10 5.2 Mechanical applications 00:28:47 5.3 Mirrors 00:30:12 5.4 Magnetic applications 00:31:02 5.5 Nuclear applications 00:33:29 5.6 Acoustics 00:34:08 5.7 Electronic 00:35:43 5.8 Healthcare 00:35:56 6 Occupational safety and health 00:36:58 7 Precautions Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4. It is a relatively rare element in the universe, usually occurring as a product of the spallation of larger atomic nuclei that have collided with cosmic rays. Within the cores of stars beryllium is depleted as it is fused and creates larger elements. It is a divalent element which occurs naturally only in combination with other elements in minerals. Notable gemstones which contain beryllium include beryl (aquamarine, emerald) and chrysoberyl. As a free element it is a steel-gray, strong, lightweight and brittle alkaline earth metal. Beryllium improves many physical properties when added as an alloying element to aluminium, copper (notably the alloy beryllium copper), iron and nickel. Beryllium does not form oxides until it reaches very high temperatures. Tools made of beryllium copper alloys are strong and hard and do not create sparks when they strike a steel surface. In structural applications, the combination of high flexural rigidity, thermal stability, thermal conductivity and low density (1.85 times that of water) make beryllium metal a desirable aerospace material for aircraft components, missiles, spacecraft, and satellites. Because of its low density and atomic mass, beryllium is relatively transparent to X-rays and other forms of ionizing radiation; therefore, it is the most common window material for X-ray equipment and components of particle detectors. The high thermal conductivities of beryllium and beryllium oxide have led to their use in thermal management applications. The commercial use of beryllium requires the use of appropriate dust control equipment and industrial controls at all times because of the toxicity of inhaled beryllium-containing dusts that can cause a chronic life-threatening allergic disease in some people called berylliosis.
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fluorite mining versus sand mining techniques
 
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Contact Us For Help: http://wwa.stonecrushersolution.org/solutions/solutions.html Quartz Mining Equipment For Sale, Stone Crushing Machine Quartz crushing process for sale,Quartz crushing equipment for If you need iron ore crusher,gold ore crusher,copper ore crusher or other mining machinery,you can Oil Sands Mining in Canada Industry Review, Oil Sands InfoMine Oil Sands Mining in Canada State Complete Mineral Mining of the oil sands involves excavation of the bitumen, rich sand using open pit mining methods. data mining what is data mining Chapter 06 Data Mining Techniques by Houw Thee 341 views. fluorite mining process; russian market for mining equipment crushers; glass sand mining circa 1950; difference between wet mining and dry mining Effect of Wet Versus Dry Grinding on Rejection of Pyrite and Non Henry Krumb School of Mines, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 Silica Sand,Silica Mineral,Properties of Silica,Uses of Read about silica sand, silica mineral, properties of silica, uses of silica, silica and allied minerals, silica supplier, silica information, silica manufacturers sand minning tools equipment india Tools for mining: techniques and processes for small scale mining; first in Fluorite and Silica sand, second in Sand mining has occurred in Wisconsin for concept note assesment of the impact of sand and stone mining Sand Stone`s Mining Of World, Crusher USA ? sand stone`s mining of world ? river sand and stone mining at sabah ? flow process completed equipment for mining Mining Engineering, AusIMM WhAT dOES A MInInG EnGInEEr dO? Mining engineers plan and direct the various engineering aspects of extracting minerals from the earth. They prepare initial plans Mining Techniques for Sand & Gravel, eHow Mining Techniques for Sand & Gravel. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency describes sand and gravel as granulated material that results "from the natural advantages of mining feldspar, Stone Crusher Machine advantages of gold mining. advantages of gold mining, Crusher, Granite Crusher, Feldspar . This page is about advantages of Learn more about the gold, mining Mining and Refining Aluminum, HowStuffWorks Mining aluminum occurs in open, pit mines after companies locate bauxite, the primary source of aluminum. Learn the other steps of mining aluminum. crushers for frac sand mining ZME mining are crushers used in frac sand mines . ZME Mining, ZME Construction Frac sand mining industry the silica sand resources used in hydraulic fracturing What Are The Advantages Of Subsurface Mining What Are The Advantages Of Subsurface Mining. Advantages for Subsurface Profiling & Underground Object . for subsurface profiling and underground object location for Mining and the Environment, Environmental Impact of Mining Advances in mining technology and better management techniques mean that the environmental impact of mining has been significantly reduced. fluorite extraction processing equipment details Process methods of fluorite ore are fluorite and sand mining process . Cost To Mine Fluorite, process crusher, mining equipment exports . sand and gravel mining in nigeria sand and gravel mining in nigeria. Magnetic Separating Process. Magnetic Separating Process is one kind of efficient equipment in the induetries like resource recovery. sand mining operation in malaysia Study On River Sand Mining Capacity In Malaysia. The study objective is to develop a sand mining planning and management and timely decisions on sand mining WETLAND AND WATERBODY RIESTORATION AND CREATION ASSOCIATED 536 WETLAND CREATION AND RESTORATION SURFACE NIJNING FOR SAND AND GRAVEL Sand and gravel is defined as unconsolidated mineral and rock particles. silver mining standard Gold Versus Silver Debate Pros/ConsAboutAg. brisbane qld mining; sand mining thats; fluorite mining infomation; copper mining miners; bauxite mining include; Mining company product equipments and minerals, mining mercury, etc. All mining suppliers promotional, banner ads and press release services are Mining Techniques; Mining Videos; Underground Mining; Surface Mining; mining value analysts CRU Global Commodity Industry Pricing amp; Market Analysis. Altogether, we cover over 75 commodities in metals, mining and fertilizersas well as within their What Is The Cost Of Mining Garnet What Is The Cost Of Mining Garnet. Garnet: The gemstone Garnet information and pictures. Almandine and Pyrope are the most widely used Garnet gemstones. Sand mines boom along with fracking, San Antonio Express, News Ronald Jordan, vice president with Proppant Specialists, holds sand that has been washed and dried at the Frac Tech Services sand mining operation near B
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Helium | Wikipedia audio article
 
53:45
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Helium 00:03:55 1 History 00:04:04 1.1 Scientific discoveries 00:08:54 1.2 Extraction and use 00:15:10 2 Characteristics 00:15:19 2.1 The helium atom 00:15:28 2.1.1 Helium in quantum mechanics 00:16:13 2.1.2 The related stability of the helium-4 nucleus and electron shell 00:20:00 2.2 Gas and plasma phases 00:22:01 2.3 Liquid helium 00:23:34 2.3.1 Helium I 00:24:53 2.3.2 Helium II 00:28:10 3 Isotopes 00:31:07 4 Compounds 00:34:06 5 Occurrence and production 00:34:15 5.1 Natural abundance 00:36:36 5.2 Modern extraction and distribution 00:40:53 5.3 Conservation advocates 00:41:38 6 Applications 00:42:37 6.1 Controlled atmospheres 00:43:08 6.2 Gas tungsten arc welding 00:43:39 6.3 Minor uses 00:43:48 6.3.1 Industrial leak detection 00:44:58 6.3.2 Flight 00:45:50 6.3.3 Minor commercial and recreational uses 00:47:39 6.3.4 Scientific uses 00:48:42 7 As a contaminant 00:49:00 8 Inhalation and safety 00:49:10 8.1 Effects 00:50:06 8.2 Hazards Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Helium (from Greek: ἥλιος, translit. Helios, lit. 'Sun') is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, inert, monatomic gas, the first in the noble gas group in the periodic table. Its boiling point is the lowest among all the elements. After hydrogen, helium is the second lightest and second most abundant element in the observable universe, being present at about 24% of the total elemental mass, which is more than 12 times the mass of all the heavier elements combined. Its abundance is similar to this figure in the Sun and in Jupiter. This is due to the very high nuclear binding energy (per nucleon) of helium-4 with respect to the next three elements after helium. This helium-4 binding energy also accounts for why it is a product of both nuclear fusion and radioactive decay. Most helium in the universe is helium-4, the vast majority of which was formed during the Big Bang. Large amounts of new helium are being created by nuclear fusion of hydrogen in stars. Helium is named for the Greek Titan of the Sun, Helios. It was first detected as an unknown yellow spectral line signature in sunlight during a solar eclipse in 1868 by Georges Rayet, Captain C. T. Haig, Norman R. Pogson, and Lieutenant John Herschel, and was subsequently confirmed by French astronomer Jules Janssen. Janssen is often jointly credited with detecting the element along with Norman Lockyer. Janssen recorded the helium spectral line during the solar eclipse of 1868 while Lockyer observed it from Britain. Lockyer was the first to propose that the line was due to a new element, which he named. The formal discovery of the element was made in 1895 by two Swedish chemists, Per Teodor Cleve and Nils Abraham Langlet, who found helium emanating from the uranium ore cleveite. In 1903, large reserves of helium were found in natural gas fields in parts of the United States, which is by far the largest supplier of the gas today. Liquid helium is used in cryogenics (its largest single use, absorbing about a quarter of production), particularly in the cooling of superconducting magnets, with the main commercial application being in MRI scanners. Helium's other industrial uses—as a pressurizing and purge gas, as a protective atmosphere for arc welding and in processes such as growing crystals to make silicon wafers—account for half of the gas produced. A well-known but minor use is as a lifting gas in balloons and airships. As with any gas whose density differs from that of air, inhaling a small volume of helium temporarily changes the timbre and quality of the human voice. In scientific research, the behavior of the two fluid phases of helium-4 (helium I and helium II) is important to researchers studying quantum mechanics (in particular the property of superfluidity) and to those looking at the phenomena, such as superconductivity, produced in matter near absolute zero. On Earth it is relatively rare—5.2 ppm by vol ...
Views: 18 wikipedia tts
Thorium | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:04:39
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Thorium 00:01:58 1 Bulk properties 00:05:41 2 Isotopes 00:10:59 2.1 Radiometric dating 00:12:53 3 Chemistry 00:15:51 3.1 Reactivity 00:17:09 3.2 Inorganic compounds 00:19:57 3.3 Coordination compounds 00:20:12 3.4 Organothorium compounds 00:22:25 4 Occurrence 00:22:56 4.1 Formation 00:23:05 4.2 On Earth 00:24:48 5 History 00:25:55 5.1 Erroneous report 00:26:04 5.2 Discovery 00:29:27 5.3 Initial chemical classification 00:29:37 5.4 First uses 00:29:49 5.5 Radioactivity 00:30:43 5.6 Further classification 00:32:28 5.7 Phasing out 00:33:27 5.8 Nuclear power 00:34:07 5.9 Nuclear weapons 00:36:08 6 Production 00:37:55 6.1 Concentration 00:38:54 6.1.1 Acid digestion 00:40:19 6.1.2 Alkaline digestion 00:40:58 6.2 Purification 00:41:58 7 Modern applications 00:43:39 8 Potential use for nuclear energy 00:45:19 8.1 Advantages 00:47:18 8.2 Disadvantages 00:48:07 9 Hazards 00:52:30 9.1 Radiological 00:54:07 9.2 Biological 00:55:42 9.3 Chemical 00:58:42 9.4 Exposure routes 00:58:51 10 Notes 01:00:50 11 References 01:02:21 12 Bibliography 01:03:27 13 Further reading Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90. Thorium is silvery and tarnishes black when it is exposed to air, forming thorium dioxide; it is moderately hard, malleable, and has a high melting point. Thorium is an electropositive actinide whose chemistry is dominated by the +4 oxidation state; it is quite reactive and can ignite in air when finely divided. All known thorium isotopes are unstable. The most stable isotope, 232Th, has a half-life of 14.05 billion years, or about the age of the universe; it decays very slowly via alpha decay, starting a decay chain named the thorium series that ends at stable 208Pb. In the universe, thorium and uranium are the only two radioactive elements that still occur naturally in large quantities as primordial elements. It is estimated to be over three times more abundant than uranium in the Earth's crust, and is chiefly refined from monazite sands as a by-product of extracting rare-earth metals. Thorium was discovered in 1829 by the Norwegian amateur mineralogist Morten Thrane Esmark and identified by the Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius, who named it after Thor, the Norse god of thunder. Its first applications were developed in the late 19th century. Thorium's radioactivity was widely acknowledged during the first decades of the 20th century. In the second half of the century, thorium was replaced in many uses due to concerns about its radioactivity. Thorium is still being used as an alloying element in TIG welding electrodes but is slowly being replaced in the field with different compositions. It was also a material in high-end optics and scientific instrumentation, and as the light source in gas mantles, but these uses have become marginal. It has been suggested as a replacement for uranium as nuclear fuel in nuclear reactors, and several thorium reactors have been built.
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Namibia | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:02:03
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Namibia Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Namibia ( (), ), officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Afrikaans: Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa. Its western border is the Atlantic Ocean; it shares land borders with Zambia and Angola to the north, Botswana to the east and South Africa to the south and east. Although it does not border Zimbabwe, less than 200 metres of the Zambezi River (essentially a small bulge in Botswana to achieve a Botswana/Zambia micro-border) separates the two countries. Namibia gained independence from South Africa on 21 March 1990, following the Namibian War of Independence. Its capital and largest city is Windhoek, and it is a member state of the United Nations (UN), the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Commonwealth of Nations. Namibia, the driest country in Sub-Saharan Africa, was inhabited since early times by the San, Damara, and Nama peoples. Around the 14th century, immigrating Bantu peoples arrived as part of the Bantu expansion. Since then, the Bantu groups, one of which is known as the Ovambo people, have dominated the population of the country; since the late 19th century, they have constituted a majority. In 1878, the Cape of Good Hope, then a British colony, had annexed the port of Walvis Bay and the offshore Penguin Islands; these became an integral part of the new Union of South Africa at its creation in 1910. In 1884 the German Empire established rule over most of the territory as a protectorate (Schutzgebiet). It began to develop infrastructure and farming and maintained this German colony until 1915, when South African forces defeated its military. In 1920, after the end of World War I, the League of Nations mandated the country to the United Kingdom, under administration by South Africa. It imposed its laws, including racial classifications and rules. From 1948, with the National Party elected to power, South Africa applied apartheid also to what was then known as South West Africa. In the later 20th century, uprisings and demands for political representation by native African political activists seeking independence resulted in the UN assuming direct responsibility over the territory in 1966, but South Africa maintained de facto rule. In 1973 the UN recognised the South West Africa People's Organisation (SWAPO) as the official representative of the Namibian people; the party is dominated by the Ovambo, who are a large plurality in the territory. Following continued guerrilla warfare, South Africa installed an interim administration in Namibia in 1985. Namibia obtained full independence from South Africa in 1990. However, Walvis Bay and the Penguin Islands remained under South African control until 1994. Namibia has a population of 2.6 million people and a stable multi-party parliamentary democracy. Agriculture, herding, tourism and the mining industry – including mining for gem diamonds, uranium, gold, silver, and base metals – form the basis of its economy. The large, arid Namib Desert has resulted in Namibia being overall one of the least densely populated countries in the world.
Views: 7 wikipedia tts
Namibia | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:02:36
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Namibia 00:03:20 1 Etymology 00:03:59 2 History 00:04:08 2.1 Pre-colonial period 00:05:46 2.2 German rule 00:07:32 2.3 South African mandate 00:11:06 2.4 Independence 00:15:01 2.5 After independence 00:16:28 3 Geography 00:19:50 3.1 Climate 00:22:35 3.2 Water sources 00:23:59 3.3 Communal Wildlife Conservancies 00:25:20 4 Politics and government 00:26:21 4.1 Foreign relations 00:27:07 4.2 Military 00:28:48 4.3 Administrative divisions 00:29:35 5 Economy 00:33:49 5.1 Income disparity 00:34:29 5.2 Agriculture 00:36:31 5.3 Mining and electricity 00:38:10 5.4 Tourism 00:40:57 5.5 Water supply and sanitation 00:43:13 6 Demographics 00:46:21 6.1 Religion 00:47:21 6.2 Languages 00:49:42 6.3 Largest cities 00:49:51 7 Sport 00:51:41 8 Media 00:55:14 9 Education 00:56:25 10 Health 01:02:20 11 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Namibia ( (), ), officially the Republic of Namibia (German: Republik Namibia; Afrikaans: Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa. Its western border is the Atlantic Ocean; it shares land borders with Zambia and Angola to the north, Botswana to the east and South Africa to the south and east. Although it does not border Zimbabwe, less than 200 metres of the Zambezi River (essentially a small bulge in Botswana to achieve a Botswana/Zambia micro-border) separates the two countries. Namibia gained independence from South Africa on 21 March 1990, following the Namibian War of Independence. Its capital and largest city is Windhoek, and it is a member state of the United Nations (UN), the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Commonwealth of Nations. Namibia, the driest country in Sub-Saharan Africa, was inhabited since early times by the San, Damara, and Nama peoples. Around the 14th century, immigrating Bantu peoples arrived as part of the Bantu expansion. Since then, the Bantu groups, one of which is known as the Ovambo people, have dominated the population of the country; since the late 19th century, they have constituted a majority. In 1878, the Cape of Good Hope, then a British colony, had annexed the port of Walvis Bay and the offshore Penguin Islands; these became an integral part of the new Union of South Africa at its creation in 1910. In 1884 the German Empire established rule over most of the territory as a protectorate (Schutzgebiet). It began to develop infrastructure and farming and maintained this German colony until 1915, when South African forces defeated its military. In 1920, after the end of World War I, the League of Nations mandated the country to the United Kingdom, under administration by South Africa. It imposed its laws, including racial classifications and rules. From 1948, with the National Party elected to power, South Africa applied apartheid also to what was then known as South West Africa. In the later 20th century, uprisings and demands for political representation by native African political activists seeking independence resulted in the UN assuming direct responsibility over the territory in 1966, but South Africa maintained de facto rule. In 1973 the UN recognised the South West Africa People's Organisation (SWAPO) as the official representative of the Namibian people; the party is dominated by the Ovambo, who are a large plurality in the territory. Following continued guerrilla warfare, South Africa installed an interim administration in Namibia in 1985. Namibia obtained full independence from South Africa in 1990. However, Walvis Bay and the Penguin Islands remained under South African control until 1994. Namibia has a population of 2.6 million people and a stable multi-party parliamentary democracy. Agriculture, herding, tourism and the mining industry – including mining for gem diamonds, uranium, gold, silver, and base metals – form the basis of its economy. The la ...
Views: 2 wikipedia tts
10 mining companies in nigeria their locations and products
 
04:56
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Namibia | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:02:23
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Namibia 00:03:19 1 Etymology 00:03:58 2 History 00:04:07 2.1 Pre-colonial period 00:05:43 2.2 German rule 00:07:29 2.3 South African mandate 00:11:03 2.4 Independence 00:14:57 2.5 After independence 00:16:25 3 Geography 00:19:47 3.1 Climate 00:22:31 3.2 Water sources 00:23:55 3.3 Communal Wildlife Conservancies 00:25:16 4 Politics and government 00:26:17 4.1 Foreign relations 00:27:02 4.2 Military 00:28:43 4.3 Administrative divisions 00:29:30 5 Economy 00:33:43 5.1 Income disparity 00:34:23 5.2 Agriculture 00:36:25 5.3 Mining and electricity 00:38:03 5.4 Tourism 00:40:49 5.5 Water supply and sanitation 00:43:05 6 Demographics 00:46:12 6.1 Religion 00:47:11 6.2 Languages 00:49:32 6.3 Largest cities 00:49:41 7 Sport 00:51:31 8 Media 00:55:03 9 Education 00:56:13 10 Health 01:02:07 11 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Namibia ( (), ), officially the Republic of Namibia (German: Republik Namibia; Afrikaans: Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa. Its western border is the Atlantic Ocean; it shares land borders with Zambia and Angola to the north, Botswana to the east and South Africa to the south and east. Although it does not border Zimbabwe, less than 200 metres of the Zambezi River (essentially a small bulge in Botswana to achieve a Botswana/Zambia micro-border) separates the two countries. Namibia gained independence from South Africa on 21 March 1990, following the Namibian War of Independence. Its capital and largest city is Windhoek, and it is a member state of the United Nations (UN), the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Commonwealth of Nations. Namibia, the driest country in Sub-Saharan Africa, was inhabited since early times by the San, Damara, and Nama peoples. Around the 14th century, immigrating Bantu peoples arrived as part of the Bantu expansion. Since then, the Bantu groups, one of which is known as the Ovambo people, have dominated the population of the country; since the late 19th century, they have constituted a majority. In 1878, the Cape of Good Hope, then a British colony, had annexed the port of Walvis Bay and the offshore Penguin Islands; these became an integral part of the new Union of South Africa at its creation in 1910. In 1884 the German Empire established rule over most of the territory as a protectorate (Schutzgebiet). It began to develop infrastructure and farming and maintained this German colony until 1915, when South African forces defeated its military. In 1920, after the end of World War I, the League of Nations mandated the country to the United Kingdom, under administration by South Africa. It imposed its laws, including racial classifications and rules. From 1948, with the National Party elected to power, South Africa applied apartheid also to what was then known as South West Africa. In the later 20th century, uprisings and demands for political representation by native African political activists seeking independence resulted in the UN assuming direct responsibility over the territory in 1966, but South Africa maintained de facto rule. In 1973 the UN recognised the South West Africa People's Organisation (SWAPO) as the official representative of the Namibian people; the party is dominated by the Ovambo, who are a large plurality in the territory. Following continued guerrilla warfare, South Africa installed an interim administration in Namibia in 1985. Namibia obtained full independence from South Africa in 1990. However, Walvis Bay and the Penguin Islands remained under South African control until 1994. Namibia has a population of 2.6 million people and a stable multi-party parliamentary democracy. Agriculture, herding, tourism and the mining industry – including mining for gem diamonds, uranium, gold, silver, and base metals – form the basis of its economy. The large, arid Namib Desert has resulted in Namibia being overall one of the least densely populated countries in the world.
Views: 10 wikipedia tts
Lead | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:04:08
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Lead Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82. It is a heavy metal that is denser than most common materials. Lead is soft and malleable, and has a relatively low melting point. When freshly cut, lead is silvery with a hint of blue; it tarnishes to a dull gray color when exposed to air. Lead has the highest atomic number of any stable element and three of its isotopes each conclude a major decay chain of heavier elements. Lead is a relatively unreactive post-transition metal. Its weak metallic character is illustrated by its amphoteric nature; lead and lead oxides react with acids and bases, and it tends to form covalent bonds. Compounds of lead are usually found in the +2 oxidation state rather than the +4 state common with lighter members of the carbon group. Exceptions are mostly limited to organolead compounds. Like the lighter members of the group, lead tends to bond with itself; it can form chains, rings and polyhedral structures. Lead is easily extracted from its ores; prehistoric people in Western Asia knew of it. Galena, a principal ore of lead, often bears silver, interest in which helped initiate widespread extraction and use of lead in ancient Rome. Lead production declined after the fall of Rome and did not reach comparable levels until the Industrial Revolution. In 2014, annual global production of lead was about ten million tonnes, over half of which was from recycling. Lead's high density, low melting point, ductility and relative inertness to oxidation make it useful. These properties, combined with its relative abundance and low cost, resulted in its extensive use in construction, plumbing, batteries, bullets and shot, weights, solders, pewters, fusible alloys, white paints, leaded gasoline, and radiation shielding. In the late 19th century, lead's toxicity was recognized, and its use has since been phased out of many applications. Lead is a toxin that accumulates in soft tissues and bones, it acts as a neurotoxin damaging the nervous system and interfering with the function of biological enzymes. It is particularly problematic in children: even if blood levels are promptly normalized with treatment, neurological disorders, such as brain damage and behavioral problems, may result.
Views: 38 wikipedia tts
Namibia | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:02:22
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Namibia 00:03:19 1 Etymology 00:03:58 2 History 00:04:07 2.1 Pre-colonial period 00:05:43 2.2 German rule 00:07:29 2.3 South African mandate 00:11:03 2.4 Independence 00:14:57 2.5 After independence 00:16:23 3 Geography 00:19:46 3.1 Climate 00:22:30 3.2 Water sources 00:23:53 3.3 Communal Wildlife Conservancies 00:25:14 4 Politics and government 00:26:15 4.1 Foreign relations 00:27:01 4.2 Military 00:28:41 4.3 Administrative divisions 00:29:28 5 Economy 00:33:42 5.1 Income disparity 00:34:22 5.2 Agriculture 00:36:24 5.3 Mining and electricity 00:38:02 5.4 Tourism 00:40:47 5.5 Water supply and sanitation 00:43:04 6 Demographics 00:46:11 6.1 Religion 00:47:10 6.2 Languages 00:49:31 6.3 Largest cities 00:49:39 7 Sport 00:51:29 8 Media 00:55:02 9 Education 00:56:12 10 Health 01:02:06 11 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Namibia ( (), ), officially the Republic of Namibia (German: Republik Namibia; Afrikaans: Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa. Its western border is the Atlantic Ocean; it shares land borders with Zambia and Angola to the north, Botswana to the east and South Africa to the south and east. Although it does not border Zimbabwe, less than 200 metres of the Zambezi River (essentially a small bulge in Botswana to achieve a Botswana/Zambia micro-border) separates the two countries. Namibia gained independence from South Africa on 21 March 1990, following the Namibian War of Independence. Its capital and largest city is Windhoek, and it is a member state of the United Nations (UN), the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Commonwealth of Nations. Namibia, the driest country in Sub-Saharan Africa, was inhabited since early times by the San, Damara, and Nama peoples. Around the 14th century, immigrating Bantu peoples arrived as part of the Bantu expansion. Since then, the Bantu groups, one of which is known as the Ovambo people, have dominated the population of the country; since the late 19th century, they have constituted a majority. In 1878, the Cape of Good Hope, then a British colony, had annexed the port of Walvis Bay and the offshore Penguin Islands; these became an integral part of the new Union of South Africa at its creation in 1910. In 1884 the German Empire established rule over most of the territory as a protectorate (Schutzgebiet). It began to develop infrastructure and farming and maintained this German colony until 1915, when South African forces defeated its military. In 1920, after the end of World War I, the League of Nations mandated the country to the United Kingdom, under administration by South Africa. It imposed its laws, including racial classifications and rules. From 1948, with the National Party elected to power, South Africa applied apartheid also to what was then known as South West Africa. In the later 20th century, uprisings and demands for political representation by native African political activists seeking independence resulted in the UN assuming direct responsibility over the territory in 1966, but South Africa maintained de facto rule. In 1973 the UN recognised the South West Africa People's Organisation (SWAPO) as the official representative of the Namibian people; the party is dominated by the Ovambo, who are a large plurality in the territory. Following continued guerrilla warfare, South Africa installed an interim administration in Namibia in 1985. Namibia obtained full independence from South Africa in 1990. However, Walvis Bay and the Penguin Islands remained under South African control until 1994. Namibia has a population of 2.6 million people and a stable multi-party parliamentary democracy. Agriculture, herding, tourism and the mining industry – including mining for gem diamonds, uranium, gold, silver, and base metals – form the basis of its economy. The large, arid Namib Desert has resulted in Namibia being overall one of the least densely populated countries in the world.
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Namibia | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:02:37
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Namibia 00:03:20 1 Etymology 00:03:59 2 History 00:04:08 2.1 Pre-colonial period 00:05:46 2.2 German rule 00:07:32 2.3 South African mandate 00:11:06 2.4 Independence 00:15:01 2.5 After independence 00:16:28 3 Geography 00:19:50 3.1 Climate 00:22:35 3.2 Water sources 00:23:59 3.3 Communal Wildlife Conservancies 00:25:20 4 Politics and government 00:26:21 4.1 Foreign relations 00:27:07 4.2 Military 00:28:48 4.3 Administrative divisions 00:29:35 5 Economy 00:33:49 5.1 Income disparity 00:34:30 5.2 Agriculture 00:36:32 5.3 Mining and electricity 00:38:11 5.4 Tourism 00:40:57 5.5 Water supply and sanitation 00:43:14 6 Demographics 00:46:22 6.1 Religion 00:47:21 6.2 Languages 00:49:43 6.3 Largest cities 00:49:51 7 Sport 00:51:42 8 Media 00:55:15 9 Education 00:56:26 10 Health 01:02:21 11 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Namibia ( (), ), officially the Republic of Namibia (German: Republik Namibia; Afrikaans: Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa. Its western border is the Atlantic Ocean; it shares land borders with Zambia and Angola to the north, Botswana to the east and South Africa to the south and east. Although it does not border Zimbabwe, less than 200 metres of the Zambezi River (essentially a small bulge in Botswana to achieve a Botswana/Zambia micro-border) separates the two countries. Namibia gained independence from South Africa on 21 March 1990, following the Namibian War of Independence. Its capital and largest city is Windhoek, and it is a member state of the United Nations (UN), the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Commonwealth of Nations. Namibia, the driest country in Sub-Saharan Africa, was inhabited since early times by the San, Damara, and Nama peoples. Around the 14th century, immigrating Bantu peoples arrived as part of the Bantu expansion. Since then, the Bantu groups, one of which is known as the Ovambo people, have dominated the population of the country; since the late 19th century, they have constituted a majority. In 1878, the Cape of Good Hope, then a British colony, had annexed the port of Walvis Bay and the offshore Penguin Islands; these became an integral part of the new Union of South Africa at its creation in 1910. In 1884 the German Empire established rule over most of the territory as a protectorate (Schutzgebiet). It began to develop infrastructure and farming and maintained this German colony until 1915, when South African forces defeated its military. In 1920, after the end of World War I, the League of Nations mandated the country to the United Kingdom, under administration by South Africa. It imposed its laws, including racial classifications and rules. From 1948, with the National Party elected to power, South Africa applied apartheid also to what was then known as South West Africa. In the later 20th century, uprisings and demands for political representation by native African political activists seeking independence resulted in the UN assuming direct responsibility over the territory in 1966, but South Africa maintained de facto rule. In 1973 the UN recognised the South West Africa People's Organisation (SWAPO) as the official representative of the Namibian people; the party is dominated by the Ovambo, who are a large plurality in the territory. Following continued guerrilla warfare, South Africa installed an interim administration in Namibia in 1985. Namibia obtained full independence from South Africa in 1990. However, Walvis Bay and the Penguin Islands remained under South African control until 1994. Namibia has a population of 2.6 million people and a stable multi-party parliamentary democracy. Agriculture, herding, tourism and the mining industry – including mining for gem diamonds, uranium, gold, silver, and base metals – form the basis of its economy. The large, arid Namib Desert has resulted in Namibia being overall one of the least densely populated countries in the world.
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