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Solving pedigree genetics problems
 
12:27
Once you have a background in pedigree conventions, this video should provide you with the tools to evaluate a pedigree to determine if a given trait could be autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or X-linked recessive.
Views: 247287 BiologyMonk
Learn Biology: How to Draw a Punnett Square
 
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Check out Bas Rutten's Liver Shot on MMA Surge: http://bit.ly/MMASurgeEp1 A Punnett square is used to predict the chances of an offspring to have its parents' traits. These squares are most commonly divided into four parts, with each part equalling a 25% chance of the offspring receiving that set of genes. More complicated squares may have more than four parts, though the same basic method applies. The letters surrounding and within each square represent alleles. They are one part of a gene pair occupying a specific part of a chromosome. All dominate alleles have capital letters, while the recessive ones are lowercase. Dominate alleles will always overpower recessive ones in the expression of the gene. If the alleles for a parent do not match, they are known as heterozygous. In the image above the Gg is heterozygous. This can happen if there is a dominate and a recessive gene in the parent. If the alleles are the same for that expressed gene, it is known as homozygous. This is seen if both alleles are dominate or if both alleles are recessive; e.g., GG or gg. In order for a recessive gene to be expressed, the alleles must be homozygous. Step 1: --------------------------------------------------------------------- Draw the Punnett square. This is done by drawing a square, followed by a straight line up and down and another from side to side. This will quarter, or create 4 equally sized boxes within the square. Step 2: --------------------------------------------------------------------- Place the father's alleles on the top of the Punnett square with one letter above each box. Place the mother's alleles on the left hand side of the square, with one letter in front of each box. Be sure to use capital letters for the dominate genes and lower case letters for the recessive alleles. For this example, let's say this square represents the color of a flower. The father has one dominant blue and one recessive orange allele. The mother has two recessive orange alleles. Step 3: --------------------------------------------------------------------- Drop the father's alleles down into the squares and bring the mother's across. This will provide you with all possible combinations of alleles for the offspring. Each square represents a 25% chance of the offspring having that combination. If there are squares with the same cominations in them, the squares can be added together to determine the percentage. Conclusion: --------------------------------------------------------------------- From the completed square above, we can see that 50% of offspring will be blue since any dominant allele paired with a recessive one will win. There are, however, two homozygous combinations in which both genes are recessive, so 50% of the offspring will be orange. This means that half of the offspring will be blue, while the other half will be orange. Easy, right? Read more by visiting our page at: http://www.mahalo.com/how-to-draw-a-punnett-square/
Views: 1016412 mahalodotcom
Test Cross (Determining Genotype)
 
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Donate here: http://www.aklectures.com/donate.php Website video link: http://www.aklectures.com/lecture/test-cross Facebook link: https://www.facebook.com/aklectures Website link: http://www.aklectures.com
Views: 68934 AK LECTURES
Pedigrees, Patterns of Genetic Inheritance, Autosomal Dominant Recessive X-Linked Mitocondrial
 
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http://www.stomponstep1.com/pedigrees-patterns-of-genetic-inheritance/ Before you watch this video you should really watch the previous video in the section which covers Types of Inheritance (http://www.stomponstep1.com/genetic-inheritance-autosomal-dominant-x-linked-recessive-mitochondrial-disease/) Pedigrees are graphical representations of ancestry with respect to one or more disease(s). Males are represented with a square while females are represented with a circle. The shape is black/filled in if the individual is affected by the disease. The shape is empty/white if the individual is not affected by the disease (may be unaffected or carrier). Usually each generation (row) is labeled with a roman numeral while each individual is labeled with a number. Autosomal Dominant Autosomal recessive X linked recessive Mitochondrial Now that you are done with this video you should check out the next video in the Genetics section which covers Purine Salvage Pathway & Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome(http://www.stomponstep1.com/purine-salvage-pathway-lesch-nyhan-syndrome/)
Views: 102565 Stomp On Step 1
Pedigree Analysis 1: How to solve a genetic pedigree No. 1
 
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Biology teacher Andrew Douch explains how to systematically study a genetic pedigree, to determine the most likely mode of inheritance.
Views: 700926 Andrew Douch
Pedigree Analysis for Autosomal Dominant Traits
 
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Donate here: http://www.aklectures.com/donate.php Website video link: http://www.aklectures.com/lecture/pedigree-analysis-for-autosomal-dominant-traits Facebook link: https://www.facebook.com/aklectures Website link: http://www.aklectures.com
Views: 22158 AK LECTURES
Pedigree
 
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Dr. Phoenix shows how to read pedigrees and how to determine the genotypes of individuals on the pedigree. Please click the link to go to the updated version of this video here: https://youtu.be/r2WRipen-do
Views: 14980 Glenn E Phoenix, DC
Calculating probabilities
 
16:26
This video summarizes how to calculate probabilities when approaching pedigree and inheritance problems in Genetics.
Views: 22099 Dr. Marina Crowder
How to solve pedigree probability problems
 
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More of my videos on the topic: How to read a pedigree like a pro https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5OlpOEC9vQ8 How to read a pedigree like a pro - 2 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vxl-18BaUag How to read a pedigree like a pro - 3 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0pYj00896p4 How to read a pedigree like a pro - 4 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kHlxYBlM3fA How to read a pedigree like a pro - 5 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3Dia_W0ky-I How to read a pedigree like a pro - 6 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0CXI3r0NC2Q A pedigree chart is a diagram that shows the occurrence and appearance or phenotypes of a particular gene or organism and its ancestors from one generation to the next, most commonly humans, show dogs, and race horses. The word pedigree is a corruption of the French "pied de grue" or crane's foot, because the typical lines and split lines (each split leading to different offspring of the one parent line) resemble the thin leg and foot of a crane. A Pedigree results in the presentation of family information in the form of an easily readable chart. Pedigrees use a standardized set of symbols, squares represent males and circles represent females. Pedigree construction is a family history, and details about an earlier generation may be uncertain as memories fade. If the sex of the person is unknown a diamond is used. Someone with the phenotype in question is represented by a filled-in (darker) symbol. Heterozygotes, when identifiable, are indicated by a shade dot inside a symbol or a half-filled symbol. Relationships in a pedigree are shown as a series of lines. Parents are connected by a horizontal line and a vertical line leads to their offspring. The offspring are connected by a horizontal sibship line and listed in birth order from left to right. If the offspring are twins then they will be connected by a triangle. If an offspring dies then its symbol will be crossed by a line. If the offspring is still born or aborted it is represented by a small triangle. Each generation is identified by a Roman numeral (I, II, III, and so on), and each individual within the same generation is identified by an Arabic number (1, 2, 3, and so on). Analysis of the pedigree using the principles of Mendelian inheritance can determine whether a trait has a dominant or recessive pattern of inheritance. Pedigrees are often constructed after a family member afflicted with a genetic disorder has been identified. This individual, known as the proband, is indicated on the pedigree by an arrow.
Autosomal Recessive vs. Autosomal Dominance
 
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This video will compare and contrast autosomal recessive and autosomal dominance inheritance patterns. Keywords: Genetics Gene Allele Heredity Punnett square Genotype Phenotype Homozygous Heterozygous Cystic fibrosis Sickle cell PKU Albinism Huntington's disease Mendel Autosome Chromosome Karyotype Inheritance
Views: 69647 Beverly Biology
Pedigrees
 
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Explore autosomal recessive trait and X-linked recessive trait tracking in pedigrees with the Amoeba Sisters! Matching handout available here: http://www.amoebasisters.com/handouts.html. See table of contents by expanding details! 👇 Table of Contents: Introducing Symbols/Numbering in Pedigree 0:40 Meaning of Shading in Shapes 1:19 Introducing Pedigree Tracking Autosomal Recessive Trait 2:44 Working with Pedigree Tracking Autosomal Recessive Trait 4:07 X-Linked Pedigree 6:45 What is Meant by "Half-Shading" Shapes in Pedigree? 9:01 Support us on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/amoebasisters Our FREE resources: GIFs: http://www.amoebasisters.com/gifs.html Handouts: http://www.amoebasisters.com/handouts.html Comics: http://www.amoebasisters.com/parameciumparlorcomics Connect with us! Website: http://www.AmoebaSisters.com Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/AmoebaSisters Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/AmoebaSisters Tumblr: http://www.amoebasisters.tumblr.com Pinterest: http://www.pinterest.com/AmoebaSister­s Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/amoebasistersofficial/ Visit our Redbubble store at http://www.amoebasisters.com/store.html The Amoeba Sisters videos demystify science with humor and relevance. The videos center on Pinky's certification and experience in teaching science at the high school level. Pinky's teacher certification is in grades 4-8 science and 8-12 composite science (encompassing biology, chemistry, and physics). Amoeba Sisters videos only cover concepts that Pinky is certified to teach, and they focus on her specialty: secondary life science. For more information about The Amoeba Sisters, visit: http://www.amoebasisters.com/about-us.html We cover the basics in biology concepts at the secondary level. If you are looking to discover more about biology and go into depth beyond these basics, our recommended reference is the FREE, peer reviewed, open source OpenStax biology textbook: https://openstax.org/details/books/biology We take pride in our AWESOME community, and we welcome feedback and discussion. However, please remember that this is an education channel. See YouTube's community guidelines https://www.youtube.com/yt/policyandsafety/communityguidelines.html and YouTube's policy center https://support.google.com/youtube/topic/2676378?hl=en&ref_topic=6151248. We also reserve the right to remove comments with vulgar language. Music is this video is listed free to use/no attribution required from the YouTube audio library https://www.youtube.com/audiolibrary/music?feature=blog We have YouTube's community contributed subtitles feature on to allow translations for different languages. YouTube automatically credits the different language contributors below (unless the contributor had opted out of being credited). We are thankful for those that contribute different languages. If you have a concern about community contributed contributions, please contact us.
Views: 390535 Amoeba Sisters
Introduction to Heredity
 
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Heredity and Classical Genetics. Dominant and recessive traits. Heterozygous and homozygous genotypes. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=eEUvRrhmcxM
Views: 1159602 Khan Academy
How to read a pedigree
 
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Dr. Phoenix discusses how to read a pedigree chart and how to determine the genotypes of the individuals on the chart.
Views: 1190 Glenn E Phoenix, DC
Determining Inheritance Patterns - Genetics Pedigree Analysis
 
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Watch the updated video, it's shorter! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1SZEXbBcYCc This video is a flowchart walk-through for determining inheritance patterns of genetic disorders from a pedigree chart.
Views: 9891 VirgilARicks
Pedigree analysis | How to solve pedigree problems?
 
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Pedigree analysis technique and rule - This lecture explains how to solve pedigree problems. With the help of few easy tricks and techniques you can solve any pedigree problems in minutes by applying the knowledge of pedigree analysis described in this video lecture. So watch this video and solve pedigree problems fast. For more information, log on to- http://www.shomusbiology.com/ Get Shomu's Biology DVD set here- http://www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.com/bio-materials.html Remember Shomu’s Biology is created to spread the knowledge of life science and biology by sharing all this free biology lectures video and animation presented by Suman Bhattacharjee in YouTube. All these tutorials are brought to you for free. Please subscribe to our channel so that we can grow together. You can check for any of the following services from Shomu’s Biology- Buy Shomu’s Biology lecture DVD set- www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store Shomu’s Biology assignment services – www.shomusbiology.com/assignment -help Join Online coaching for CSIR NET exam – www.shomusbiology.com/net-coaching We are social. Find us on different sites here- Our Website – www.shomusbiology.com Facebook page- https://www.facebook.com/ShomusBiology/ Twitter - https://twitter.com/shomusbiology SlideShare- www.slideshare.net/shomusbiology Google plus- https://plus.google.com/113648584982732129198 LinkedIn - https://www.linkedin.com/in/suman-bhattacharjee-2a051661 Youtube- https://www.youtube.com/user/TheFunsuman Thank you for watching the genetics lecture on Pedigree analysis and How to solve pedigree problems?
Views: 241359 Shomu's Biology
Pedigree analysis- autosomal dominant
 
15:30
This video about pedigree analysis explains how to analyze pedigree charts and family tree studies for autosomal dominant inheritance of a disease. For more information, log on to- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/bio-materials.html
Views: 76142 Shomu's Biology
Autosomal and X Linked Inheritance
 
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This lecture explains about the the autosomal and x linked inheritance. This video explains the properties of sex linked inheritance and the genetics pedigree. Autosomal trait is the one where the gene responsible for the trait is carried by Autosomes or body cell chromosomes. Sex linked trait or X linked trait is the one where the gene responsible for the trait is carried by X chromosomes. So most of the X linked trait is predominant ion male as males have only one X chromosome. For more information, log on to- http://www.shomusbiology.com/ Get Shomu's Biology DVD set here- http://www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.com/bio-materials.html Remember Shomu’s Biology is created to spread the knowledge of life science and biology by sharing all this free biology lectures video and animation presented by Suman Bhattacharjee in YouTube. All these tutorials are brought to you for free. Please subscribe to our channel so that we can grow together. You can check for any of the following services from Shomu’s Biology- Buy Shomu’s Biology lecture DVD set- www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store Shomu’s Biology assignment services – www.shomusbiology.com/assignment -help Join Online coaching for CSIR NET exam – www.shomusbiology.com/net-coaching We are social. Find us on different sites here- Our Website – www.shomusbiology.com Facebook page- https://www.facebook.com/ShomusBiology/ Twitter - https://twitter.com/shomusbiology SlideShare- www.slideshare.net/shomusbiology Google plus- https://plus.google.com/113648584982732129198 LinkedIn - https://www.linkedin.com/in/suman-bhattacharjee-2a051661 Youtube- https://www.youtube.com/user/TheFunsuman Thank you for watching the video lecture on Autosomal and X Linked Inheritance.
Views: 54551 Shomu's Biology
Pedigree Notes   Analyzing the Genotypes
 
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This video walks you through how to determine the genotypes of a person based on a pedigree.
Views: 1637 Katie D
Pedigree Analysis methods - dominant, recessive and x linked pedigree
 
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Pedigree analysis by suman bhattacharjee - This lecture explains about the different rules of pedigree analysis. It explains how to find a pedigree based on characteristics with examples as dominant pedigree, recessive pedigree and x linked pedigree. Dominant inheritance - affect shown in every generation recessive inheritance - skips generation X linked recessive trait - Male offspring are affected more. For more information, log on to- http://www.shomusbiology.com/ Get Shomu's Biology DVD set here- http://www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.com/bio-materials.html Remember Shomu’s Biology is created to spread the knowledge of life science and biology by sharing all this free biology lectures video and animation presented by Suman Bhattacharjee in YouTube. All these tutorials are brought to you for free. Please subscribe to our channel so that we can grow together. You can check for any of the following services from Shomu’s Biology- Buy Shomu’s Biology lecture DVD set- www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store Shomu’s Biology assignment services – www.shomusbiology.com/assignment -help Join Online coaching for CSIR NET exam – www.shomusbiology.com/net-coaching We are social. Find us on different sites here- Our Website – www.shomusbiology.com Facebook page- https://www.facebook.com/ShomusBiology/ Twitter - https://twitter.com/shomusbiology SlideShare- www.slideshare.net/shomusbiology Google plus- https://plus.google.com/113648584982732129198 LinkedIn - https://www.linkedin.com/in/suman-bhattacharjee-2a051661 Youtube- https://www.youtube.com/user/TheFunsuman Thank you for watching
Views: 97355 Shomu's Biology
Punnett Squares and Sex-Linked Traits
 
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Explore inheritance when carried on the X chromosome with the Amoeba Sisters! This video has a handout here: http://www.amoebasisters.com/handouts.html This video focuses on how to do general Punnett square problems that involve traits on the sex chromosomes (X and Y chromosomes). We do want to point out though that when it comes to biological sex- it can be influenced by more than just sex chromosomes X and Y. For example, the SRY gene, plays a major role in human biological sex determination. While this video only focuses on solving sex-linked trait problems in a Punnett square, here are some further reading suggestions to learn about the SRY gene and its role in biological sex. Further Reading Suggestions: (Updated 2018)********** About SRY Gene from NIH: https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/gene/SRY About SRY and Sex Determination from Harvard: http://sitn.hms.harvard.edu/flash/2016/im-xy-know-sex-determination-systems-101/ *************************************************************** Support us on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/amoebasisters Our FREE resources: GIFs: http://www.amoebasisters.com/gifs.html Handouts: http://www.amoebasisters.com/handouts.html Comics: http://www.amoebasisters.com/parameciumparlorcomics Connect with us! Website: http://www.AmoebaSisters.com Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/AmoebaSisters Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/AmoebaSisters Tumblr: http://www.amoebasisters.tumblr.com Pinterest: http://www.pinterest.com/AmoebaSister­s Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/amoebasistersofficial/ Visit our Redbubble store at http://www.amoebasisters.com/store.html The Amoeba Sisters videos demystify science with humor and relevance. The videos center on Pinky's certification and experience in teaching science at the high school level. Pinky's teacher certification is in grades 4-8 science and 8-12 composite science (encompassing biology, chemistry, and physics). Amoeba Sisters videos only cover concepts that Pinky is certified to teach, and they focus on her specialty: secondary life science. For more information about The Amoeba Sisters, visit: http://www.amoebasisters.com/about-us.html We cover the basics in biology concepts at the secondary level. If you are looking to discover more about biology and go into depth beyond these basics, our recommended reference is the FREE, peer reviewed, open source OpenStax biology textbook: https://openstax.org/details/books/biology We take pride in our AWESOME community, and we welcome feedback and discussion. However, please remember that this is an education channel. See YouTube's community guidelines https://www.youtube.com/yt/policyandsafety/communityguidelines.html and YouTube's policy center https://support.google.com/youtube/topic/2676378?hl=en&ref_topic=6151248. We also reserve the right to remove comments with vulgar language. Music is this video is listed free to use/no attribution required from the YouTube audio library https://www.youtube.com/audiolibrary/music?feature=blog We have YouTube's community contributed subtitles feature on to allow translations for different languages. YouTube automatically credits the different language contributors below (unless the contributor had opted out of being credited). We are thankful for those that contribute different languages. If you have a concern about community contributed contributions, please contact us.
Views: 679371 Amoeba Sisters
Inheritance Patterns | Reading Pedigree Charts
 
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Thanks for stopping by, today we are going to discuss how to determine inheritance patterns, so essentially how to read a pedigree chart. Like this one. If you are unfamiliar with pedigree charts or Mendelian genetics, you should watch some other videos before this one. We are going to create a flowchart to solve pedigrees, so you’ll simply take any given pedigree chart through a series of questions until you determine the inheritance pattern. And a note here, this flowchart we are going to build has a high degree of accuracy, but is not foolproof, the random nature of genetics make it impossible to be 100%. So let’s get started, the first two questions you’ll ask are, Are only males affected? AND are all sons of an affected father affected? If the answer is yes, then the pattern is Y linked, meaning a genetic disorder affiliated with the y chromosome. Only males possess a Y chromosome, so that means all males receive their Y chromosome from their father. A Y linked trait will never show up in males without affected father. If you reach this point, you have your solution. If the answer is no, Then we ask if there are there any cases were affected children do not have at least one affected parent. If yes, it’s recessive though we don’t know what type. Being recessive, they must have two affected alleles in order to express the disorder, therefore, an affected child can have unaffected parents because they're both carries. However, it is possible that their parents could still be affected. If the answer is no, then it is a dominant disorder, and thus an affected child must have an affected parent. You should note that dominant patterns usually see someone affected in every generation in each affected linage, this means that once you see an affected parent, you will usually see it in every generation thereafter. It doesn’t skip generations very often. Moving down the recessive line we need to ask two more questions. Are all sons of affected mother infected? And are more males affected in general? If yes, it is X-linked recessive, meaning it’s attached to the X chromosome, since males only have one X chromosome, they are more likely to show, whereas females have two Xs, so a good one can mask the mutated one. Also, Males always receive their X chromosome from their mother, so if she is affected, she will have two X chromosomes with the mutation, and all sons are guaranteed to end up with it. If the answer is no, then it is autosomal recessive by default. Essentially, males and females are affected evenly, and affected mothers have unaffected sons. Moving on down the dominant line, we ask Are all of the daughters of an affected father affected? If yes, then it is X linked dominant, males only have one X chromosome, which goes to their daughter, so all their daughters will have that mutation. If no, then it is autosomal dominant by default. If there is a case where an affected father has an unaffected daughter, or an affected daughter has an unaffected father, you know it can’t be X linked, because the father only has one X and that will always to go to the daughter. So this is the whole flow chart, eventually I’ll make a website and have a downloadable PDF available. I’ll link that in the comments whenever I get to making it. In the meantime, subscribe to my channel so that you’re around when I do create my website. Thanks for watching, I’ll catch you next time.
Views: 4960 2 Minute Classroom
Heredity: Crash Course Biology #9
 
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Hank and his brother John discuss heredity via the gross example of relative ear wax moistness. Crash Course Biology is now available on DVD! http://dftba.com/product/1av/CrashCourse-Biology-The-Complete-Series-DVD-Set Like CrashCourse on Facebook! http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Follow CrashCourse on Twitter! http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse This video uses sounds from Freesound.org, a list of which can be found, along with the REFERENCES for this episode, in the Google document here: http://dft.ba/-2dlR tags: crashcourse, science, biology, evolution, genetics, heredity, aristotle, bloodlines, gregor mendel, mendelian genetics, mendelian trait, classical genetics, chromosome, gene, polygenic, pleiotropic, allele, ear wax gene, somatic, diploid, gametes, sperm, egg, haploid, polyploid, dominance, dominant, recessive, heterozygous, homozygous, phenotype, punnett square, reginald c. punnett, sex-linked inheritance, autosome Support CrashCourse on Subbable: http://subbable.com/crashcourse
Views: 2761309 CrashCourse
Genetic Inheritance, Autosomal Dominant, X-linked Recessive, Mitochondrial Disease Polygenic mtDNA
 
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http://www.stomponstep1.com/genetic-inheritance-autosomal-dominant-x-linked-recessive-mitochondrial-disease/ Autosomal Dominant Inheritance is when one allele, on any chromosome other than X or Y, is expressed over another allele of the same gene. This allele determines the phenotype (observable characteristics) and is referred to as dominant. The allele that is does not affect the phenotype is referred to as recessive. The dominant allele is often given the capital letter for a character while the recessive allele is given the lower case. Therefore, a heterozygous individual who is a carrier for the recessive gene would be represented as Aa. Usually on a pedigree nearly every generation has an affected individual. Autosomal Recessive Inheritance is basically the opposite of autosomal dominant. Recessive alleles only change the phenotype when there is no dominant allele present. Heterozygous individuals do not show the phenotype of the recessive allele, but can pass this allele on to their offspring. These heterozygous individuals are called carriers. Usually on a pedigree few individuals are affected. X Linked Recessive Inheritance is a type of recessive inheritance for genes on the X chromosome. Males express the phenotype when they inherit 1 effected allele, while females need to inherit 2 effected alleles. This is because the gene lies on the X chromosome, and males only receive a single X while females receive 2. Males cannot pass the effected X allele onto sons, because a son must receive a Y from the father to be male. Males are affected far more often than females. Women are very rarely affected by these disorders, and are primarily heterozygous carriers when they have the gene. Mitochondria have DNA (mtDNA) that is circular and separate from the chromosomes in the nucleus. Mitochondrial Inheritance is only through the mothers and the fathers mitochondrial DNA is not passed onto children. Heterosplasmy is when a single individual has more than 1 type of mitochondrial DNA in their body due to mutations. The most common disease with this type of inheritance is Mitochondrial Myopathy which presents with "Ragged Red" muscle fibers on biopsy Polygenic or Multifactorial Inheritance is when the phenotype is not dictated by a single gene locus. These types of diseases are determined by an interaction between many contributing genetic and environmental factors. Variable Expressivity = same genetic defect presents differently in different patients. Neurofibromatosis is an example Mosaicism = when populations of cells within a single individual have different genotypes due to post-fertilization changes. Often in reference to chromosomal abnormalities caused by improper mitosis. Germline Mosacism is when only gametes (sperm and eggs) are affected by the genetic defect. Therefore, the individual would not show signs of the disease, but they could pass it on to their offspring Pleiotrophy = a single genetic defect has multiple effects (same gene is expressed in many different tissues) Incomplete Penetrance = not everyone with genetic defect gets the disease. Low penetrance means many people with the genotype do not show the phenotype Pictures Used (In order of appearance) • "Autosomal Dominant" by Domaina available at ttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Autosomal_dominant_-_en.svg via Creative Commons 3.0 Attribution Share Alike • "XlinkedRecessive" by US National Library of Medicine available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:XlinkRecessive.jpg via Public Domain • "Mitochondrial" By US National Library of Medicine available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mitochondrial.jpg by Public Domain
Views: 52949 Stomp On Step 1
Pedigrees | Classical genetics | High school biology | Khan Academy
 
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An introduction to reading and analyzing pedigrees. View more lessons or practice this subject at https://www.khanacademy.org/science/high-school-biology/hs-classical-genetics/hs-pedigrees/v/pedigrees?utm_source=youtube&utm_medium=desc&utm_campaign=highschoolbiology Khan Academy is a nonprofit organization with the mission of providing a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere. We offer quizzes, questions, instructional videos, and articles on a range of academic subjects, including math, biology, chemistry, physics, history, economics, finance, grammar, preschool learning, and more. We provide teachers with tools and data so they can help their students develop the skills, habits, and mindsets for success in school and beyond. Khan Academy has been translated into dozens of languages, and 15 million people around the globe learn on Khan Academy every month. As a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization, we would love your help! Donate or volunteer today! Donate here: https://www.khanacademy.org/donate?utm_source=youtube&utm_medium=desc Volunteer here: https://www.khanacademy.org/contribute?utm_source=youtube&utm_medium=desc
Views: 12419 Khan Academy
Genetics Pedigree  Chart Analysis
 
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Using a pedigree for a family with Huntington’s Disease (Autosomal Dominant Disorder). Assign notation and determine the genotypes of each person in this pedigree with respect to Huntington’s Disease
Inheritance of autosomal dominant trait
 
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A genetic carrier (or just carrier), is a person or other organism that has inherited a recessive allele for a genetic trait or mutation but does not display that trait or show symptoms of the disease. Carriers are, however, able to pass the allele onto their offspring, who may then express the gene if they inherit the recessive allele from both parents. The chance of two carriers having a child with the disease is 25%. This phenomenon is a direct result of the recessive nature of many genes. Punnett square depicting a cross between two genetic carriers. The chance of two genetic carriers having a child with two copies of the recessive gene, thus being homozygous recessive, is 25%. Examples: - Cystic fibrosis - Sickle cell anemia
Dominant vs Recessive Traits
 
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Learn how dominant and recessive human traits are represented and interact with each other
Views: 94223 ScinceGonnaGetYou
Complete, Incomplete Dominance and Codominance - difference explained
 
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Complete dominance Complete dominance occurs when the phenotype of the heterozygote is completely indistinguishable from that of the dominant homozygote. Incomplete and semi-dominance Incomplete dominance (also called partial dominance) occurs when the phenotype of the heterozygous genotype is distinct from and often intermediate to the phenotypes of the homozygous genotypes. For example, the snapdragon flower color is either homozygous for red or white. When the red homozygous flower is paired with the white homozygous flower, the result yields a pink snapdragon flower. The pink snapdragon is the result of incomplete dominance. A similar type of incomplete dominance is found in the four o'clock plant wherein pink color is produced when true-bred parents of white and red flowers are crossed. In quantitative genetics, where phenotypes are measured and treated numerically, if a heterozygote's phenotype is exactly between (numerically) that of the two homozygotes, the phenotype is said to exhibit no dominance at all, i.e. dominance exists only when the heterozygote's phenotype measure lies closer to one homozygote than the other. When plants of the F1 generation are self-pollinated, the phenotypic and genotypic ratio of the F2 generation will be 1:2:1 (Red:Pink:White) for both generations. Co-dominance occurs when the contributions of both alleles are visible in the phenotype. To indicate that two alleles are co-dominant (and that neither is dominant over the other), they are both written in upper-case, with a superscript to indicate the different alleles. For example, in the ABO blood group system, chemical modifications to a glycoprotein (the H antigen) on the surfaces of blood cells are controlled by three alleles, two which are co-dominant to each other (IA, IB) and dominant over the recessive i at the ABO locus. The IA and IB alleles produce different modifications. The enzyme coded for by IA adds an N-acetylgalactosamine to the membrane-bound H antigen. The IB enzyme adds a galactose. The i allele produces no modification. Thus IA and IB alleles are each dominant to i (IAIA and IAi individuals both have type A blood, and IBIB and IBi individuals both have type B blood. But IAIB individuals have both modifications on their blood cells and thus have type AB blood, so the IA and IB alleles are said to be co-dominant.) Another example occurs at the locus for the Beta-globin component of hemoglobin, where the three molecular phenotypes of HbA/HbA, HbA/HbS, and HbS/HbS are all distinguishable by protein electrophoresis. (The medical condition produced by the heterozygous genotype is called sickle-cell trait and is a milder condition distinguishable from sickle-cell anemia, thus the alleles show incomplete dominance with respect to anemia, see above). For most gene loci at the molecular level, both alleles are expressed co-dominantly, because both are transcribed into RNA. Co-dominance, where allelic products co-exist in the phenotype, is different from incomplete or semi-dominance, where the quantitative interaction of allele products produces an intermediate phenotype. For example in Co-dominance, a red homozygous flower and a white homozygous flower will produce offspring that have red and white spots. When plants of the F1 generation are self-pollinated, the phenotypic and genotypic ratio of the F2 generation will be 1:2:1 (Red:Spotted:White). These ratios are the same as those for incomplete dominance. Again, note that this classical terminology is inappropriate - in reality such cases should not be said to exhibit dominance at all.
How to calculate a genotype with a Rule of Probability
 
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The laws of probability govern Mendelian inheritance Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment reflect the same laws of probability that apply to tossing coins or rolling dice. The probability scale ranges from 0 (an event with no chance of occurring) to 1 (an event that is certain to occur). The probability of tossing heads with a normal coin is 1/2. The probability of rolling a 3 with a six-sided die is 1/6, and the probability of rolling any other number is 1 ? 1/6 = 5/6. When tossing a coin, the outcome of one toss has no impact on the outcome of the next toss. Each toss is an independent event, just like the distribution of alleles into gametes. Like a coin toss, each ovum from a heterozygous parent has a 1/2 chance of carrying the dominant allele and a 1/2 chance of carrying the recessive allele. The same odds apply to the sperm. We can use the multiplication rule to determine the chance that two or more independent events will occur together in some specific combination. Compute the probability of each independent event. Multiply the individual probabilities to obtain the overall probability of these events occurring together. The probability that two coins tossed at the same time will land heads up is 1/2 × 1/2 = 1/4. Similarly, the probability that a heterozygous pea plant (Pp) will self-fertilize to produce a white-flowered offspring (pp) is the chance that a sperm with a white allele will fertilize an ovum with a white allele. This probability is 1/2 × 1/2 = 1/4. The rule of multiplication also applies to dihybrid crosses. For a heterozygous parent (YyRr) the probability of producing a YR gamete is 1/2 × 1/2 = 1/4. We can use this to predict the probability of a particular F2 genotype without constructing a 16-part Punnett square. The probability that an F2 plant from heterozygous parents will have a YYRR genotype is 1/16 (1/4 chance for a YR ovum and 1/4 chance for a YR sperm). The rule of addition also applies to genetic problems. Under the rule of addition, the probability of an event that can occur two or more different ways is the sum of the separate probabilities of those ways. For example, there are two ways that F1 gametes can combine to form a heterozygote. The dominant allele could come from the sperm and the recessive from the ovum (probability = 1/4). Or the dominant allele could come from the ovum and the recessive from the sperm (probability = 1/4). The probability of obtaining a heterozygote is 1/4 + 1/4 = 1/2. We can combine the rules of multiplication and addition to solve complex problems in Mendelian genetics. Let's determine the probability of an offspring having two recessive phenotypes for at least two of three traits resulting from a trihybrid cross between pea plants that are PpYyRr and Ppyyrr. There are five possible genotypes that fulfill this condition: ppyyRr, ppYyrr, Ppyyrr, PPyyrr, and ppyyrr. We can use the rule of multiplication to calculate the probability for each of these genotypes and then use the rule of addition to pool the probabilities for fulfilling the condition of at least two recessive traits. The probability of producing a ppyyRr offspring: The probability of producing pp = 1/2 × 1/2 = 1/4. The probability of producing yy = 1/2 × 1 = 1/2. The probability of producing Rr = 1/2 × 1 = 1/2. Therefore, the probability of all three being present (ppyyRr) in one offspring is 1/4 × 1/2 × 1/2 = 1/16. For ppYyrr: 1/4 × 1/2 × 1/2 = 1/16. For Ppyyrr: 1/2 × 1/2 × 1/2 = 1/8 or 2/16. For PPyyrr: 1/4 × 1/2 × 1/2 = 1/16. For ppyyrr: 1/4 × 1/2 × 1/2 = 1/16. Therefore, the chance that a given offspring will have at least two recessive traits is 1/16 + 2/16 + 1/16 + 1/16 = 6/16. Mendel discovered the particulate behavior of genes: a review. While we cannot predict with certainty the genotype or phenotype of any particular seed from the F2 generation of a dihybrid cross, we can predict the probability that it will have a specific genotype or phenotype. Mendel's experiments succeeded because he counted so many offspring, was able to discern the statistical nature of inheritance, and had a keen sense of the rules of chance. Mendel's laws of independent assortment and segregation explain heritable variation in terms of alternative forms of genes that are passed along according to simple rules of probability. These laws apply not just to garden peas, but to all diploid organisms that reproduce by sexual reproduction. Mendel's studies of pea inheritance endure not only in genetics, but as a case study of the power of scientific reasoning using the hypothetico-deductive approach.
Genetics part 5 multiple alleles (dominant and recessive)
 
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For more information, log on to- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/bio-materials.html An allele (UK /ˈæliːl/ or US /əˈliːl/), or allel, is one of a number of alternative forms of the same gene or same genetic locus (generally a group of genes).[1][2] It is the alternative form of a gene for a character producing different effects. Sometimes, different alleles can result in different observable phenotypic traits, such as different pigmentation. However, many variations at the genetic level result in little or no observable variation. Most multicellular organisms have two sets of chromosomes, that is, they are diploid. These chromosomes are referred to as homologous chromosomes. Diploid organisms have one copy of each gene (and therefore one allele) on each chromosome. If both alleles are the same, they are homozygotes. If the alleles are different, they are heterozygotes. A population or species of organisms typically includes multiple alleles at each locus among various individuals. Allelic variation at a locus is measurable as the number of alleles (polymorphism) present, or the proportion of heterozygotes in the population. For example, at the gene locus for the ABO blood type carbohydrate antigens in humans,[3] classical genetics recognizes three alleles, IA, IB, and IO, that determine compatibility of blood transfusions. Any individual has one of six possible genotypes (AA, AO, BB, BO, AB, and OO) that produce one of four possible phenotypes: "A" (produced by AA homozygous and AO heterozygous genotypes), "B" (produced by BB homozygous and BO heterozygous genotypes), "AB" heterozygotes, and "OO" homozygotes. It is now known that each of the A, B, and O alleles is actually a class of multiple alleles with different DNA sequences that produce proteins with identical properties: more than 70 alleles are known at the ABO locus.[4] An individual with "Type A" blood may be an AO heterozygote, an AA homozygote, or an AA heterozygote with two different "A" alleles. The word "allele" is a short form of allelomorph ("other form"), which was used in the early days of genetics to describe variant forms of a gene detected as different phenotypes. It derives from the Greek prefix ἀλλήλ- ["allel-"], meaning "reciprocal" or "each other", which itself is related to the Greek adjective ἄλλος (allos; cognate with Latin "alius"), meaning "other". Source of the article published in description is Wikipedia. I am sharing their material. Copyright by original content developers of Wikipedia. Link- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
Views: 35488 Shomu's Biology
Genetic Recombination and Gene Mapping
 
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In this video Paul Andersen explains how the frequency of recombination between linked genes can be used to determine the relative location of genes on a chromosome. Thomas Hunt Morgan and Alfred Strutevant used the fruit fly to develop a theory of chromosomal inheritance and discover crossing over. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Music Attribution Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: "File:Drosophila Repleta Lateral.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 13, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Drosophila_repleta_lateral.jpg. "File:Morgan Crossover 1.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 13, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Morgan_crossover_1.jpg. "File:Thomas Hunt Morgan.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 13, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Thomas_Hunt_Morgan.jpg. "FlyBase," n.d. http://flybase.org/reports/FBgn0003975.html. spax89. Illustration of a Tobacco Pipe, 2009. Extracted from Media:Blason de la ville de Saint-Quentin-la-Poterie (30).svg. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tobacco_pipe.svg.
Views: 596654 Bozeman Science
Incomplete Dominance, Codominance, Polygenic Traits, and Epistasis!
 
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Discover more types of non-Mendelian inheritance such as incomplete dominance and codominance with the Amoeba Sisters! This video has a handout: http://www.amoebasisters.com/handouts. This video uses vocabulary that was previously defined in the Amoeba Sisters Monohybrid Crosses video. Support us on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/amoebasisters Our FREE resources: GIFs: http://www.amoebasisters.com/gifs.html Handouts: http://www.amoebasisters.com/handouts.html Comics: http://www.amoebasisters.com/parameciumparlorcomics Connect with us! Website: http://www.AmoebaSisters.com Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/AmoebaSisters Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/AmoebaSisters Tumblr: http://www.amoebasisters.tumblr.com Pinterest: http://www.pinterest.com/AmoebaSister­s Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/amoebasistersofficial/ Visit our Redbubble store at http://www.amoebasisters.com/store.html The Amoeba Sisters videos demystify science with humor and relevance. The videos center on Pinky's certification and experience in teaching science at the high school level. Pinky's teacher certification is in grades 4-8 science and 8-12 composite science (encompassing biology, chemistry, and physics). Amoeba Sisters videos only cover concepts that Pinky is certified to teach, and they focus on her specialty: secondary life science. For more information about The Amoeba Sisters, visit: http://www.amoebasisters.com/about-us.html We cover the basics in biology concepts at the secondary level. If you are looking to discover more about biology and go into depth beyond these basics, our recommended reference is the FREE, peer reviewed, open source OpenStax biology textbook: https://openstax.org/details/books/biology We take pride in our AWESOME community, and we welcome feedback and discussion. However, please remember that this is an education channel. See YouTube's community guidelines https://www.youtube.com/yt/policyandsafety/communityguidelines.html and YouTube's policy center https://support.google.com/youtube/topic/2676378?hl=en&ref_topic=6151248. We also reserve the right to remove comments with vulgar language. Music is this video is listed free to use/no attribution required from the YouTube audio library https://www.youtube.com/audiolibrary/music?feature=blog We have YouTube's community contributed subtitles feature on to allow translations for different languages. YouTube automatically credits the different language contributors below (unless the contributor had opted out of being credited). We are thankful for those that contribute different languages. If you have a concern about community contributed contributions, please contact us.
Views: 639716 Amoeba Sisters
Pedigree probability problems | Risk calculation
 
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Pedigree probability problems - lecture explains about how to solve genetics probability problems on pedigree analysis . this video lecture explains the Pedigree probability problems with example. Here I will share the trick about how to solve those Pedigree problems associated with probability. For more information, log on to- http://www.shomusbiology.com/ Get Shomu's Biology DVD set here- http://www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.com/bio-materials.html Remember Shomu’s Biology is created to spread the knowledge of life science and biology by sharing all this free biology lectures video and animation presented by Suman Bhattacharjee in YouTube. All these tutorials are brought to you for free. Please subscribe to our channel so that we can grow together. You can check for any of the following services from Shomu’s Biology- Buy Shomu’s Biology lecture DVD set- www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store Shomu’s Biology assignment services – www.shomusbiology.com/assignment -help Join Online coaching for CSIR NET exam – www.shomusbiology.com/net-coaching We are social. Find us on different sites here- Our Website – www.shomusbiology.com Facebook page- https://www.facebook.com/ShomusBiology/ Twitter - https://twitter.com/shomusbiology SlideShare- www.slideshare.net/shomusbiology Google plus- https://plus.google.com/113648584982732129198 LinkedIn - https://www.linkedin.com/in/suman-bhattacharjee-2a051661 Youtube- https://www.youtube.com/user/TheFunsuman Thank you for watching the genetics lecture on how to solve Pedigree probability problems.
Views: 53336 Shomu's Biology
Genotype is given:  determine genetic features
 
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This video shows how to apply a specific convention for naming mutant alleles of particular genetic loci. This isn't "the only way" to do name an allele, but the exercise shows how you might be able to apply rules for naming genes to provide a lot of information about the inheritance, linkage, and chromosomal positions. The entire exercise is at http://universitygenetics-mapping.blogspot.ca/2013/01/whats-in-name.html
Views: 1241 Todd Nickle
autosomal dominant cross
 
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Made with Explain Everything
Views: 502 Dana Newton
Interpreting Pedigrees - Autosomal Recessive
 
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Determining the mode of inheritance - autosomal recessive This is one in a series of videos investigating the possible modes of inheritance for a specific pedigree. images from Wikipedia
Views: 1067 bionerdery
Incomplete Dominance, Codominance, and Sex-Linked
 
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examples of how to solve punnett squares involving incomplete dominance, codominance, and sex linked traits.
Views: 254151 MissKmetBioClass
Gene Mapping, Percent Recombination and Map Units
 
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Donate here: http://www.aklectures.com/donate.php Website video link: http://www.aklectures.com/lecture/gene-mapping-percent-recombination-and-map-units Facebook link: https://www.facebook.com/aklectures Website link: http://www.aklectures.com
Views: 104057 AK LECTURES
Genetic Frequencies (p and q) for Autosomal Recessive Traits
 
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This lesson explains how to calculate the frequencies of alleles and genotypes for a population given the number of individuals with each phenotype
Views: 146 Tom Koch
What Are Some Genetic Traits?
 
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Human genetics it has arisen due to an unlikely new mutation. Human physiology genetics and inheritance wikibooks, open. The term 'genetic characteristics' can refer to a genotype, which is they were probably talking about physical characteristic, personality trait, or talent that you understand how genes work, let's review some biology basics genetics the science of way traits are passed from parent offspring. Character traits determined genetically? Genes may hold the key to genetic dominant or recessive? Buzzfeedsciencing. But most are influenced by a combination of genes and some scientists have reported that this trait is due to single gene for which unattached earlobes dominant attached recessive. 10 human genetic traits of simple inheritance which do you have? Scienceprofonline genetics ten human genetic traits simple inheritance. Examples of autosomal dominant traits and disorders are huntington's disease achondroplasia 16 may 2012 genes play a greater role in forming character such as self control, why do some people seem to manage their lives, have good 18 mar 2014 who needs an expensive dna analysis when you can take this quiz? Find out what your common are!. The size and appearance of the lobes are also inherited traits human autosomalshape face (probably polygenic)2no cleft dominant, recessivehair cgene a region dna where specific set instructions for one trait is kept. Inheritance of traits by offspring follows predictable rules. Inherited human traits a quick reference utah department of traitsasu ask biologist. Most traits, in fact, are affected by more than 1 gene human genetics is the study of inheritance as it occurs beings. What are some genetic traits? Youtube. Observable human characteristics learn genetics (utah). Grey, green, hazel, blue eyesfarsightedness normal vision visionsome thirty five years after mendel's work, however, american researcher walter sutton (figure 4) proposed a connection between trait inheritance and the path in one generation can be inherited, but not outwardly apparent before two some cases, both parents provide same allele of given gene, these are common dominant recessive traits humans that this gene has alleles, for widow's peak straight hairline genetics is study biological features or inherited from parent to child. There are more than 2 alleles for some traits. Others are acquired through learning. Your genotype (dna) determines the actual traits that you have (called phenotype); Such as eye color, nearsightedness, and whether or not dimples. Dominant & recessive genes. Html url? Q webcache. The basics on genes and genetic disorders kids health. We get some of our genes from mother and father more the genetic contribution to phenotype is called genotype. Other scientists have reported that this trait is probably due to several genes. Learn common dominant and recessive traits class x group 13education seattle pi. Some traits are largely determined by the genotype, while other allele that is
Views: 16 Question Bag
The Hardy-Weinberg Principle:  Watch your Ps and Qs
 
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The Hardy-Weinberg Principle states that allele and genotype frequencies in populations remain stable over time, given certain assumptions. What assumptions? What does the principle mean? And how do you SOLVE those Hardy-Weinberg PROBLEMS? Everything shall be revealed in this video - with some penguins of course. They make everything go down easier. JOIN THE FUN all over the WEB: SUBSCRIBE: http://www.youtube.com/user/ThePenguinProf FACEBOOK: https://www.facebook.com/ThePenguinProf GOOGLE+: https://plus.google.com/+Penguinprof/posts TWITTER: https://twitter.com/penguinprof WEB: http://www.penguinprof.com/ Links to Videos Mentioned: Mendelian Genetics: http://youtu.be/xtJwHytHRfI How to Solve Genetics Problems: http://youtu.be/Qcmdb25Rnyo Solution for the additional problem I showed at the end: Allele Frequencies: q = 0.04 p = 0.96 Genotype Frequencies: homozygous dominant: 0.92 Heterozygous: 0.08 Homozygous recessive: 0.002 Answer to the additional problem step-by-step: http://www.penguinprof.com/uploads/8/4/3/1/8431323/solving_hardy-weinberg_problems.pdf ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Video Details: Population Genetics: The Hardy-Weinberg Principle You need to know: gene vs. allele gentoype vs. phenotype understanding probabilities (and vs. or) Punnett Square Hardy-Weinberg Principle Timeline of Discoveries Darwin, Mendel, DeVries, Correns Hardy, Weinberg, Castle Mendelian Genetics Gets HOT Particles are inherited! Traits aren't blended! Cambridge opens a department of Genetics So What's it All About? It's about frequencies When talking about population genetics, we are interested in the prevalence of a particular allele or genotype in a population The Hardy-Weinberg Principle States: Frequencies of alleles and genotypes in a population will remain constant over time in the absence of other evolutionary influences Assumptions Organisms are diploid Generations are non-overlapping Population must be large No immigration or emigration No mutation in the gene of interest No natural selection occurs (individuals reproduce at equal rates) Mating is random Alleles and Allele Frequency Penguin Prof Helpful Hints The Sum of All Possible Outcomes MUST Equal 1 p+q = 1 ALLELE FREQUENCY 2 Alleles = Genotype p2 + 2pq + p2 = 1 What if There are Three Alleles? (p, q and r) Sample Problem In a population of 1,000 penguins, 12 have blue feet. Find the frequency of the blue allele, the yellow allele and the frequencies of the three possible genotypes in this population. Solving Hardy-Weinberg Problems Assign the alleles Frequency of the dominant allele is 'p' Frequency of the recessive allele is 'q' Calculate q by taking the square root of the number of homozygous recessive individuals Calculate p (the allele frequencies must equal 1, so p = 1 − q) Use p and q to calculate the other genotype frequencies: frequency of homozygous dominant individuals = p2 frequency of heterozygous individuals = 2pq frequency of homozygous recessives = q2 This may help: Hardy-Weinberg Punnett Square Try Another One... In a population of 130,000 magical mice, green fur is dominant over orange. If there are 300 orange mice in a population of 130,000, find the following (assume population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium): 1. Frequency of dominant (green) allele 2. Frequency of recessive (orange) allele 3. Frequency of each genotype
Views: 295482 ThePenguinProf
Genetics - X-Linked Genes
 
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Ms.Parrott teaches about what an X-linked gene is and walks you through how to determine if a gene is X-linked as well as through an x-linked recessive hemophilia cross and an X-linked dominant curly wings cross.
Views: 2621 Danielle Parrott
Incomplete Dominance Punnett Square
 
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Brief description on how to create an Incomplete Dominance Punnet Square
Views: 36230 SeekonkHSLibrary
How to Interpret Pedigrees for AP Biology
 
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Erika Tan walks through a sample pedigree diagram. *** If there are any pictures used in this video, they are NOT MINE and I will not take credit for them. *** TRANSCRIPT: Pedigrees are used to determine if a trait is dominant, recessive, sex-linked, or autosomal. A lot of these types of questions tend to pop up on the AP exam, too, so they’re important to pay attention to. Here I’ve got a sample pedigree for you. The circles symbolize females and the squares symbolize males. Any shape that’s colored in represents a person that has an attached earlobe. Now, our job is to find out whether the attached earlobe is dominant or recessive, and whether it’s autosomal or sex-linked. By the way, autosomal traits are traits that aren’t located on the sex chromosomes, so they’re any traits that aren’t sex-linked. So, there aren’t any genotypes shown here, just colored and blank shapes. How are we going to solve this? Well, we can see in this section that the parents don’t have an attached earlobe, but one of their children does. Let’s think about it: if the parents were hybrids, we’ll say that they have one dominant earlobe allele and one recessive earlobe allele each. When we solve the Punnett square, we get this. Three of the children have the dominant phenotype like the parents, and one child has the recessive phenotype. Now we know that having an attached earlobe is recessive, because this genotype is the only one with a phenotype other than the parents. So, that phenotype must be this child. And, we know that the child has attached earlobes because his box is colored in. Therefore, attached earlobes are a recessive trait because the child has a recessive genotype. Now let’s try to figure out if this trait is sex-linked or autosomal. In this section of the pedigree, we see that the parents are not affected, but one of their children is. So let’s just ASSUME that this trait IS sex-linked. If that were the case, then the father wouldn’t have an affected X chromosome. So, his genotype would be XY. Now, the mother could either have no affected X chromosomes or one affected X chromosome, since we know it’s a recessive trait and even if she has one affected X chromosome, she won’t express the trait because it’s recessive. Now, let’s take a look at the Punnett squares for this cross. In this Punnett square with the mother having one affected X chromosome, we see that one of the daughters is a carrier, and the other isn’t. In this other Punnett square with the mother having no affected X chromosomes, both possible daughters have no affected X chromosomes either. Well, neither of these match up with the pedigree that we have originally, because in this pedigree, we have one daughter who DOES express the trait, meaning she MUST have two affected X chromosomes since the trait is recessive. Therefore, we know that the trait is not sex-linked, because in these Punnett squares, none of the possible daughters have two affected X chromosomes. And there it is: the trait is autosomal recessive. The key thing to examining pedigrees is to try different combinations like we did with the Punnett squares. Once you can prove if a trait is recessive or not, or sex-linked or not, then you can figure it out from there.
Views: 371 Tangerine Education
How Mendel's pea plants helped us understand genetics - Hortensia Jiménez Díaz
 
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View full lesson: http://ed.ted.com/lessons/how-mendel-s-pea-plants-helped-us-understand-genetics-hortensia-jimenez-diaz Each father and mother pass down traits to their children, who inherit combinations of their dominant or recessive alleles. But how do we know so much about genetics today? Hortensia Jiménez Díaz explains how studying pea plants revealed why you may have blue eyes. Lesson by Hortensia Jiménez Díaz, animation by Cinematic Sweden.
Views: 1397912 TED-Ed

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