Hank tells us the background story and explains the importance of the science of classifying living things, also known as taxonomy. Crash Course Biology is now available on DVD! http://dft.ba/-8css Like CrashCourse on Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Follow CrashCourse on Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse References for this episode can be found in the Google document here: http://dft.ba/-2L2C Table of Contents 1) Taxonomy 0:00 2) Phylogenetic Tree 1:24 3) Biolography 2:26 4) Analogous/Homoplasic Traits 3:48 5) Homologous Traits 4:03 6) Taxa & Binomial Nomenclature 4:56 7) Domains 5:48 a) Bateria 6:04 b) Archaea 6:44 c) Eukarya / 4 Kingdoms 6:54 -Plantae 7:56 -Protista 8:23 -Fungi 8:56 -Animalia 9:31 taxonomy, classification, classifying, evolution, filing, science, biology, life, organism, relationship, ancestor, ancestry, evolutionary tree, phylogenetic tree, tree of life, biolography, carl von linnaeus, linnaeus, botanist, botanical name, morphology, homologous traits, systema naturae, taxa, groups, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species, binomial nomenclature, latin, domain, archaea, eukarya, division, autotrophs, heterotrophs, protist, fungi, animalia, animal, cat, kitty Support CrashCourse on Subbable: http://subbable.com/crashcourse
Views: 1690989 CrashCourse
Paul Andersen shows you how to compare DNA sequences to understand evolutionary relationships. He starts with a brief introduction to cladograms and evolutionary relationships. He shows you how to classify DNA relationships using a percent match. He finally shows you how to compare DNA sequences between organisms using the NCBI and NCBI BLAST websites. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 127626 Bozeman Science
Humans have named things of importance to us since the dawn of communication (eat this, run from that...) But how do scientists organize living things and what are the levels of organization they use to describe relationships between groups? Aristotle and Linnaeus take starring roles here, but there's a lot they got wrong. Want more? Subscribe: http://www.youtube.com/user/ThePenguinProf FB Page: https://www.facebook.com/ThePenguinProf Twitter: https://twitter.com/penguinprof Web: http://www.penguinprof.com/ -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- VIDEO DETAILS Taxonomy and Systematics Taxonomy (G taxis: arrangement; nomia: method) is the discipline of defining groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics Hierarchical groups help us to identify related organisms and also describe evolutionary relationships Aristotle To understand anything, one must classify it according to it's parts Classified all animals into two groups: blooded and bloodless Pliny the Elder Carl Linnaeus Systema Naturae 10th ed. in 1758 Binomial Nomenclature Where do the Names Come From? Latin (Classical or Medieval) Classical Greek Names of People Names of Places Other Languages What's In a Name? Morphologic Characters General external morphology Special structures Internal morphology Embryology Karyology and other cytological factors Physiological Factors Metabolic factors Body secretions Genic sterility factors Molecular Characters Immunological distance Electrophoretic differences Protein sequences DNA hybridization DNA and RNA sequences Restriction endonuclease analyses Other molecular differences Behavioral Characters Courtship and other ethological isolating mechanisms Other behavior patterns Ecological Characters Habitats and hosts Food Seasonal variations Parasites Host reactions Geographic Characters General biogeographic distribution Sympatric-allopatric relationship of populations Levels of Organization Linnaeus' Domains Linnaeus Described Six Classes of Animals Heart with 2 auricles, 2 ventricles. Warm, red blood Viviparous: Mammalia Oviparous: Aves Six Classes of Animals Heart with 1 auricle, 0 ventricles. Cold, puss-like blood Have antennae: Insecta Have tentacles: Vermes Hierarchy of Similarities Modern 3-Domain System Domain Kingdom Phylum (= Divisions in Botany) Class Order Family Genus Species Example: The Dog Problems... Linnaeus (and everyone else) wondered about where these species came from and how to define a species Linnaeus treated species as immutable Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon Compared living and fossil mammals (elephants and mammoths) He did not see how organisms could cross inhospitable boundaries to reach suitable environments He found different kinds of animals and plants in very similar, but completely isolated environments Age of Enlightenment Paleontology and the discovery of extinct species in the fossil record began to undermine the static view of nature which had persisted since Aristotle Species are NOT Fixed Entities Taxonomy and systematics is a dynamic science
Views: 67711 ThePenguinProf
Explores classification in biology as well as taxonomy hierarchy: domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species with The Amoeba Sisters! This video also discusses the importance of scientific names and why classification can have major changes due to DNA and cell structure evidence. Video has a handout: http://www.amoebasisters.com/handouts.html. See table of contents by expanding details 👇 Table of Contents: Importance of DNA in naming 1:04 Classification Mnemonic 1:41 Domains 2:04 Kingdoms 3:51 Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus 5:52 Species and Scientific Name 6:06 Common Name vs Scientific Name 6:49 Important Vocabulary: Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes 3:42 Autotrophs vs. Heterotrophs 4:43 Unicellular vs. Multicellular 4:50 Cell Wall vs No Cell Wall 4:54 (All cells have a membrane!) Binomial Nomenclature 6:22 P.S. When we went back through subtitles, we realized we have a mispronunciation. Oh Archaea. We've heard ar-KEE-ə. We've heard ar-KAY-ə. But there's a mispronunciation here for that domain just to let you know. Support us on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/amoebasisters Our FREE resources: GIFs: http://www.amoebasisters.com/gifs.html Handouts: http://www.amoebasisters.com/handouts.html Comics: http://www.amoebasisters.com/parameciumparlorcomics Connect with us! Website: http://www.AmoebaSisters.com Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/AmoebaSisters Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/AmoebaSisters Tumblr: http://www.amoebasisters.tumblr.com Pinterest: http://www.pinterest.com/AmoebaSisters Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/amoebasistersofficial/ Visit our Redbubble store at http://www.amoebasisters.com/store.html The Amoeba Sisters videos demystify science with humor and relevance. The videos center on Pinky's certification and experience in teaching science at the high school level. Pinky's teacher certification is in grades 4-8 science and 8-12 composite science (encompassing biology, chemistry, and physics). Amoeba Sisters videos only cover concepts that Pinky is certified to teach, and they focus on her specialty: secondary life science. For more information about The Amoeba Sisters, visit: http://www.amoebasisters.com/about-us.html We cover the basics in biology concepts at the secondary level. If you are looking to discover more about biology and go into depth beyond these basics, our recommended reference is the FREE, peer reviewed, open source OpenStax biology textbook: https://openstax.org/details/books/biology *Scientific name information for hydra? Or any scientific name? We like this source: https://animaldiversity.org We take pride in our AWESOME community, and we welcome feedback and discussion. However, please remember that this is an education channel. See YouTube's community guidelines https://www.youtube.com/yt/policyandsafety/communityguidelines.html and YouTube's policy center https://support.google.com/youtube/topic/2676378?hl=en&ref_topic=6151248. We also reserve the right to remove comments with vulgar language. Music is this video is listed free to use/no attribution required from the YouTube audio library https://www.youtube.com/audiolibrary/music?feature=blog We have YouTube's community contributed subtitles feature on to allow translations for different languages. YouTube automatically credits the different language contributors below (unless the contributor had opted out of being credited). We are thankful for those that contribute different languages. If you have a concern about community contributed contributions, please contact us.
Views: 351202 Amoeba Sisters
Check out Bas Rutten's Liver Shot on MMA Surge: http://bit.ly/MMASurgeEp1 Mahalo biology expert Mary Poffenroth explains the classification system of species and the taxonomic hierarchy. The Taxonomic Hierarchy --------------------------------------------------------------------- In biological taxonomy, all life forms can be classified within a hierarchal system that orders them from the broadest, most inclusive categories to the narrowest, most exclusive. The most widely used conventional categories are domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species.http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Domain This taxonomic system was initially pioneered by Carl Linnaeus in the 18th century. Linnaeus used Latin terms to arrange species according to observable similarities and differences in their physical morphology. With recent innovations in molecular biology, the traditional classification system has been made more precise by the possibility of going beyond superficial similarities and mapping similarities and differences between species at the genetic level. Following this hierarchy, the highest level, domain, distinguishes between bacteria and organisms with a true cell nucleus. The next level down, kingdom, distinguishes plants from animals. Below the kingdom level, at the level of phylum, we can differentiate between vertebrates and creatures with no backbone. Among the vertebrates, you can differentiate mammals from birds, fish and reptiles at the class level. Among mammals, you can differentiate between ones that eat meat and ones that don't. Some mammals belong to the order Carnivora, meaning they eat meat. Others belong to the order Herbivora, meaning they feed exclusively on vegetation. Next, humans belong to the family Hominidae, which includes great apes (gorillas, orangutans and chimpanzees). At the genus level, we are related to now-extinct species of early humans, such as the Neanderthals. Finally, at the lowest level of the biological taxonomy, all living humans are members of the same species, since we form a single reproductive population sharing the capacity to produce children, regardless of superficial racial differences.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kKwOlAqQoLk&feature=player_embedded Classification of a Sample Species --------------------------------------------------------------------- In order to form a clearer idea of these categories, it is helpful to think of a specific example, like a mountain lion. At the domain level, a mountain lion belongs to the category of Eukarya, which are organisms with a cellular nucleus, unlike bacteria. At the kingdom level, it is Animalia, as opposed to a plant or a fungus. Mountain lions belong to the phylum Chordata, which are animals that have a backbone, in contrast to Arthropoda (spiders) or Porifera (sponges). The c lass Mammalia includes animals that have fur and produce milk. This is the level at which fish, birds and reptiles are distinguished. Mountain lions belong to the order Carnivora along with other meat eaters such as bears and wolves. Their family, Felidae, includes large cats including leopard or lions. At the next level down, the genus Puma includes jaguars and cougars but not tigers.Finally, mountain lions constitute a distinct species, concolor. When designating a particular species, it is customary to use the genus and species name. So the short taxonomic designation for a mountain lion is Puma concolor.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kKwOlAqQoLk&feature=player_embedded Read more by visiting our page at: http://www.mahalo.com/learn-biology-classification-the-taxonomic-hierarchy/
Views: 279416 mahalodotcom
(Visit: http://www.uctv.tv/) 1:34 - Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms Underlying Human-Specific Evolution of Cortical Connectivity - Franck Polleux New insights into the significance of the emergence of a human-specific gene on brain evolution. Series: "CARTA - Center for Academic Research and Training in Anthropogeny" [Show ID: 32975]
Views: 1770 University of California Television (UCTV)
Life on Earth 002 - Classification Paul Andersen explains the current classification system that we use in Biology. He starts with a brief history of taxonomy. He explains how the goal of classification is to reflect evolutionary relationships. He then explains how each individual organism is classified according to genus and species. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 157008 Bozeman Science
What is CONSERVED SEQUENCE? What does CONSERVED SEQUENCE mean? CONSERVED SEQUENCE meaning - CONSERVED SEQUENCE definition - CONSERVED SEQUENCE explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ In evolutionary biology, conserved sequences are similar or identical sequences in nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), proteins, or polysaccharides across species (orthologous sequences) or within different molecules produced by the same organism (paralogous sequences). Conservation across species indicates that a sequence has been maintained by evolution despite speciation. A highly conserved sequence is one that has remained unchanged far back up the phylogenetic tree, and hence far back in geological time. For example, the homeobox sequences have been conserved across different phyla including the arthropods (such as fruit flies) and vertebrates (such as mice and humans), so these sequences have remained little changed since the Cambrian explosion of animal body plans some 500 million years ago. Parts of the 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA genes have been identified as the most conserved DNA sequences across the domains of life. Highly conserved regions typically indicates that natural selection has continually eliminated forms with mutations in that sequence. Highly conserved DNA sequences are thought to have functional value. The role for many of these highly conserved non-coding DNA sequences is not understood. Ultra-conserved elements or sequences (UCEs or UCRs, ultra-conserved regions) that share 100% identity among human, mouse and rat were first described by Bejerano and colleagues in 2004. One recent study that eliminated four highly conserved non-coding DNA sequences in mice yielded viable mice with no significant phenotypic differences; the authors described their findings as "unexpected". Many regions of the DNA, including highly conserved DNA sequences, consist of repeated sequence elements. One possible explanation of the null hypothesis above is that removal of only one or a subset of a repeated sequence could theoretically preserve phenotypic functioning on the assumption that one such sequence is sufficient and the repetitions are superfluous to essential life processes; it was not specified in the paper whether the eliminated sequences were repeated sequences. Although most of the conserved sequences' biological function is still unknown, few conserved sequences derived transcripts showed that their expression is deregulated in human cancer tissues. Cytosine-guanine dinucleotides (CpG sites) are present at high frequency in CpG islands within the promoter regions of about 70% of human genes. CpG sites are subject to methylation on their cytosine. If a substantial proportion of CpG sites in a CpG island within a promoter of a gene are methylated, this silences expression of that gene. In the mammalian germ line DNA, demethylation occurs immediately following fertilization in the zygote, so that relatively few genes are silenced at that time. During development of the embryo, however, methylation of CpG islands re-occurs, shutting down patterns of genes in cells located in different areas of the embryo, thus causing tissue differentiation. Although CpG sites are frequent within CpG islands of promoter regions, CpG sites also occur in other regions of the genome, including within non-coding introns and non-coding three prime untranslated regions of genes. The mutation frequency of CpG sites within CpG islands of gene promoters was compared to the mutation frequency of CpG sites in non-coding regions of genes. The mutation frequencies were determined by comparing gene sequences in homologous genes in chimpanzees and humans. It was found that the CpG sites in CpG islands in promoters were mutated at a substantially lower rate than CpG sites in the non-coding regions of genes. Thus CpG sites within gene promoters tend to be conserved in evolution. A GERP (Genomic Evolutionary Rate Profiling) score measures evolutionary conservation of genetic sequences across species. There is a relationship between a sequence's GERP score and the proportion of variant alleles within that sequence. As the GERP score of a sequence increases, variation within that sequence becomes more rare. A higher GERP signifies a highly conserved sequence, where alteration is harmful, so adverse variants would reduce the fitness of the organism and be selected against.....
Views: 1841 The Audiopedia
With a solid understanding of biology on the small scale under our belts, it's time for the long view - for the next twelve weeks, we'll be learning how the living things that we've studied interact with and influence each other and their environments. Life is powerful, and in order to understand how living systems work, you first have to understand how they originated, developed and diversified over the past 4.5 billion years of Earth's history. Hang on to your hats as Hank tells us the epic drama that is the history of life on Earth. Like CrashCourse on Facebook! http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Follow CrashCourse on Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Table of Contents 1) Archaean & Proterozoic Eons 01:53 a) Protobionts 03:54 b) Prokaryotes 04:18 c) Eukaryotes 06:06 2) Phanerozoic Eon 06:42 a) Cambrian Explosion 06:49 b) Ordovician Period 07:36 c) Devonian Period 07:48 d) Carboniferous Period 08:13 e) Permian Period 09:10 References and licenses for this episode can be found in the Google document here: http://dft.ba/-2zRD crashcourse, biology, ecology, hank green, history, life, human, earth, RNA, genetic material, protobionts, DNA, prokaryote, archaea, archaean, eon, proterozoic, era, period, epoch, fossil record, atmosphere, geologic, time, cyanobacteria, photosynthesis, oxygen revolution, change, environment, eukaryote, endosymbiosis, mitochondria, plastid, algae, cambrian explosion, diversity, animal, evolution, phanerozoic, phyla, ordovician, plant, carboniferous, fossil fuel, system, permian, pangaea, gymnosperm, archosaur, dinosaur, species, extinction, event, asteroid, niche, competition, resource, jurassic, angiosperm, insect, coevolution, bird, mammal, flora, fauna, relationship Support CrashCourse on Subbable: http://subbable.com/crashcourse
Views: 1406500 CrashCourse
The Origin of Life from single cell organisms to complex beings - Evolution Documentary. Palaeontologist and fossil hunters are piecing together historical events to find out how species alive today evolved. One discovery was Whales evolved to live in the sea from land mammals. Transitional life forms were discovered. Did you know that Whales were originally 4 legged animals? Whale Fossils were found in Pakistan, Sahara desert (Valley of the Whales) Who was the common ancestor who start life on land? There were dig sites in Pennsylvania where Palaeontologists were looking for the original Marine tetrapod. On this dig site, they found the first Tetra Pod which had limbs however this was the first fish with limbs but it did not live on land and still lived in the water. Greenland was another dig site where they found a creature which was fish like and lived in the water, however, there was an unmistakable array of bones the creature hand hands This could be the first fish with hands. Evolution is amazing and Palaeontologists and scientists are still finding out the secrets of how we evolved into the beings we are today Please subscribe to my channel it really helps http://bit.ly/pls1sub Support my channel here http://bit.ly/donatemepls If you want to try Shadow which is streaming your very own supercomputer use my discount code and try it for a reduced price. https://shadow.tech/gben/discover BRYRABVG
Views: 411 Bryans Uploads
---RECOMMENDED STUDY GUIDES--- Genetics: https://amzn.to/2BzK1S2 Biology I: https://amzn.to/2SasaIl Biology II: https://amzn.to/2EKKGEv Biology terminology: https://amzn.to/2BBHuXo ---STUDY RESOURCES--- 10 Steps to Earning Awesome Grades: https://amzn.to/2CU4vHc How to Become a Straight-A Student: https://amzn.to/2VCfWdG ---VIDEOS AND PLAYLISTS--- Test tips and tricks: https://bit.ly/2VAnjTb Eukaryotic vs Prokaryotic Cells: https://bit.ly/2QDqkOY Plant cell vs Animal cell: https://bit.ly/2M10y6j Smooth ER: https://bit.ly/2FpvYD4 ---DIVE IN--- Follow me on Twitter: https://twitter.com/2MinuteClasroom Get Involved with the 2 Minute Classroom Community: https://bit.ly/2QvgbYy Subscribe to 2 Minute Classroom: https://bit.ly/2PdkPpk Find more at https://www.2minuteclassroom.com ---MY GEAR--- My mic - Blue Yeti Microphone: https://amzn.to/2Q6PoCc Full kit - Blue Yeti Microphone kit: https://amzn.to/2Q1lM9o GTX Graphics Card: https://amzn.to/2Pcygpp Animation Software: https://www.videoscribe.co/en/ DISCLAIMER: This video and description contains affiliate links, which means that if you click on some of the product links, I’ll receive a small commission. This helps support the channel and allows us to continue to make videos like this. Thank you for your support! Song: "Anthem" by The Grand Affair Images adapted from Wikipedia ---TRANSCRIPT--- Thanks for stopping by, this is 2 minute classroom and today we are talking about the structure and function of ribosomes, which are a key player in protein synthesis. I know the majority of my audience are students and I create content specifically designed to save you time! So if you want to spend less time studying, consider subscribing for easy access to all my time saving content. Ribosomes are an underrated hero of the cell and the average mammalian cell has about 10 million ribosomes! They are made of RNA and protein and their function in the cell is to read RNA and synthesize protein, very meta. Ribosomes have two major subunits, simply called, the large and small subunits. Both subunits contain protein and RNA. The RNA in ribosomes is called (not surprisingly) ribosomal RNA, or rRNA for short. In eukaryotic cells, ribosomes are synthesized in the nucleolus of the nucleus. The location of ribosomes in the cell determines where the protein they make ends up. Ribosomes free floating in the cytoplasm of the cell synthesize proteins to be used within the cell, while ribosomes bound to the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum synthesize proteins that will end up outside the cell, either bound to the cell membrane or released from the cell as a signaling protein for example. Ribosomes synthesize protein in a process called translation where they “read” strands of mRNA and bring the right amino acids together to build a long polypeptide chain that that will eventually become a functioning protein. I’ll make a separate video about this whole process and link it below when it's ready. Now watch this test prep playlist if you have any exams coming up or watch these videos on topics you may find interesting. I also have some additional study resources linked in the description if you want to take you study to the next level. Thanks for watching, and I’ll catch you next time.
Views: 1948 2 Minute Classroom
In which John Green, Hank Green, and Emily Graslie teach you about evolution. So, in the last 3.8 billion years, life on Earth has evolved from single-celled prokaryotes to the dizzying array of life we have today. So how did all this happen? We'll talk about Darwin, evolution, natural selection, and how we got from there to here, and from then to now. Learn more here: http://www.bighistoryproject.com
Views: 911101 CrashCourse
https://www.ibiology.org/microbiology/virus-ecology-evolution-virus-adaptation-phage-therapy/ Part 1: Introduction to Virus Ecology and Evolution: Dr. Paul Turner describes the fundamental biology of viruses, how they interact with their host organisms, and how they might have originally evolved long ago. Part 2: Virus Adaptation to Environmental Change: Turner’s laboratory uses experimental evolution to study how viruses adapt to environmental changes. Part 3: Phage Therapy: Turner provides an introduction to phage therapy, and how it can be improved by applying ‘evolution thinking’. Talk Overview: In his first lecture, Dr. Paul Turner describes the fundamental biology of viruses, how they interact with their host organisms, and how they might have originally evolved long ago. He provides an overview of the many reasons why viruses might be considered the most biologically successful inhabitants of earth, including their ability to rapidly reproduce, and adapt to environmental challenges. Turner explains how viruses have impacted human history, as well as earth’s history, due to their prevalent interactions with other species. Viruses have an incredible capacity to adapt to environmental challenges, but sometimes, the environment constraints viral adaptation. Turner’s laboratory uses experimental evolution to study how viruses adapt to environmental changes (e.g. temperature changes), and the mechanisms by which viruses jump to novel host species. Turner’s work suggests that viruses with greater capacities to block the innate immune systems of their hosts, also have a greater likelihood of emerging on new host species. Also, he describes how virus adaptation to environmental change may be constraints by trade-offs: viruses can evolve either greater reproduction or greater survival, but not both simultaneously. Before antibiotics were discovered, scientists were using viruses of bacteria, bacteriophages, to treat bacterial infections in humans. Given the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, scientists are revisiting the idea of using phage therapy to treat infections. In his third lecture, Turner provides an introduction to phage therapy, and how it can be improved by applying ‘evolution thinking’. His laboratory discovered phage OMKO1 that can treat multi-drug resistant bacteria in human patients while causing these bacteria to evolve greater sensitivity to antibiotics. Speaker Biography: Dr. Paul Turner is Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at Yale University, and holds an appointment in the Microbiology Program at Yale School of Medicine. His laboratory studies how viruses evolutionarily adapt to overcome environmental challenges, such as temperature changes or infection of novel host species. Turner received his bachelor’s degree in Biology from the University of Rochester in 1988, and completed his graduate studies in microbial ecology and evolution at Michigan State University in 1995. Learn more about Dr. Turner’s research here: http://turnerlab.yale.edu
Views: 5009 iBiology
The mammalian virome in genetic analysis of health and disease pathogenesis Air date: Wednesday, April 22, 2015, 3:00:00 PM Category: WALS - Wednesday Afternoon Lectures Runtime: 01:13:51 Description: The Annual R. E. Dyer Lecture Disease occurs in only some people carrying risk alleles, a phenomenon that may well be due in part to the influence of our virome. Chronic virus infection of mice protects the host against cancer and infection through symbiotic stimulation of innate immunity, and can complement multiple genetic immunodeficiencies. The virome may contribute to individual variations in the clinical presentation of disease. However, persistent viruses can also trigger "virus-plus-susceptibility-gene" interactions leading to bacteria-dependent inflammatory disease. These bacteria-dependent phenotypes are only observed when the virus and a mutant allele of a host gene are present at the same time. Virgin hypothesized that trans-kingdom metagenomic (viruses, bacteria, archaea, fungi, metazoans) interactions may regulate virus infection, immunity, and inflammation. His lab confirmed this hypothesis by showing that helminth infection can reactivate latent herpesvirus through cytokine competition between IFN-gamma and IL-4/IL-13 at a viral promoter, and can inhibit antiviral immunity. The Virgin lab recently found that antibiotic treatment prevents persistent enteric norovirus infection, an effect rescued by fecal transplantation. This effect requires the IFN-lambda receptor but not adaptive immunity. Furthermore, treatment with IFN-lambda cures persistent enteric norovirus infection in the absence of adaptive immune cells, documenting the existence of what we believe to be sterilizing innate anti-viral immunity. These data beg the question of whether the virome is associated with human disease. His lab has found that the enteric virome is abnormal in both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. They also observed significant disease-specific increases in Caudovirales taxa despite detecting expected decreases in bacterial microbiome diversity. This obesvation is consistent with a predator-prey relationship between the enteric virome and the bacterial microbiome in these diseases. Together these data indicate that mammals are best viewed as composite organisms in which the virome, and trans-kingdom interactions regulating and regulated by the virome, contribute to immunity, disease, and the genotype-phenotype relationship. Genetic analysis of disease risk, and the study of normal immunity, should incorporate consideration of the virome and trans-kingdom metagenomic interactions that control the virome. About the annual Rolla E. Dyer lecture: The annual Rolla E. Dyer Lecture features an internationally renowned researcher who has contributed substantially to the medical as well as the biological knowledge of infectious diseases. Established in 1950, the lecture series honors former NIH director Dr. R. E. Dyer, who was a noted authority on infectious diseases. For more information go to http://wals.od.nih.gov Author: Herbert W. 'Skip' Virgin IV, M.D., Ph.D., Edward Mallinckrodt Professor and Chair Department of Pathology and Immunology, Professor of Molecular Microbiology, and Professor of Medicine at Washington University School of Medicine Permanent link: http://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?18963
Views: 18352 nihvcast
Tutorial on using SynMap in CoGe to compare the genomes of human and chimp. This tool generates a syntenic dotplot and has links to CoGe's tool GEvo for high-resolution analysis of genomic regions.
Views: 2017 CoGeVids
https://www.ibiology.org/cell-biology/protein-localization-inside-cells/ Part 1: Compartmentalization of Proteins Inside Cells: Hegde reviews key historical experiments that have informed our understanding protein localization within a cell. Part 2: Quality Control of Protein Localization: Mislocalization of proteins can have devastating effects for the entire organism. Hegde explains how cells detect and degrade mislocalized proteins. Part 3: Recognition of Protein Localization Signals: How does the protein translocation machinery recognize thousands of distinct signal sequences and target proteins to cellular membranes or for secretion? Talk Overview: Cells are organized into many different compartments such as the cytosol, nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and mitochondria. Almost all proteins are made in the cytosol, yet each cellular compartment requires a specific set of proteins. How does the cell regulate protein localization to be sure that proteins end up where they should? In his first lecture, Manu Hegde reviews the history of this field and highlights key experiments that have led to our current understanding of how protein localization occurs. In his second lecture, Hegde explains that although the protein localization system usually operates accurately, it does sometimes fail. This can be due to genetic mutations, stress within an organelle, or just intrinsic inefficiencies that accompany any complex process. As a graduate student, Hegde used a cell-free in vitro system to study the translocation of prion protein into the ER. He found that a small amount of prion protein did not completely cross the ER membrane as expected, but remained in a transmembrane form. Worried that this was an artifact of the in vitro system, he designed experiments in mice to see what the effect of an increase in mislocalized, transmembrane prion protein would be. He found a striking result - even a small increase in the amount of transmembrane prion protein caused increased neurodegeneration in mice. It turns out that incomplete translocation is not unique to prion protein. Hegde tells us how, as an independent investigator, his lab went on to investigate why this happens and how the cell monitors and degrades proteins that are not properly localized. Proteins that are secreted from the cell or localized to the plasma membrane need first to be translocated into the lumen of the ER or inserted into the ER membrane. Thousands of proteins, each with a unique signal sequence, move through this pathway. How does the protein translocation machinery recognize these diverse signals and correctly localize the protein? In his third talk, Hegde describes studies from his lab using cryo-electron microscopy to visualize the translocation machinery at different stages in the recognition and engagement of a secreted or membrane inserted protein. The structural information gleaned from these experiments helps to explain how the protein translocation machinery works with high fidelity even when it needs to recognize diverse signal sequences. Speaker Biography: As an undergraduate, Ramanujan (Manu) Hegde studied biology at the University of Chicago with the thought that he would become a doctor. His summers and spare time were spent working in a lab, where he came to love the problem-solving of basic research. Hegde then fled Chicago winters for the sunshine of The University of California, San Francisco, where he completed an MD-PhD combined degree program. By then, he had decided to pursue basic research as a career, and moved to the National Institutes of Health where he was an investigator for 11 years. In 2011, Hegde moved to the Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, England, where his research focuses on the mechanisms of protein biosynthesis and quality control. Hegde’s research contributions have been recognized with his election as a member of the European Molecular Biology Organization in 2013 and as a Fellow of the Royal Society in 2016. Learn more about Manu Hegde’s research here: http://www2.mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk/groups/hegde/ and http://www2.mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk/group-leaders/h-to-m/ramanujan-hegde/
Views: 8099 iBiology
038 - Signal Transduction Pathways.mov Paul Andersen explains how signal transduction pathways are used by cells to convert chemical messages to cellular action. Epinephrine is used as a sample messenger to trigger the release of glucose from cells in the liver. The G-Protein, adenylyl cyclase, cAMP, and protein kinases are all used as illustrative examples of signal transduction. A review of the concepts is also included. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: "File:Dora and Boots.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, October 28, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Dora_and_Boots.jpg&oldid=468219594. "File:Jimi Hendrix 1967 Uncropped.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Jimi_Hendrix_1967_uncropped.jpg. "File:MarshallStack Slayer.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:MarshallStack_Slayer.jpg. "File:Pickup-SSH.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pickup-SSH.jpg. Juancoronado1974. English: Phospholipid Bilayer, November 23, 2013. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bilayer.png.
Views: 1004754 Bozeman Science
https://www.ibiology.org/evolution/neural-circuits/ In her first talk, Dr. Hale does an excellent job of defining evolution as a change in heritable characteristics. She uses examples, such as the variable color of the pepper moth, to explain selection for and against specific characteristics. She explains how individual species arise and concludes by describing the techniques, such as fossil and DNA analyses, that scientists can use to build “trees” or phylogenies between related species. In Part 2, Hale explains why the “startle response”, a highly conserved behavior found in most fish and vertebrates, is a good system for studying how neurons connect and neural circuits have evolved. The Mauthner cells are the neurons that control the startle response. By comparing these neurons across many species of fish, it has been possible to follow the organization of the nervous system and control of behavior over hundreds of millions of years. Speaker Biography: Melina Hale is a professor of Organismal Biology and Anatomy and Neurobiology and Computational Neuroscience at the University of Chicago. Using predominantly zebra fish, Hale’s lab studies neural circuits that control limb and axis movement and how that movement changes over time. Movement changes can be seen both in the short time frame of development (for instance as tadpoles become frogs) and over evolutionary time. Hale is a principal investigator on an Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship (IGERT) grant and her enthusiasm for teaching has been recognized with a graduate teaching award. Hale is also involved in outreach to local schools. In addition, Hale is Dean of faculty affairs.
Views: 5269 iBiology
https://www.ibiology.org/biochemistry/prions/#part-3 In Part 1a, Dr. Lindquist explains the problem of protein folding. Proteins leave the ribosome as long, linear chains of amino acids but they need to fold into complex three dimensional shapes in the extremely crowded environment of the cytoplasm. Since protein misfolding can be disastrous for cells, proteins known as heat shock proteins (HSPs) have evolved to facilitate proper protein folding. Lindquist explains that sometimes the heat shock response becomes unbalanced resulting in human disease. In the case of cancer, HSPs help cancer cells survive many stresses that would typically kill them. In contrast, many neurodegenerative diseases are a result of protein misfolding and aggregation suggesting that, in these diseases, HSPs are not activated when they should be. Yeast have many of the same cellular processes as humans including a stress response to aid in protein folding and prevent protein aggregation. In Part 1b, Lindquist describes how genetic screens in yeast helped scientists identify mutations that increased the formation of aggregates similar to those found in neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore a screen in yeast of ~500,000 chemicals identified a number of compounds that prevented protein aggregation. Results from both experiments have since been validated in mice and human neuronal models. When cells undergo stress, the expression of HSPs increases. In Part 2, Lindquist explains that while most HSPs are expressed only as needed, Hsp90 is expressed in excess. This “buffer” of Hsp90 facilitates the folding of some mutant proteins (such as v-src) that would usually misfold and be degraded by the cell. Thus, Hsp90 potentiates the impact of these mutations. Interestingly, the Hsp90 “buffer” can also act to hide or suppress the impact of other mutations. These “hidden” mutations are found when cells are stressed reducing the pool of available Hsp90. Thus, Hsp90 provides a plausible mechanism for allowing genetic diversity and fluctuating environments to fuel the pace of evolutionary change. In her last talk, Lindquist focuses on prion proteins. Prions are perhaps best known as the infectious agents in diseases such as mad cow disease. However, Lindquist argues that there are many great things about prions too. They provide a protein-based mechanism of inheritance that allows organisms to develop new traits, quickly and reversibly, and thereby adapt to new environments. Working in yeast, Lindquist and her colleagues were able to identify numerous prion-like proteins that are induced at different levels, depending on the temperature, pH or presence of bacteria. Expression of prions caused heritable, phenotypic changes in the yeast demonstrating that prions are another mechanism by which environmental changes can induce new traits that can be passed onto progeny. As Lindquist says, perhaps it is time to give Lamarck back his dignity. Speaker Biography: Susan Lindquist is a member and former Director of the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research. She is also a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator and Professor of Biology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She received her Ph.D. in biology from Harvard and was a postdoctoral fellow of the American Cancer Society. Lindquist was on the faculty of the University of Chicago for over 20 years before moving to MIT in 2001. A pioneer in the study of protein folding, Lindquist found that the chaperone Hsp90 potentiates and buffers the effects of genetic variation, fueling evolutionary mechanisms as diverse as malignant transformation and the emergence of drug resistance. Her work established the molecular basis for protein-based mechanisms of inheritance and she demonstrated that Hsp90 and prions each provide distinct but feasible mechanisms of Lamarckian inheritance. Dr. Lindquist is an elected member of the National Academy of Sciences, the Academy of Medicine and the Royal Society. Her honors also include the Dickson Prize in Medicine, the Otto-Warburg Prize, the Genetics Society of America Medal, the FASEB Excellence in Science Award, the E.B. Wilson Medal, the Vanderbilt Prize for Women’s Excellence in Science and Mentorship and the National Medal of Science.
Views: 4213 iBiology
Other Minds: The Octopus, the Sea, and the Deep Origins of Consciousness A philosopher dons a wetsuit and journeys into the depths of consciousness. Peter Godfrey-Smith is a leading philosopher of science. He is also an accomplished scuba diver whose underwater videos of warring octopuses have attracted wide notice. In this book, he brings his parallel careers together to tell a bold new story of how nature became aware of itself. Mammals and birds are widely seen as the smartest creatures on earth. But one other branch of the tree of life has also sprouted surprising intelligence: the cephalopods, consisting of the squid, the cuttlefish, and above all the octopus. New research shows that these marvelous creatures display remarkable gifts. What does it mean that intelligence on earth has evolved not once but twice? And that the mind of the octopus is nonetheless so different from our own? Combining science and philosophy with firsthand accounts of his cephalopod encounters, Godfrey-Smith shows how primitive organisms bobbing in the ocean began sending signals to each other and how these early forms of communication gave rise to the advanced nervous systems that permit cephalopods to change colors and human beings to speak. By tracing the problem of consciousness back to its roots and comparing the human brain to its most alien and perhaps most remarkable animal relative, Godfrey-Smith's Other Minds sheds new light on one of our most abiding mysteries. Get the book here: https://goo.gl/nJCP3Y http://petergodfreysmith.com/
Views: 21393 Talks at Google
Professor Sidney Altman gives a detailed description of RNase P and its evolution in prokaryotes and eukaryotes and a summary of data regarding the utility of this enzyme and associated technology that could be used as a clinical therapy. Series: "UC Berkeley Graduate Council Lectures" [1/2011] [Science] [Show ID: 20041]
Views: 3165 University of California Television (UCTV)
Principles of Evolution, Ecology and Behavior (EEB 122) Speciation is the process through which species diverge from each other and/or from a common ancestor. There are several definitions of species, most of which focus on reproductive isolation and/or phylogenetic similarities. This can cause some controversy. Speciation can result from geographical separation or ecological specialization. There are stages of speciation in which organisms cluster first into distinct populations before finally becoming different species. 00:00 - Chapter 1. Introduction 03:38 - Chapter 2. Diversity and How Speciation Happens 17:13 - Chapter 3. Concepts and Criteria of Speciation 26:04 - Chapter 4. The Genetics of Speciation 34:41 - Chapter 5. Mechanics and Examples of Speciation 40:30 - Chapter 6. Experiments, Applications, and Cryptic Species 48:09 - Chapter 7. Summary Complete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website: http://open.yale.edu/courses This course was recorded in Spring 2009.
Views: 18502 YaleCourses
"RNA and Protein: Molecules in Mutualism" Speaker: Loren Williams | Georgia Institute of Technology
Organisms of many species are specialized into male and female varieties, each known as a sex, with some falling in between being intersex. Sexual reproduction involves the combining and mixing of genetic traits: specialized cells known as gametes combine to form offspring that inherit traits from each parent. Gametes can be identical in form and function (known as isogamy), but in many cases an asymmetry has evolved such that two sex-specific types of gametes (heterogametes) exist (known as anisogamy). Among humans and other mammals, males typically carry XY chromosomes, whereas females typically carry XX chromosomes, which are a part of the XY sex-determination system. Other animals have a sex-determination system as well, such as the ZW sex-determination system in birds, and the X0 sex-determination system in insects. The gametes produced by an organism are determined by its sex: males produce male gametes (spermatozoa, or sperm, in animals; pollen in plants) while females produce female gametes (ova, or egg cells); individual organisms which produce both male and female gametes are termed hermaphroditic. Frequently, physical differences are associated with the different sexes of an organism; these sexual dimorphisms can reflect the different reproductive pressures the sexes experience. For instance, mate choice and sexual selection can accelerate the evolution of physical differences between the sexes.
Views: 307 Yash Shah
Spoken Word Poetry inspired by evolution written and read by Gwyddion Flint with guitar by Gwyddion Flint and piano and synth by Airy Connection. (Currently looking for someone to collaborate with in order to create videos or animations for my spoken word poetry- if you are interested let me know.) But is it Natural? The sea owns the clouds in the sky And with sky as inheritance The creatures of the sea, their protean forms, Curling and pirouetting, flapping and beating Could then commute. Those shapes described through water finding reflection above. Then, with land as intermediary, that vital testing ground, Where fish once slapped fins against a harder surface. Skipping mud, breathing hard upon its shores and embankments And ancient mayflies first fizzed around shrubs and ferns. Pterosaurs and then the birds... Later men in their wooden frames would join this dance. Peddling first, feet and thighs translated into thrust, Rickety, canvas gliders. Once again, Now ancient creatures of the sea return Rising, in their black, azotised form, Pumped out with steel proboscis, to feed this hefty carriage That ferries men through clouds. Clouds which themselves teem With microscopic life. And so then is man’s ascent His own ingenuity? Not raised upon the backs of the dead - Human, proto, prehuman, prokaryote Not the ascent of an evolution fulfilling its function? That in its own ingenuity evolving and encoding the possibility That a mammal should surround itself with a shell Protecting its soft limbs in an alien region Like many organisms before it? From inorganic to organic inert to kinetic – from simple to complex From sea to soil to air to beyond the atmosphere To whatever secret dimensions within and beyond. Flagellate, fin, wing and solar sail. What is technology but the snails shell, Or the bird that drops stones on that selfsame shield To peck the moist mollusc flesh within. An arms race, but for what common purpose?
Views: 24 Gwyddion Flint
Human body cells have 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs. There are 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes (allosomes). For a male the sex chromosomes are usually XY whilst for a female they are XX. To make a baby, a sperm has to join with an ovum (or egg cell). You should know that they only have half of the DNA of a body cell; they are ‘haploid’. Instead of 46 chromosomes, so 23 pairs, they just have 23 chromosomes in total. 22 autosomes and one sex chromosome, or allosome. An ovum will always have an X chromosome but the sperm will have an X or a Y. If we looked at this in a punnett square, the gametes from the female would always be X. So X, X. And the gametes from the male would be either X or Y. So really, it is the man who determines the gender of the child. He brings the Y which is the only chance of a male childUnfortunately for Anne Boleyn, a wife of King Henry 8th of England in the 16th century, she was executed for not providing a male heir to the throne when really his sperm were to blame! From the punnett square, we would expect 50% of the offspring to be male and 50% to be female. But the actual outcomes may be different. One couple could for example end up with 4 girls. Discounting social factors such as sex-selective abortions, at birth the natural male-to-female sex ratio for humans is about 105 males to 100 females. It is thought that this is nature’s way of overcoming the fact that males have a higher risk of dying younger than females. The overall world male-to-female sex ratio drops down to 101 males to every 100 females, so is closer to the expected 50% of each. Most tortoiseshell cats are female because this fur colour is a characteristic found on the X chromosome. But males have one X chromosome, so why can’t males be tortoiseshell? For a tortoiseshell cat, two X chromosomes are needed to show the three different colours. So as females have XX sex-chromosomes, they can be tortoiseshell. But XY males can’t. Now I say ‘most’ rather than all because you can occasionally get a male tortoiseshell cat, just like you can occasionally get a human man with XX chromosomes. These rare individuals have an extra strand of DNA, and so are XXY (rather than just XY). So the male has the double X’s needed to be tortoiseshell. There are other rare chromosomal disorders that mean you can have XX human males and XY females. Or Turner syndrome when only one sex chromosome is present, a solitary X. XYY and XXYY are two more syndromes, and there are many others. From this video you should now know that females usually have XX sex-chromosomes, and males usually have XY. The father provides the Y-chromosome, and so the chance of having a male child falls on his shoulders. SUBSCRIBE to the FuseSchool YouTube channel for many more educational videos. Our teachers and animators come together to make fun & easy-to-understand videos in Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Maths & ICT. VISIT us at www.fuseschool.org, where all of our videos are carefully organised into topics and specific orders, and to see what else we have on offer. Comment, like and share with other learners. You can both ask and answer questions, and teachers will get back to you. These videos can be used in a flipped classroom model or as a revision aid. Find all of our Chemistry videos here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cRnpKjHpFyg&list=PLW0gavSzhMlReKGMVfUt6YuNQsO0bqSMV Find all of our Biology videos here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tjkHzEVcyrE&list=PLW0gavSzhMlQYSpKryVcEr3ERup5SxHl0 Find all of our Maths videos here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hJq_cdz_L00&list=PLW0gavSzhMlTyWKCgW1616v3fIywogoZQ Twitter: https://twitter.com/fuseSchool Access a deeper Learning Experience in the FuseSchool platform and app: www.fuseschool.org Follow us: http://www.youtube.com/fuseschool Friend us: http://www.facebook.com/fuseschool This Open Educational Resource is free of charge, under a Creative Commons License: Attribution-NonCommercial CC BY-NC ( View License Deed: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ ). You are allowed to download the video for nonprofit, educational use. If you would like to modify the video, please contact us: [email protected]
Views: 61510 FuseSchool - Global Education
In the world of ecology, the only constant is change - but change can be good. Today Hank explains ecological succession and how ecological communities change over time to become beautiful, biodiverse mosaics. Like Crash Course on Facebook! http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Follow Crash Course on Twitter! http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Table of Contents 1. Primary Succession 1:56:1 2. Secondary Succession 3:36 3. Climax Community Model 5:11 4. Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis 7:25:1 References and image licenses for this episode can be found in the Google document here: http://dft.ba/-381q Support CrashCourse on Subbable: http://subbable.com/crashcourse
Views: 617520 CrashCourse
Principles of Evolution, Ecology and Behavior (EEB 122) The history of life and evolution has been characterized by several key events. These events can be grouped as new hierarchal levels of selection coming into play, as biological units coming together in symbiosis and specialization, or in a number of other ways. Other important events are situations of conflict resolution or information transmission, from the genetic to the cultural level. 00:00 - Chapter 1. Introduction 04:15 - Chapter 2. The Transition from Non-Life to Life 12:23 - Chapter 3. Eigen‚ Äôs Hypercycles 21:36 - Chapter 4. The First Cells 27:03 - Chapter 5. The First Eukaryotic Cells 37:07 - Chapter 6. Symbiotic Organelles 44:20 - Chapter 7. Summary Complete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website: http://open.yale.edu/courses This course was recorded in Spring 2009.
Views: 11789 YaleCourses
2016 Breakthrough Prize Symposium Concluding Panel: A Multilingual Conversation in Science: From Quantum Mechanics to CRISPR to Chaos. In partnership with Scienctific American. Chair: Saul Perlmutter (UC Berkeley) Moderator: I-han Chou (Nature) Featuring talks by: 1. Raphael Bousso (UC Berkeley). Geometry and Information: Hidden Patterns in Gravity and Quantum Mechanics. 2. Jonathan Weissman (UCSF). Turning human genes on and off with CRISPRi/a. 3. Maciej Zworski (UC Berkeley). Linear vs Chaotic. The 2016 Breakthrough Prize Symposium is co-hosted by UC Berkeley, UC San Francisco, Stanford, and the Breakthrough Prize Foundation. This daylong event includes talks and panels featuring Breakthrough Prize laureates in Fundamental Physics, Life Sciences and Mathematics, as well as other distinguished guests. For more details on the day's activities please visit: http://breakthroughprize.berkeley.edu/symposium
Views: 905 UC Berkeley Events
Join the Amoeba Sisters as they compare and contrast asexual reproduction with sexual reproduction. This video has a handout here: http://www.amoebasisters.com/handouts.html. See table of contents by expanding details 👇. Table of Contents: Asexual Reproduction 0:59 Sexual Reproduction 2:21 Disadvantages and Advantages of Sexual Reproduction (when compared to asexual reproduction) 3:51 Vocabulary in this video includes DNA, meiosis, chromosomes, binary fission, and budding. Support us on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/amoebasisters Our FREE resources: GIFs: http://www.amoebasisters.com/gifs.html Handouts: http://www.amoebasisters.com/handouts.html Comics: http://www.amoebasisters.com/parameciumparlorcomics Connect with us! Website: http://www.AmoebaSisters.com Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/AmoebaSisters Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/AmoebaSisters Tumblr: http://www.amoebasisters.tumblr.com Pinterest: http://www.pinterest.com/AmoebaSisters Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/amoebasistersofficial/ Visit our Redbubble store at http://www.amoebasisters.com/store.html The Amoeba Sisters videos demystify science with humor and relevance. The videos center on Pinky's certification and experience in teaching science at the high school level. Pinky's teacher certification is in grades 4-8 science and 8-12 composite science (encompassing biology, chemistry, and physics). Amoeba Sisters videos only cover concepts that Pinky is certified to teach, and they focus on her specialty: secondary life science. For more information about The Amoeba Sisters, visit: http://www.amoebasisters.com/about-us.html We cover the basics in biology concepts at the secondary level. If you are looking to discover more about biology and go into depth beyond these basics, our recommended reference is the FREE, peer reviewed, open source OpenStax biology textbook: https://openstax.org/details/books/biology We take pride in our AWESOME community, and we welcome feedback and discussion. However, please remember that this is an education channel. See YouTube's community guidelines https://www.youtube.com/yt/policyandsafety/communityguidelines.html and YouTube's policy center https://support.google.com/youtube/topic/2676378?hl=en&ref_topic=6151248. We also reserve the right to remove comments with vulgar language. Music is this video is listed free to use/no attribution required from the YouTube audio library https://www.youtube.com/audiolibrary/music?feature=blog We have YouTube's community contributed subtitles feature on to allow translations for different languages. YouTube automatically credits the different language contributors below (unless the contributor had opted out of being credited). We are thankful for those that contribute different languages. If you have a concern about community contributed contributions, please contact us.
Views: 399577 Amoeba Sisters
MIT 8.591J Systems Biology, Fall 2014 View the complete course: http://ocw.mit.edu/8-591JF14 Instructor: Jeff Gore In this lecture, the class analyzes a simple model of gene expression, first to understand the deterministic behavior of the model, and then to look at the stochastic behavior of the model. License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA More information at http://ocw.mit.edu/terms More courses at http://ocw.mit.edu
Views: 2489 MIT OpenCourseWare
International Baccalaureate Biology Tutorial 2.1.6 Explain the importance of the surface area to volume ratio as a factor limiting cell size
Views: 267474 Stephanie Castle
“Practical Importance of Human Evolution" is a free online course on Janux that is open to anyone. Learn more athttp://janux.ou.edu. Created by the University of Oklahoma, Janux is an interactive learning community that gives learners direct connections to courses, education resources, faculty, and each other. Janux courses are freely available or may be taken for college credit by enrolled OU students. Dr. Cecil Lewis is an Associate Professor of Anthropology. Video by NextThought (http://nextthought.com). Copyright © 2000-2014 The Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma, All Rights Reserved.
Views: 386 Janux
Principles of Evolution, Ecology and Behavior (EEB 122) There is a distinct possibility that humans are currently part way through an evolutionary transition between individuals and groups. The conflict between these two units of selection and levels of organization, between biology and culture, may explain some of the tensions in modern human life. Examples of selfishness and altruism exemplify how these types of selection act on humans. 00:00 - Chapter 1. Introduction 10:27 - Chapter 2. Transitions in Hierarchal Selection 19:18 - Chapter 3. Cooperation and Aggression 27:09 - Chapter 4. Group Norms 35:51 - Chapter 5. Patterns and Differences in Cultures' Selfishness 43:57 - Chapter 6. Redefinition of Social Boundaries Complete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website: http://open.yale.edu/courses This course was recorded in Spring 2009.
Views: 10333 YaleCourses
Table of Contents: 00:00 L3.1: Circuits: Introduction to Transcription Networks 00:13 In this lecture … 00:45 "Cognitive Problem" of the Cell 02:44 Transcription Network 03:22 Information Processing 04:28 Transcription Factors 05:16 Transcription Factors 06:13 simplest view of transcription 07:01 Transcription factors as activators 07:41 Transcription factors as repressor 08:14 Gene Expression in Prokaryotes Vs. Eukaryotes 09:03 Gene Expression in Prokaryotes Vs. Eukaryotes 10:18 E. coli Transcription Network 12:08 RegulonDB 12:58 Curated TF – Gene Network in E. coli K12 in RegulonDB 14:31 For Further Knowledge 15:01 Coming Up This video is part of the nanoHUB-U course "Biological Engineering: Cellular Design Principles" currently offered on nanoHUB-U (https://nanohub.org/courses/biod) or on EdX (https://www.edx.org/course/biological-engineering-cellular-design-purduex-nano545x) Cellular Design Principles is a five week course that explores the design principles underlying mechanisms of cellular and biomolecular functions such as cell architecture, energy storage and conversion, sensing and signaling, communication, time keeping, molecular synthesis, memory, and motility. Emphasis will be placed on the chemical, physical, and mathematical features that determine the performance of the biological device. Topics cover both cellular/biochemical processes and molecular/genetic circuits. Examples are presented from reverse engineering of natural systems and design of new synthetic systems.
Views: 796 nanohubtechtalks
Find 1500+ education videos available at http://www.youtube.com/user/IkenEdu Biology is the vast subject including all about animals, human and plants. In this video, you will learn about various biological organisms such eukaryotic, prokaryotic and others. Watch the full video and learn all about kingdom Animalia. This is an important biology lesson for you. Don't miss it.
Views: 732025 Iken Edu
Dr. David Page, Director of the Whitehead Institute and Professor of Biology at MIT, discusses how his laboratory is seeking to unravel the genetic mechanisms responsible for a range of sexual disorders, from failed sperm production to sex reversal to Turner Syndrome. Part of the Evolution Matters series, supported by a generous gift from Drs. Herman and Joan Suit. Presented by the Harvard Museum of Natural History.
Views: 775 Harvard Museum of Natural History
June 20-21, 2012 - Genomics of model organisms and human biology: Insights from the modENCODE Project More: http://www.genome.gov/27549319
Views: 3377 National Human Genome Research Institute
Researchers might have discovered the 2 oldest plant-like fossils this week! Meanwhile, scientists learned more about another superpower of our favorite organism: tardigrades. Hosted by: Hank Green Get your Knowledge is Power shirt, poster and banner today! https://store.dftba.com/collections/scishow ---------- Support SciShow by becoming a patron on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/scishow ---------- Dooblydoo thanks go to the following Patreon supporters—we couldn't make SciShow without them! Shout out to Kevin Bealer, Mark Terrio-Cameron, KatieMarie Magnone, Patrick Merrithew, Charles Southerland, Fatima Iqbal, Benny, Kyle Anderson, Tim Curwick, Scott Satovsky Jr, Philippe von Bergen, Bella Nash, Bryce Daifuku, Chris Peters, Patrick D. Ashmore, Charles George, Bader AlGhamdi ---------- Looking for SciShow elsewhere on the internet? Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/scishow Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/scishow Tumblr: http://scishow.tumblr.com Instagram: http://instagram.com/thescishow ---------- Sources: Algae https://www.eurekalert.org/emb_releases/2017-03/p-wop030717.php http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2000735 http://paleobiol.geoscienceworld.org/content/26/3/386 https://books.google.com/books?id=6WYZQwmyWy0C&pg=PA13 Tardigrades https://www.eurekalert.org/emb_releases/2017-03/cp-tuu030917.php http://www.cell.com/molecular-cell/fulltext/S1097-2765(17)30133-8 http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.jpcb.6b02517 Image Sources: http://img.algaebase.org/pdf/AC100CF316a8734043nPXq2B4E75/386.pdf https://www.eurekalert.org/multimedia/pub/134935.php https://www.dropbox.com/sh/ugii1eehyoxvsp0/AAD6s_fP8zo_6i4UHRlmirUxa?dl=0 http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2000735 Thumbnail Image Source: https://www.eurekalert.org/multimedia/pub/134935.php
Views: 164375 SciShow
Eukaryotic Gene Expression:Basics & Benefits by Prof.P N RANGARAJAN,Department of Biochemistry,IISC Bangalore. For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.iitm.ac.in
Views: 3788 nptelhrd
Sign up for our Easter Revision Courses at https://sciencewithhazel.co.uk/blogs/revision-courses Science with Hazel's Perfect Answer Revision Guides for Edexcel IGCSE Triple Science are available at https://sciencewithhazel.co.uk/collections/edexcel-igcse-triple TOPIC TIMINGS: Cells 0:39 Cell Organisation 8:05 Biological Molecules 12:45 Enzymes 12:51 Diffusion, Active Transport & Osmosis 16:33 Photosynthesis 19:00 Leaf Structure 22:31 The Digestive System 25:43 Balanced Diet 30:47 Respiration 34:50 The Respiratory System 37:22 Transport In Plants - Xylem & Phloem 42:31 Transpiration 45:55 Transport In Humans - Blood 48:35 The Immune System 50:09 The Circulatory System 53:24 Arteries, Veins & Capillaries 1:00:33 Excretion 1:01:42 Co-ordination & Response 1:06:50 Auxins 1:07:05 The Nervous System 1:09:12 The Eye 1:13:11 Homeostasis 1:17:27 Reproduction Overview 1:21:06 Reproduction In Plants 1:22:58 Reproduction In Humans 1:28:04 Protein Synthesis 1:33:08 Punnett Squares 1:39:59 Pedigree Analysis 1:46:33 Mitosis & Meiosis 1:51:14 Evolution & Natural Selection 1:56:15 Ecology 1:58:21 Carbon Cycle 2:05:29 Nitrogen Cycle 2:06:51 Human Impact On The Environment 2:08:57 Biological Resources 2:14:23 Fish Farming 2:22:16 Selective Breeding 2:24:29 Genetic Engineering 2:25:40 Cloning 2:31:11 These videos are designed to help with your GCSE and IGCSE science revision. To keep up to date with my Science with Hazel videos and support: Visit my website: www.sciencewithhazel.co.uk Follow me on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/sciencewithazel/ Add me on Snapchat: https://www.snapchat.com/add/sciencewithazel Like my Facebook page: https://www.facebook.com/sciencewithazel/ Hazel completed her undergraduate degree at St John's College, the University of Cambridge. She then did a PGCE (Post-Graduate Certificate of Education) before qualifying as a science teacher. She now works full time as a professional tutor.
Views: 15562 Science with Hazel
Presenter: Lisa Sardinia, PhD, JD Most of the tens of trillions of cells that make up the human body are actually microbes. The gut microbiota make vitamins for us, help us digest food, battle disease-causing microbes, and may influence our behavior.
Views: 1697 Oregon Public Health Division
https://www.ibiology.org/genetics-and-gene-regulation/transcription-factors/#part-2 Transcription, the conversion of DNA to RNA, is one of the most fundamental processes in cell biology. However, only about 3% of our total DNA encodes genes to be transcribed. RNA polymerase II, the enzyme that transcribes DNA to RNA, relies on a large set of proteins known as transcription factors to recognize the coding sequences and to transcribe the correct genes, in the correct cell type, at the correct time. In Part 1 of his lecture, Tjian gives an overview of the complex and critical role that transcription factors play in regulating gene expression. How do different cells from the same organism, such as muscle cells, neurons and red blood cells, all of which have identical DNA, have such different phenotypes? Tjian addresses this question in his second lecture, where he expands on the mechanisms of gene regulation.
Views: 27903 iBiology
https://www.ibiology.org/development-and-stem-cells/planarian/#part-3 Outline: During growth and regeneration, planarians face intrinsic problems of scale and proportion. Sánchez Alvarado provides evidence that planarian stem cells, or neoblasts, are truly totipotent. Surprisingly neoblasts undergo acentriolar mitosis. Dr. Sánchez Alvarado argues that understudied, non-model organisms could provide us with insights into previously unknown biological processes. Talk Description: Planarians are free-living flatworms best known for their amazing ability to regenerate an entire organism from a tiny piece of tissue and the ability to “shrink”, by losing cells, during starvation. In his first lecture, Dr. Sánchez Alvarado discusses the intrinsic problems of scale and proportion that face planarians during growth and regeneration. How do these organisms increase and decrease their cell number without perturbing the functionality of the different tissues? How do they regenerate a specific organ and how does it integrate and function properly? By performing an RNAi screen of the planarian pharynx, Sánchez Alvarado and his lab were able to identify genes required for different steps in these complex processes. In his second video, Sánchez Alvarado focuses on neoblasts, the planarian’s stem cells. By identifying genetic markers for each stage of stem cell differentiation (pre, early, late and terminal differentiation), Sánchez Alvarado’s lab was able to show that neoblasts are truly totipotent, giving rise to all cell types. Surprisingly, they also demonstrated for the first time that planarian neoblasts undergo acentriolar mitosis, a process previously known to occur only during meiotic cell division in animals. Scientists, influenced by grants and resources, are focusing their studies on a small number of model organisms. Sánchez Alvarado argues that the diverse array of understudied organisms could provide us with insights into previously unknown biological processes. By comparing excretory pathways, Sánchez Alvarado demonstrated extensive topological and genetic similarities between vertebrate kidneys and planaria protonephridia. In fact, mutations that cause human polycystic kidney disease induce similar pathologies in planarians. These findings reflect on the ability of non-traditional model organisms to provide insight into biology and human disease. Speaker Biography: Dr. Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado is an Investigator at the Stowers Institute for Medical Research in Kansas City, MO and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. He is also co-director of the summer course on embryology at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, MA. Sánchez Alvarado moved from Venezuela and received his Bachelor’s degree in Molecular Biology and Chemistry from Vanderbilt University and his Ph.D. in Pharmacology and Cell Biophysics from the University of Cincinnati School of Medicine. In 1994, he joined the laboratory of Dr. Donald D. Brown at the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Department of Embryology as a postdoctoral fellow and in 1995 was appointed Staff Associate. It was during this period that Sánchez Alvarado began to explore systems in which to molecularly dissect the problem of regeneration. From 2002-2011, Sánchez Alvarado was a faculty member in the Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy at the University of Utah School of Medicine. Today his lab uses planarians to explore the processes that govern regeneration. He is interested in the molecular mechanisms by which this organism keeps the integrity of its different tissues during the process of regeneration and growth. Sánchez Alvarado was the recipient of a Merit Award from the National Institutes of Health and the E.E. Just Award from the American Society for Cell Biology and he was a Kavli Fellow of the National Science Foundation. Sánchez Alvarado was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2015.
Views: 1271 iBiology
Sylvia Earle, Marine Biologist; Explorer-in-Residence and Rosemary and Roger Enrico Chair for Ocean Exploration, National Geographic Society Justine O’Brien, Scientific Director, SeaWorld and Busch Gardens Reproductive Research Center, SeaWorld Parks & Entertainment Edward O. Wilson, University Research Professor, Emeritus, Harvard University Moderated by James Hanken, Professor of Biology, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology; Curator in Herpetology, Alexander Agassiz Professor of Zoology, and Director, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University The upcoming film, Saving Eden from the Sixth Extinction, tells the story of how animals such as northern white rhinos, polar bears, African elephants, and bonobos have been pushed to the brink of extinction and it highlights the critical work that scientists and activists are doing to save these species. Biologists Edward Wilson, Sylvia Earle, and Justine O’Brien—all featured in the film—will discuss how their research is helping to save endangered species and share their views on animal conservation efforts. Presented in collaboration with Direct Cinema Limited. Thursday, September 22, 2016
Views: 181 Harvard Museum of Natural History
A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours. These 24-hour rhythms are driven by a circadian clock, and they have been widely observed in plants, animals, fungi, and cyanobacteria. The term circadian comes from the Latin circa, meaning "around" , and diēm, meaning "day". The formal study of biological temporal rhythms, such as daily, tidal, weekly, seasonal, and annual rhythms, is called chronobiology. Processes with 24-hour oscillations are more generally called diurnal rhythms; strictly speaking, they should not be called circadian rhythms unless their endogenous nature is confirmed. Although circadian rhythms are endogenous , they are adjusted to the local environment by external cues called zeitgebers , which include light, temperature and redox cycles. In medical science, an abnormal circadian rhythm in humans is known as circadian rhythm disorder. In 2017, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was... http://www.wikividi.com ____________________________________ Shortcuts to chapters: 00:01:33: History 00:04:09: Origin 00:08:39: Importance in animals 00:09:18: Effect of circadian disruption 00:10:06: Effect of light–dark cycle 00:11:42: Arctic animals 00:12:56: Butterfly migration 00:13:16: In plants 00:17:36: Biological clock in mammals 00:19:47: Humans 00:20:46: Biological markers and effects 00:23:46: Outside the "master clock" 00:24:48: Light and the biological clock 00:25:15: Enforced longer cycles 00:26:09: Human health 00:27:11: Indoor lighting 00:27:43: Obesity and diabetes 00:28:43: Airline pilots (and cabin crew) 00:29:24: Disruption 00:30:36: Effect of drugs ____________________________________ Copyright WikiVidi. Licensed under Creative Commons. Wikipedia link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circadian_rhythm
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