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Search results “Determining genotypes in autosomal dominant”
Autosomal Recessive vs. Autosomal Dominance
 
13:08
This video will compare and contrast autosomal recessive and autosomal dominance inheritance patterns. Keywords: Genetics Gene Allele Heredity Punnett square Genotype Phenotype Homozygous Heterozygous Cystic fibrosis Sickle cell PKU Albinism Huntington's disease Mendel Autosome Chromosome Karyotype Inheritance
Views: 61113 Beverly Biology
Pedigree analysis- autosomal dominant
 
15:30
This video about pedigree analysis explains how to analyze pedigree charts and family tree studies for autosomal dominant inheritance of a disease. For more information, log on to- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/bio-materials.html
Views: 74190 Shomu's Biology
Solving pedigree genetics problems
 
12:27
Once you have a background in pedigree conventions, this video should provide you with the tools to evaluate a pedigree to determine if a given trait could be autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or X-linked recessive.
Views: 239138 BiologyMonk
Learn Biology: How to Draw a Punnett Square
 
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Check out Bas Rutten's Liver Shot on MMA Surge: http://bit.ly/MMASurgeEp1 A Punnett square is used to predict the chances of an offspring to have its parents' traits. These squares are most commonly divided into four parts, with each part equalling a 25% chance of the offspring receiving that set of genes. More complicated squares may have more than four parts, though the same basic method applies. The letters surrounding and within each square represent alleles. They are one part of a gene pair occupying a specific part of a chromosome. All dominate alleles have capital letters, while the recessive ones are lowercase. Dominate alleles will always overpower recessive ones in the expression of the gene. If the alleles for a parent do not match, they are known as heterozygous. In the image above the Gg is heterozygous. This can happen if there is a dominate and a recessive gene in the parent. If the alleles are the same for that expressed gene, it is known as homozygous. This is seen if both alleles are dominate or if both alleles are recessive; e.g., GG or gg. In order for a recessive gene to be expressed, the alleles must be homozygous. Step 1: --------------------------------------------------------------------- Draw the Punnett square. This is done by drawing a square, followed by a straight line up and down and another from side to side. This will quarter, or create 4 equally sized boxes within the square. Step 2: --------------------------------------------------------------------- Place the father's alleles on the top of the Punnett square with one letter above each box. Place the mother's alleles on the left hand side of the square, with one letter in front of each box. Be sure to use capital letters for the dominate genes and lower case letters for the recessive alleles. For this example, let's say this square represents the color of a flower. The father has one dominant blue and one recessive orange allele. The mother has two recessive orange alleles. Step 3: --------------------------------------------------------------------- Drop the father's alleles down into the squares and bring the mother's across. This will provide you with all possible combinations of alleles for the offspring. Each square represents a 25% chance of the offspring having that combination. If there are squares with the same cominations in them, the squares can be added together to determine the percentage. Conclusion: --------------------------------------------------------------------- From the completed square above, we can see that 50% of offspring will be blue since any dominant allele paired with a recessive one will win. There are, however, two homozygous combinations in which both genes are recessive, so 50% of the offspring will be orange. This means that half of the offspring will be blue, while the other half will be orange. Easy, right? Read more by visiting our page at: http://www.mahalo.com/how-to-draw-a-punnett-square/
Views: 978568 mahalodotcom
Pedigree
 
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Dr. Phoenix shows how to read pedigrees and how to determine the genotypes of individuals on the pedigree. Please click the link to go to the updated version of this video here: https://youtu.be/r2WRipen-do
Views: 14368 Glenn E Phoenix, DC
Pedigrees, Patterns of Genetic Inheritance, Autosomal Dominant Recessive X-Linked Mitocondrial
 
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http://www.stomponstep1.com/pedigrees-patterns-of-genetic-inheritance/ Before you watch this video you should really watch the previous video in the section which covers Types of Inheritance (http://www.stomponstep1.com/genetic-inheritance-autosomal-dominant-x-linked-recessive-mitochondrial-disease/) Pedigrees are graphical representations of ancestry with respect to one or more disease(s). Males are represented with a square while females are represented with a circle. The shape is black/filled in if the individual is affected by the disease. The shape is empty/white if the individual is not affected by the disease (may be unaffected or carrier). Usually each generation (row) is labeled with a roman numeral while each individual is labeled with a number. Autosomal Dominant Autosomal recessive X linked recessive Mitochondrial Now that you are done with this video you should check out the next video in the Genetics section which covers Purine Salvage Pathway & Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome(http://www.stomponstep1.com/purine-salvage-pathway-lesch-nyhan-syndrome/)
Views: 98891 Stomp On Step 1
Pedigree Notes   Analyzing the Genotypes
 
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This video walks you through how to determine the genotypes of a person based on a pedigree.
Views: 1475 Katie D
How to read a pedigree
 
17:08
Dr. Phoenix discusses how to read a pedigree chart and how to determine the genotypes of the individuals on the chart.
Views: 1117 Glenn E Phoenix, DC
Pedigrees
 
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Explore autosomal recessive trait and X-linked recessive trait tracking in pedigrees with the Amoeba Sisters! Matching handout available here: http://www.amoebasisters.com/handouts.html. See table of contents by expanding details! 👇 Table of Contents: Introducing Symbols/Numbering in Pedigree 0:40 Meaning of Shading in Shapes 1:19 Introducing Pedigree Tracking Autosomal Recessive Trait 2:44 Working with Pedigree Tracking Autosomal Recessive Trait 4:07 X-Linked Pedigree 6:45 What is Meant by "Half-Shading" Shapes in Pedigree? 9:01 Support us on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/amoebasisters Our FREE resources: GIFs: http://www.amoebasisters.com/gifs.html Handouts: http://www.amoebasisters.com/handouts.html Comics: http://www.amoebasisters.com/parameciumparlorcomics Connect with us! Website: http://www.AmoebaSisters.com Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/AmoebaSisters Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/AmoebaSisters Tumblr: http://www.amoebasisters.tumblr.com Pinterest: http://www.pinterest.com/AmoebaSister­s Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/amoebasistersofficial/ Visit our Redbubble store at http://www.amoebasisters.com/store.html The Amoeba Sisters videos demystify science with humor and relevance. The videos center on Pinky's certification and experience in teaching science at the high school level. Pinky's teacher certification is in grades 4-8 science and 8-12 composite science (encompassing biology, chemistry, and physics). Amoeba Sisters videos only cover concepts that Pinky is certified to teach, and they focus on her specialty: secondary life science. For more information about The Amoeba Sisters, visit: http://www.amoebasisters.com/about-us.html We cover the basics in biology concepts at the secondary level. If you are looking to discover more about biology and go into depth beyond these basics, our recommended reference is the FREE, peer reviewed, open source OpenStax biology textbook: https://openstax.org/details/books/biology We take pride in our AWESOME community, and we welcome feedback and discussion. However, please remember that this is an education channel. See YouTube's community guidelines https://www.youtube.com/yt/policyandsafety/communityguidelines.html and YouTube's policy center https://support.google.com/youtube/topic/2676378?hl=en&ref_topic=6151248. We also reserve the right to remove comments with vulgar language. Music is this video is listed free to use/no attribution required from the YouTube audio library https://www.youtube.com/audiolibrary/music?feature=blog We have YouTube's community contributed subtitles feature on to allow translations for different languages. YouTube automatically credits the different language contributors below (unless the contributor had opted out of being credited). We are thankful for those that contribute different languages. If you have a concern about community contributed contributions, please contact us.
Views: 348634 Amoeba Sisters
How to solve pedigree probability problems
 
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More of my videos on the topic: How to read a pedigree like a pro https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5OlpOEC9vQ8 How to read a pedigree like a pro - 2 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vxl-18BaUag How to read a pedigree like a pro - 3 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0pYj00896p4 How to read a pedigree like a pro - 4 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kHlxYBlM3fA How to read a pedigree like a pro - 5 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3Dia_W0ky-I How to read a pedigree like a pro - 6 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0CXI3r0NC2Q A pedigree chart is a diagram that shows the occurrence and appearance or phenotypes of a particular gene or organism and its ancestors from one generation to the next, most commonly humans, show dogs, and race horses. The word pedigree is a corruption of the French "pied de grue" or crane's foot, because the typical lines and split lines (each split leading to different offspring of the one parent line) resemble the thin leg and foot of a crane. A Pedigree results in the presentation of family information in the form of an easily readable chart. Pedigrees use a standardized set of symbols, squares represent males and circles represent females. Pedigree construction is a family history, and details about an earlier generation may be uncertain as memories fade. If the sex of the person is unknown a diamond is used. Someone with the phenotype in question is represented by a filled-in (darker) symbol. Heterozygotes, when identifiable, are indicated by a shade dot inside a symbol or a half-filled symbol. Relationships in a pedigree are shown as a series of lines. Parents are connected by a horizontal line and a vertical line leads to their offspring. The offspring are connected by a horizontal sibship line and listed in birth order from left to right. If the offspring are twins then they will be connected by a triangle. If an offspring dies then its symbol will be crossed by a line. If the offspring is still born or aborted it is represented by a small triangle. Each generation is identified by a Roman numeral (I, II, III, and so on), and each individual within the same generation is identified by an Arabic number (1, 2, 3, and so on). Analysis of the pedigree using the principles of Mendelian inheritance can determine whether a trait has a dominant or recessive pattern of inheritance. Pedigrees are often constructed after a family member afflicted with a genetic disorder has been identified. This individual, known as the proband, is indicated on the pedigree by an arrow.
Pedigree Analysis 1: How to solve a genetic pedigree No. 1
 
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Biology teacher Andrew Douch explains how to systematically study a genetic pedigree, to determine the most likely mode of inheritance.
Views: 688417 Andrew Douch
Introduction to Heredity
 
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Heredity and Classical Genetics. Dominant and recessive traits. Heterozygous and homozygous genotypes. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=eEUvRrhmcxM
Views: 1142496 Khan Academy
Test Cross (Determining Genotype)
 
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Donate here: http://www.aklectures.com/donate.php Website video link: http://www.aklectures.com/lecture/test-cross Facebook link: https://www.facebook.com/aklectures Website link: http://www.aklectures.com
Views: 64565 AK LECTURES
Determining Inheritance Patterns - Genetics Pedigree Analysis
 
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Watch the updated video, it's shorter! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1SZEXbBcYCc This video is a flowchart walk-through for determining inheritance patterns of genetic disorders from a pedigree chart.
Views: 9137 VirgilARicks
Inheritance of autosomal dominant trait
 
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A genetic carrier (or just carrier), is a person or other organism that has inherited a recessive allele for a genetic trait or mutation but does not display that trait or show symptoms of the disease. Carriers are, however, able to pass the allele onto their offspring, who may then express the gene if they inherit the recessive allele from both parents. The chance of two carriers having a child with the disease is 25%. This phenomenon is a direct result of the recessive nature of many genes. Punnett square depicting a cross between two genetic carriers. The chance of two genetic carriers having a child with two copies of the recessive gene, thus being homozygous recessive, is 25%. Examples: - Cystic fibrosis - Sickle cell anemia
Autosomal and X Linked Inheritance
 
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This lecture explains about the the autosomal and x linked inheritance. This video explains the properties of sex linked inheritance and the genetics pedigree. Autosomal trait is the one where the gene responsible for the trait is carried by Autosomes or body cell chromosomes. Sex linked trait or X linked trait is the one where the gene responsible for the trait is carried by X chromosomes. So most of the X linked trait is predominant ion male as males have only one X chromosome. For more information, log on to- http://www.shomusbiology.com/ Get Shomu's Biology DVD set here- http://www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.com/bio-materials.html Remember Shomu’s Biology is created to spread the knowledge of life science and biology by sharing all this free biology lectures video and animation presented by Suman Bhattacharjee in YouTube. All these tutorials are brought to you for free. Please subscribe to our channel so that we can grow together. You can check for any of the following services from Shomu’s Biology- Buy Shomu’s Biology lecture DVD set- www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store Shomu’s Biology assignment services – www.shomusbiology.com/assignment -help Join Online coaching for CSIR NET exam – www.shomusbiology.com/net-coaching We are social. Find us on different sites here- Our Website – www.shomusbiology.com Facebook page- https://www.facebook.com/ShomusBiology/ Twitter - https://twitter.com/shomusbiology SlideShare- www.slideshare.net/shomusbiology Google plus- https://plus.google.com/113648584982732129198 LinkedIn - https://www.linkedin.com/in/suman-bhattacharjee-2a051661 Youtube- https://www.youtube.com/user/TheFunsuman Thank you for watching the video lecture on Autosomal and X Linked Inheritance.
Views: 48697 Shomu's Biology
Heredity: Crash Course Biology #9
 
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Hank and his brother John discuss heredity via the gross example of relative ear wax moistness. Crash Course Biology is now available on DVD! http://dftba.com/product/1av/CrashCourse-Biology-The-Complete-Series-DVD-Set Like CrashCourse on Facebook! http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Follow CrashCourse on Twitter! http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse This video uses sounds from Freesound.org, a list of which can be found, along with the REFERENCES for this episode, in the Google document here: http://dft.ba/-2dlR tags: crashcourse, science, biology, evolution, genetics, heredity, aristotle, bloodlines, gregor mendel, mendelian genetics, mendelian trait, classical genetics, chromosome, gene, polygenic, pleiotropic, allele, ear wax gene, somatic, diploid, gametes, sperm, egg, haploid, polyploid, dominance, dominant, recessive, heterozygous, homozygous, phenotype, punnett square, reginald c. punnett, sex-linked inheritance, autosome Support CrashCourse on Subbable: http://subbable.com/crashcourse
Views: 2665750 CrashCourse
Punnett Squares and Sex-Linked Traits
 
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Explore inheritance when carried on the X chromosome with the Amoeba Sisters! This video has a handout here: http://www.amoebasisters.com/handouts.html Support us on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/amoebasisters Our FREE resources: GIFs: http://www.amoebasisters.com/gifs.html Handouts: http://www.amoebasisters.com/handouts.html Comics: http://www.amoebasisters.com/parameciumparlorcomics Connect with us! Website: http://www.AmoebaSisters.com Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/AmoebaSisters Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/AmoebaSisters Tumblr: http://www.amoebasisters.tumblr.com Pinterest: http://www.pinterest.com/AmoebaSister­s Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/amoebasistersofficial/ Visit our Redbubble store at http://www.amoebasisters.com/store.html The Amoeba Sisters videos demystify science with humor and relevance. The videos center on Pinky's certification and experience in teaching science at the high school level. Pinky's teacher certification is in grades 4-8 science and 8-12 composite science (encompassing biology, chemistry, and physics). Amoeba Sisters videos only cover concepts that Pinky is certified to teach, and they focus on her specialty: secondary life science. For more information about The Amoeba Sisters, visit: http://www.amoebasisters.com/about-us.html We cover the basics in biology concepts at the secondary level. If you are looking to discover more about biology and go into depth beyond these basics, our recommended reference is the FREE, peer reviewed, open source OpenStax biology textbook: https://openstax.org/details/books/biology We take pride in our AWESOME community, and we welcome feedback and discussion. However, please remember that this is an education channel. See YouTube's community guidelines https://www.youtube.com/yt/policyandsafety/communityguidelines.html and YouTube's policy center https://support.google.com/youtube/topic/2676378?hl=en&ref_topic=6151248. We also reserve the right to remove comments with vulgar language. Music is this video is listed free to use/no attribution required from the YouTube audio library https://www.youtube.com/audiolibrary/music?feature=blog We have YouTube's community contributed subtitles feature on to allow translations for different languages. YouTube automatically credits the different language contributors below (unless the contributor had opted out of being credited). We are thankful for those that contribute different languages. If you have a concern about community contributed contributions, please contact us.
Views: 644942 Amoeba Sisters
Dominant vs Recessive Traits
 
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Learn how dominant and recessive human traits are represented and interact with each other
Views: 87181 ScinceGonnaGetYou
Calculating probabilities
 
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This video summarizes how to calculate probabilities when approaching pedigree and inheritance problems in Genetics.
Views: 20581 Dr. Marina Crowder
Pedigree analysis | How to solve pedigree problems?
 
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Pedigree analysis technique and rule - This lecture explains how to solve pedigree problems. With the help of few easy tricks and techniques you can solve any pedigree problems in minutes by applying the knowledge of pedigree analysis described in this video lecture. So watch this video and solve pedigree problems fast. For more information, log on to- http://www.shomusbiology.com/ Get Shomu's Biology DVD set here- http://www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.com/bio-materials.html Remember Shomu’s Biology is created to spread the knowledge of life science and biology by sharing all this free biology lectures video and animation presented by Suman Bhattacharjee in YouTube. All these tutorials are brought to you for free. Please subscribe to our channel so that we can grow together. You can check for any of the following services from Shomu’s Biology- Buy Shomu’s Biology lecture DVD set- www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store Shomu’s Biology assignment services – www.shomusbiology.com/assignment -help Join Online coaching for CSIR NET exam – www.shomusbiology.com/net-coaching We are social. Find us on different sites here- Our Website – www.shomusbiology.com Facebook page- https://www.facebook.com/ShomusBiology/ Twitter - https://twitter.com/shomusbiology SlideShare- www.slideshare.net/shomusbiology Google plus- https://plus.google.com/113648584982732129198 LinkedIn - https://www.linkedin.com/in/suman-bhattacharjee-2a051661 Youtube- https://www.youtube.com/user/TheFunsuman Thank you for watching the genetics lecture on Pedigree analysis and How to solve pedigree problems?
Views: 219818 Shomu's Biology
4.3.2 Determine the genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring of a monohybrid cross
 
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A monohybrid cross is one that involves only one trait. Here the example is used of stem height in pea plants. Tall plants are dominant to dwarf plants, therefore an uppercase letter (T) is used for the tall allele while a lowercase letter is used for the dwarf allele. Here we cross a heterozygous tall plant with a dwarf plant. Each plant's genotype needs to be identified and must have two alleles in a monohybrid cross. As the tall plant is specified as heterozygous, it therefore has two different alleles, so its genotype must be Tt. Since dwarf stems are recessive to tall, the only genotype that can give a dwarf plant is tt. Gametes are produced by meiosis and therefore have only one allele. The heterozygous tall plant (Tt) produces two kinds of gametes: T and t. The dwarf plant only one kind of gamete (t). The punnett grid, or punnett square is used to see the probability of the different kinds of offspring being produced. From this example we can see that the genotypic ratio is 50% Tt and 50% tt. The phenotypic ratio is 50% tall (from the Tt) and 50% dwarf (from the tt).
Views: 49830 Stephanie Castle
Genetic Inheritance, Autosomal Dominant, X-linked Recessive, Mitochondrial Disease Polygenic mtDNA
 
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http://www.stomponstep1.com/genetic-inheritance-autosomal-dominant-x-linked-recessive-mitochondrial-disease/ Autosomal Dominant Inheritance is when one allele, on any chromosome other than X or Y, is expressed over another allele of the same gene. This allele determines the phenotype (observable characteristics) and is referred to as dominant. The allele that is does not affect the phenotype is referred to as recessive. The dominant allele is often given the capital letter for a character while the recessive allele is given the lower case. Therefore, a heterozygous individual who is a carrier for the recessive gene would be represented as Aa. Usually on a pedigree nearly every generation has an affected individual. Autosomal Recessive Inheritance is basically the opposite of autosomal dominant. Recessive alleles only change the phenotype when there is no dominant allele present. Heterozygous individuals do not show the phenotype of the recessive allele, but can pass this allele on to their offspring. These heterozygous individuals are called carriers. Usually on a pedigree few individuals are affected. X Linked Recessive Inheritance is a type of recessive inheritance for genes on the X chromosome. Males express the phenotype when they inherit 1 effected allele, while females need to inherit 2 effected alleles. This is because the gene lies on the X chromosome, and males only receive a single X while females receive 2. Males cannot pass the effected X allele onto sons, because a son must receive a Y from the father to be male. Males are affected far more often than females. Women are very rarely affected by these disorders, and are primarily heterozygous carriers when they have the gene. Mitochondria have DNA (mtDNA) that is circular and separate from the chromosomes in the nucleus. Mitochondrial Inheritance is only through the mothers and the fathers mitochondrial DNA is not passed onto children. Heterosplasmy is when a single individual has more than 1 type of mitochondrial DNA in their body due to mutations. The most common disease with this type of inheritance is Mitochondrial Myopathy which presents with "Ragged Red" muscle fibers on biopsy Polygenic or Multifactorial Inheritance is when the phenotype is not dictated by a single gene locus. These types of diseases are determined by an interaction between many contributing genetic and environmental factors. Variable Expressivity = same genetic defect presents differently in different patients. Neurofibromatosis is an example Mosaicism = when populations of cells within a single individual have different genotypes due to post-fertilization changes. Often in reference to chromosomal abnormalities caused by improper mitosis. Germline Mosacism is when only gametes (sperm and eggs) are affected by the genetic defect. Therefore, the individual would not show signs of the disease, but they could pass it on to their offspring Pleiotrophy = a single genetic defect has multiple effects (same gene is expressed in many different tissues) Incomplete Penetrance = not everyone with genetic defect gets the disease. Low penetrance means many people with the genotype do not show the phenotype Pictures Used (In order of appearance) • "Autosomal Dominant" by Domaina available at ttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Autosomal_dominant_-_en.svg via Creative Commons 3.0 Attribution Share Alike • "XlinkedRecessive" by US National Library of Medicine available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:XlinkRecessive.jpg via Public Domain • "Mitochondrial" By US National Library of Medicine available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mitochondrial.jpg by Public Domain
Views: 51656 Stomp On Step 1
Incomplete Dominance, Codominance, Polygenic Traits, and Epistasis!
 
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Discover more types of non-Mendelian inheritance such as incomplete dominance and codominance with the Amoeba Sisters! This video has a handout: http://www.amoebasisters.com/handouts. This video uses vocabulary that was previously defined in the Amoeba Sisters Monohybrid Crosses video. Support us on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/amoebasisters Our FREE resources: GIFs: http://www.amoebasisters.com/gifs.html Handouts: http://www.amoebasisters.com/handouts.html Comics: http://www.amoebasisters.com/parameciumparlorcomics Connect with us! Website: http://www.AmoebaSisters.com Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/AmoebaSisters Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/AmoebaSisters Tumblr: http://www.amoebasisters.tumblr.com Pinterest: http://www.pinterest.com/AmoebaSister­s Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/amoebasistersofficial/ Visit our Redbubble store at http://www.amoebasisters.com/store.html The Amoeba Sisters videos demystify science with humor and relevance. The videos center on Pinky's certification and experience in teaching science at the high school level. Pinky's teacher certification is in grades 4-8 science and 8-12 composite science (encompassing biology, chemistry, and physics). Amoeba Sisters videos only cover concepts that Pinky is certified to teach, and they focus on her specialty: secondary life science. For more information about The Amoeba Sisters, visit: http://www.amoebasisters.com/about-us.html We cover the basics in biology concepts at the secondary level. If you are looking to discover more about biology and go into depth beyond these basics, our recommended reference is the FREE, peer reviewed, open source OpenStax biology textbook: https://openstax.org/details/books/biology We take pride in our AWESOME community, and we welcome feedback and discussion. However, please remember that this is an education channel. See YouTube's community guidelines https://www.youtube.com/yt/policyandsafety/communityguidelines.html and YouTube's policy center https://support.google.com/youtube/topic/2676378?hl=en&ref_topic=6151248. We also reserve the right to remove comments with vulgar language. Music is this video is listed free to use/no attribution required from the YouTube audio library https://www.youtube.com/audiolibrary/music?feature=blog We have YouTube's community contributed subtitles feature on to allow translations for different languages. YouTube automatically credits the different language contributors below (unless the contributor had opted out of being credited). We are thankful for those that contribute different languages. If you have a concern about community contributed contributions, please contact us.
Views: 601662 Amoeba Sisters
How Mendel's pea plants helped us understand genetics - Hortensia Jiménez Díaz
 
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View full lesson: http://ed.ted.com/lessons/how-mendel-s-pea-plants-helped-us-understand-genetics-hortensia-jimenez-diaz Each father and mother pass down traits to their children, who inherit combinations of their dominant or recessive alleles. But how do we know so much about genetics today? Hortensia Jiménez Díaz explains how studying pea plants revealed why you may have blue eyes. Lesson by Hortensia Jiménez Díaz, animation by Cinematic Sweden.
Views: 1340872 TED-Ed
Pedigree Analysis for Autosomal Dominant Traits
 
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Donate here: http://www.aklectures.com/donate.php Website video link: http://www.aklectures.com/lecture/pedigree-analysis-for-autosomal-dominant-traits Facebook link: https://www.facebook.com/aklectures Website link: http://www.aklectures.com
Views: 21079 AK LECTURES
Pedigree for determining probability of exhibiting sex linked recessive trait
 
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Pedigree for determining probability of exhibiting sex linked recessive trait
Views: 5685 Khan Academy
Genetics Pedigree  Chart Analysis
 
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Using a pedigree for a family with Huntington’s Disease (Autosomal Dominant Disorder). Assign notation and determine the genotypes of each person in this pedigree with respect to Huntington’s Disease
Homozygous vs Heterozygous Genotype
 
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Genetic Learn the difference between a homozygous trait and a heterozygous trait. The homozygous trait is made up of two of the same alleles. A heterozygous trait is made up of two different alleles. Punnett square helps you determine the likelihood that a certain phenotype will appear when crossing organisms. Link to the worksheet: Sciencespot http://sciencespot.net/Pages/classbio.html -~-~~-~~~-~~-~- Please watch: "Study Skills Teacher's Secret Guide to your Best Grades" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f3bsg8gaSbw -~-~~-~~~-~~-~- * * For more Life Science videos and summaries see, http://www.moomoomath.com/Middle-School-Science-and-Biology.html
Genetic Recombination and Gene Mapping
 
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In this video Paul Andersen explains how the frequency of recombination between linked genes can be used to determine the relative location of genes on a chromosome. Thomas Hunt Morgan and Alfred Strutevant used the fruit fly to develop a theory of chromosomal inheritance and discover crossing over. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Music Attribution Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: "File:Drosophila Repleta Lateral.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 13, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Drosophila_repleta_lateral.jpg. "File:Morgan Crossover 1.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 13, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Morgan_crossover_1.jpg. "File:Thomas Hunt Morgan.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 13, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Thomas_Hunt_Morgan.jpg. "FlyBase," n.d. http://flybase.org/reports/FBgn0003975.html. spax89. Illustration of a Tobacco Pipe, 2009. Extracted from Media:Blason de la ville de Saint-Quentin-la-Poterie (30).svg. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tobacco_pipe.svg.
Views: 568839 Bozeman Science
Bald Guy Presents.. Dominant, Recessive, Genotype, Phenotype
 
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Created on January 24, 2011 using FlipShare.
Views: 1323 Jake Gordon
The Hardy-Weinberg Principle:  Watch your Ps and Qs
 
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The Hardy-Weinberg Principle states that allele and genotype frequencies in populations remain stable over time, given certain assumptions. What assumptions? What does the principle mean? And how do you SOLVE those Hardy-Weinberg PROBLEMS? Everything shall be revealed in this video - with some penguins of course. They make everything go down easier. JOIN THE FUN all over the WEB: SUBSCRIBE: http://www.youtube.com/user/ThePenguinProf FACEBOOK: https://www.facebook.com/ThePenguinProf GOOGLE+: https://plus.google.com/+Penguinprof/posts TWITTER: https://twitter.com/penguinprof WEB: http://www.penguinprof.com/ Links to Videos Mentioned: Mendelian Genetics: http://youtu.be/xtJwHytHRfI How to Solve Genetics Problems: http://youtu.be/Qcmdb25Rnyo Solution for the additional problem I showed at the end: Allele Frequencies: q = 0.04 p = 0.96 Genotype Frequencies: homozygous dominant: 0.92 Heterozygous: 0.08 Homozygous recessive: 0.002 Answer to the additional problem step-by-step: http://www.penguinprof.com/uploads/8/4/3/1/8431323/solving_hardy-weinberg_problems.pdf ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Video Details: Population Genetics: The Hardy-Weinberg Principle You need to know: gene vs. allele gentoype vs. phenotype understanding probabilities (and vs. or) Punnett Square Hardy-Weinberg Principle Timeline of Discoveries Darwin, Mendel, DeVries, Correns Hardy, Weinberg, Castle Mendelian Genetics Gets HOT Particles are inherited! Traits aren't blended! Cambridge opens a department of Genetics So What's it All About? It's about frequencies When talking about population genetics, we are interested in the prevalence of a particular allele or genotype in a population The Hardy-Weinberg Principle States: Frequencies of alleles and genotypes in a population will remain constant over time in the absence of other evolutionary influences Assumptions Organisms are diploid Generations are non-overlapping Population must be large No immigration or emigration No mutation in the gene of interest No natural selection occurs (individuals reproduce at equal rates) Mating is random Alleles and Allele Frequency Penguin Prof Helpful Hints The Sum of All Possible Outcomes MUST Equal 1 p+q = 1 ALLELE FREQUENCY 2 Alleles = Genotype p2 + 2pq + p2 = 1 What if There are Three Alleles? (p, q and r) Sample Problem In a population of 1,000 penguins, 12 have blue feet. Find the frequency of the blue allele, the yellow allele and the frequencies of the three possible genotypes in this population. Solving Hardy-Weinberg Problems Assign the alleles Frequency of the dominant allele is 'p' Frequency of the recessive allele is 'q' Calculate q by taking the square root of the number of homozygous recessive individuals Calculate p (the allele frequencies must equal 1, so p = 1 − q) Use p and q to calculate the other genotype frequencies: frequency of homozygous dominant individuals = p2 frequency of heterozygous individuals = 2pq frequency of homozygous recessives = q2 This may help: Hardy-Weinberg Punnett Square Try Another One... In a population of 130,000 magical mice, green fur is dominant over orange. If there are 300 orange mice in a population of 130,000, find the following (assume population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium): 1. Frequency of dominant (green) allele 2. Frequency of recessive (orange) allele 3. Frequency of each genotype
Views: 285662 ThePenguinProf
Inheritance Patterns | Reading Pedigree Charts
 
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Thanks for stopping by, today we are going to discuss how to determine inheritance patterns, so essentially how to read a pedigree chart. Like this one. If you are unfamiliar with pedigree charts or Mendelian genetics, you should watch some other videos before this one. We are going to create a flowchart to solve pedigrees, so you’ll simply take any given pedigree chart through a series of questions until you determine the inheritance pattern. And a note here, this flowchart we are going to build has a high degree of accuracy, but is not foolproof, the random nature of genetics make it impossible to be 100%. So let’s get started, the first two questions you’ll ask are, Are only males affected? AND are all sons of an affected father affected? If the answer is yes, then the pattern is Y linked, meaning a genetic disorder affiliated with the y chromosome. Only males possess a Y chromosome, so that means all males receive their Y chromosome from their father. A Y linked trait will never show up in males without affected father. If you reach this point, you have your solution. If the answer is no, Then we ask if there are there any cases were affected children do not have at least one affected parent. If yes, it’s recessive though we don’t know what type. Being recessive, they must have two affected alleles in order to express the disorder, therefore, an affected child can have unaffected parents because they're both carries. However, it is possible that their parents could still be affected. If the answer is no, then it is a dominant disorder, and thus an affected child must have an affected parent. You should note that dominant patterns usually see someone affected in every generation in each affected linage, this means that once you see an affected parent, you will usually see it in every generation thereafter. It doesn’t skip generations very often. Moving down the recessive line we need to ask two more questions. Are all sons of affected mother infected? And are more males affected in general? If yes, it is X-linked recessive, meaning it’s attached to the X chromosome, since males only have one X chromosome, they are more likely to show, whereas females have two Xs, so a good one can mask the mutated one. Also, Males always receive their X chromosome from their mother, so if she is affected, she will have two X chromosomes with the mutation, and all sons are guaranteed to end up with it. If the answer is no, then it is autosomal recessive by default. Essentially, males and females are affected evenly, and affected mothers have unaffected sons. Moving on down the dominant line, we ask Are all of the daughters of an affected father affected? If yes, then it is X linked dominant, males only have one X chromosome, which goes to their daughter, so all their daughters will have that mutation. If no, then it is autosomal dominant by default. If there is a case where an affected father has an unaffected daughter, or an affected daughter has an unaffected father, you know it can’t be X linked, because the father only has one X and that will always to go to the daughter. So this is the whole flow chart, eventually I’ll make a website and have a downloadable PDF available. I’ll link that in the comments whenever I get to making it. In the meantime, subscribe to my channel so that you’re around when I do create my website. Thanks for watching, I’ll catch you next time.
Views: 3801 2 Minute Classroom
Pedigree probability problems | Risk calculation
 
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Pedigree probability problems - lecture explains about how to solve genetics probability problems on pedigree analysis . this video lecture explains the Pedigree probability problems with example. Here I will share the trick about how to solve those Pedigree problems associated with probability. For more information, log on to- http://www.shomusbiology.com/ Get Shomu's Biology DVD set here- http://www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.com/bio-materials.html Remember Shomu’s Biology is created to spread the knowledge of life science and biology by sharing all this free biology lectures video and animation presented by Suman Bhattacharjee in YouTube. All these tutorials are brought to you for free. Please subscribe to our channel so that we can grow together. You can check for any of the following services from Shomu’s Biology- Buy Shomu’s Biology lecture DVD set- www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store Shomu’s Biology assignment services – www.shomusbiology.com/assignment -help Join Online coaching for CSIR NET exam – www.shomusbiology.com/net-coaching We are social. Find us on different sites here- Our Website – www.shomusbiology.com Facebook page- https://www.facebook.com/ShomusBiology/ Twitter - https://twitter.com/shomusbiology SlideShare- www.slideshare.net/shomusbiology Google plus- https://plus.google.com/113648584982732129198 LinkedIn - https://www.linkedin.com/in/suman-bhattacharjee-2a051661 Youtube- https://www.youtube.com/user/TheFunsuman Thank you for watching the genetics lecture on how to solve Pedigree probability problems.
Views: 49231 Shomu's Biology
How to solve problems and find genotype/phenotype as result of the cross?
 
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1. Genetic Crosses 2. Think About It... How can an offspring have a certain trait if neither of its parents displayed that trait? How many alleles does an offspring get from each parent? 3. Law of Segregation Each parent passes on ONE of two alleles to its offspring. LAW OF SEGREGATION: Each pair of alleles is segregated, or separated, during the formation of gametes. 4. Meiosis Aa A a A a Chromosomes double A A a a 5. Law of Independent Assortment Alleles for different characteristics are distributed to different gametes independently. 6. Example A In rabbits, brown fur (B) is dominant to white fur (b). If a rabbit is heterozygous for fur color, what gametes could be created? 7. Example B A rabbit is homozygous recessive for fur. What color is it? What percentage of its gametes would have the allele for brown fur? 8. Punnett Squares Chart that shows possible combinations when egg and sperm combine 9. Punnett Squares Draw a square as shown. Each box represents a possible combination of alleles in the offspring. 10. Punnett Squares Determine which alleles will be in the sex cells of each parent. Write the egg and sperm possibilities along the top and side. 11. Punnett Squares Copy the alleles into the boxes below and across from them. Calculate percentage of offspring with each phenotype. 12. Punnett Squares Your problems must display the following: Original cross Punnett Square Resulting phenotypes (# or percentage) Phenotype ratio 13. Example I In pot-bellied pigs, grey fur (G) is dominant to pink fur (g). A homozygous dominant male pig mates with a pink female pig. Predict the possible F 1 offspring. 14. Example II A man heterozygous for a cleft chin, a dominant trait, mates with a woman with no cleft chin. What percentage of their children will have a cleft chin? 15. Example III Pollen from a rose bush with red flowers, a dominant trait, was crossed to a second bush with red flowers. (White is the recessive trait.) If the first plant was homozygous and the second plant was heterozygous, predict the possibilities of their offspring. 16. Example IV In parrots, green feathers are dominant over red feathers. Two heterozygous birds are crossed. What are the possible genotypes of the F 1 generation? 17. F 1 Crosses A common cross involves crossing two individuals with opposing traits, one homozygous dominant and one homozygous recessive, the crossing their F 1 offspring to analyze the F 2 generation. 18. Example V Cross a homozygous dominant and homozygous recessive parrot, then cross two of the F 1 offspring. What is the ratio of dominant and recessive offspring in the F 2 ? G = green G = red 19. A Common Ratio Any time a homozygous dominant individual is crossed with a homozygous recessive individual, the F 2 generation will have a 3:1 ratio of dominant traits to recessive traits. 20. Pea Plant Experiments Experiment 1: Plant Height Mendel crossed a short plant with a tall plant. All offspring were tall. Crossing two of the offspring resulted in 787 tall plants and 277 short plants -- HOW??? 21. Pea Plant Experiments Experiment 2: Seed Color Mendel crossed a yellow-seed plant with a green-seed plant. All offspring had yellow seeds. Crossing two of the offspring resulted in 6,022 yellow-seed plants and 2001 green-seed plants -- HOW??? 22. Monohybrid Crosses The crosses we have been completing are called "monohybrid crosses" because they deal with only one trait. 23. Other Types of Inheritance 24. Types of Inheritance Dominant-Recessive Multiple Alleles Codominance Incomplete Dominance 25. Multiple Alleles Characteristics are determined by more than two alleles Example: human blood types (A, B, AB, O) 26. Incomplete Dominance Heterozygous individuals have a phenotype in-between the dominant and recessive phenotypes 27. Incomplete Dominance Carnations can be red, white, or pink R R = red R' R' = white R R' = pink 28. Example VI Cross a red carnation with a white carnation. What is the phenotype ratio? 29. Example VII Cross two F 1 carnations from the previous cross. What is the phenotype ratio of the F 2 generation? 30. Example VIII Chinchillas are fuzzy, South American rodents. Two alleles control their fur color: F, which represents black, and f, which represents white. Heterozygous chinchillas are grey. Cross a grey chinchilla male with a white female. Give the possible offspring colors and ratio. 31. Example VIII 32. Codominance Heterozygous individuals display both phenotypes Examples: Human blood type AB Roan horses = red and white fur Calico cats = orange and black fur 33. Example IX A roan mare, heterozygous for coat color, is crossed with a red stallion. Describe their offspring. (R codes for red while R' codes for white.) 34. Example X A calico cat has the genotype BB'. What is the ratio of F 2 offspring if a pure-breeding black cat (BB) is crossed with a pure-breeding orange cat (B'B'), and then their offspring are crossed?
How to calculate a genotype with a Rule of Probability
 
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The laws of probability govern Mendelian inheritance Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment reflect the same laws of probability that apply to tossing coins or rolling dice. The probability scale ranges from 0 (an event with no chance of occurring) to 1 (an event that is certain to occur). The probability of tossing heads with a normal coin is 1/2. The probability of rolling a 3 with a six-sided die is 1/6, and the probability of rolling any other number is 1 ? 1/6 = 5/6. When tossing a coin, the outcome of one toss has no impact on the outcome of the next toss. Each toss is an independent event, just like the distribution of alleles into gametes. Like a coin toss, each ovum from a heterozygous parent has a 1/2 chance of carrying the dominant allele and a 1/2 chance of carrying the recessive allele. The same odds apply to the sperm. We can use the multiplication rule to determine the chance that two or more independent events will occur together in some specific combination. Compute the probability of each independent event. Multiply the individual probabilities to obtain the overall probability of these events occurring together. The probability that two coins tossed at the same time will land heads up is 1/2 × 1/2 = 1/4. Similarly, the probability that a heterozygous pea plant (Pp) will self-fertilize to produce a white-flowered offspring (pp) is the chance that a sperm with a white allele will fertilize an ovum with a white allele. This probability is 1/2 × 1/2 = 1/4. The rule of multiplication also applies to dihybrid crosses. For a heterozygous parent (YyRr) the probability of producing a YR gamete is 1/2 × 1/2 = 1/4. We can use this to predict the probability of a particular F2 genotype without constructing a 16-part Punnett square. The probability that an F2 plant from heterozygous parents will have a YYRR genotype is 1/16 (1/4 chance for a YR ovum and 1/4 chance for a YR sperm). The rule of addition also applies to genetic problems. Under the rule of addition, the probability of an event that can occur two or more different ways is the sum of the separate probabilities of those ways. For example, there are two ways that F1 gametes can combine to form a heterozygote. The dominant allele could come from the sperm and the recessive from the ovum (probability = 1/4). Or the dominant allele could come from the ovum and the recessive from the sperm (probability = 1/4). The probability of obtaining a heterozygote is 1/4 + 1/4 = 1/2. We can combine the rules of multiplication and addition to solve complex problems in Mendelian genetics. Let's determine the probability of an offspring having two recessive phenotypes for at least two of three traits resulting from a trihybrid cross between pea plants that are PpYyRr and Ppyyrr. There are five possible genotypes that fulfill this condition: ppyyRr, ppYyrr, Ppyyrr, PPyyrr, and ppyyrr. We can use the rule of multiplication to calculate the probability for each of these genotypes and then use the rule of addition to pool the probabilities for fulfilling the condition of at least two recessive traits. The probability of producing a ppyyRr offspring: The probability of producing pp = 1/2 × 1/2 = 1/4. The probability of producing yy = 1/2 × 1 = 1/2. The probability of producing Rr = 1/2 × 1 = 1/2. Therefore, the probability of all three being present (ppyyRr) in one offspring is 1/4 × 1/2 × 1/2 = 1/16. For ppYyrr: 1/4 × 1/2 × 1/2 = 1/16. For Ppyyrr: 1/2 × 1/2 × 1/2 = 1/8 or 2/16. For PPyyrr: 1/4 × 1/2 × 1/2 = 1/16. For ppyyrr: 1/4 × 1/2 × 1/2 = 1/16. Therefore, the chance that a given offspring will have at least two recessive traits is 1/16 + 2/16 + 1/16 + 1/16 = 6/16. Mendel discovered the particulate behavior of genes: a review. While we cannot predict with certainty the genotype or phenotype of any particular seed from the F2 generation of a dihybrid cross, we can predict the probability that it will have a specific genotype or phenotype. Mendel's experiments succeeded because he counted so many offspring, was able to discern the statistical nature of inheritance, and had a keen sense of the rules of chance. Mendel's laws of independent assortment and segregation explain heritable variation in terms of alternative forms of genes that are passed along according to simple rules of probability. These laws apply not just to garden peas, but to all diploid organisms that reproduce by sexual reproduction. Mendel's studies of pea inheritance endure not only in genetics, but as a case study of the power of scientific reasoning using the hypothetico-deductive approach.
7N - Problem 2: Inferring parent genotype from offspring genotypes
 
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7N.mp4 This is Lecture 7N of the free online course Useful Genetics Part 2. All of the lectures are on YouTube in the Useful Genetics library. Register for the full course here: https://www.edx.org/course/useful-genetics-part-2-genes-genetic-ubcx-usegen-2x
Views: 3187 Useful Genetics
Inheritance Patterns in Genetics
 
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Erika Tan lists and describes the different complex inheritance patterns found other than Mendelian genetics. *** If there are any pictures used in this video, they are NOT MINE and I will not take credit for them. *** TRANSCRIPT: It’s important to at least know about Mendelian genetics before reviewing the complex inheritance patterns found in biology. So first of all is complete dominance: the simplest one. You probably already know what it is: when we cross two organisms, their offspring can have different phenotypes depending on if they get dominant or recessive alleles. This is when we see blue eyes and brown eyes: the blue eye allele is recessive and the brown eye allele is dominant. When we cross two heterozygotes, which means that both of the parents have both alleles, we get this ratio in the Punnett square: 1 to 2 to 1. However, that’s only the ratio for the genotype of the organism. When we talk about phenotype, we see that the ratio is 3 to 1 because these three will have brown eyes since they have at least one dominant allele, and this last one will have blue eyes since it has two recessive alleles. Incomplete dominance is when you see an intermediate between two distinct phenotypes. If you breed one red snapdragon with one white snapdragon, you get a pink one. It’s not really a blending of the colors, since later on, a pure red or a pure white snapdragon can still come about. Here’s the genetics behind all of this: we’ll use this variable, C, to stand for color. This red snapdragon will have to alleles: Cr and Cr, while the white snapdragon will have two alleles called Cw and Cw. Notice that I’m not using the capital r and lowercase r like I would for a regular complete dominant cross, since both of the alleles in this situation would have an equal presence. Anyways, when we cross the snapdragon alleles in a Punnett square like this, we get this result. And when we cross two of THEIR offspring, we get THIS result: the ratio of 1 to 2 to 1. And this time, the phenotypic ratio is the same: 1 to 2 to 1, since this single snapdragon will be red, these two will be pink, and this last one will be white. Now let’s move on to codominance. This one is kind of like incomplete dominance, except there isn’t an intermediate phenotype – instead, there’s a phenotype in which both characteristics are seen. A really common example of this would be blood type. You know, there’s blood type A, B, AB, and O. But we can determine this on a genetically molecular level: the fact that there’s a blood type AB shows that codominance is occurring. Immunoglobin A results in blood type A, Ib results in blood type B, and lowercase I represents blood type O. Both Ia and Ib are dominant, while O is recessive. That means if you’re blood type A, you can either be Ia Ia or Ia i. This is saying that you have type A molecules on your red blood cells. But, if you’re type AB, you can only be Ia Ib. Both phenotypes A and B will show on the red blood cell. Remember, it’s not an intermediate; it’s a circumstance in which both traits show. Blood types are also a good example of multiple alleles, which is when there are more than just two forms of a gene. For example, the allele for the blood type gene can either be Ia, Ib, or i. Alright, so pleiotropy! This is when a mutation in one gene impacts many different phenotypic traits. An example of this would be the disease called cystic fibrosis, where mucus buildup damages the lungs and other systems of the body. The fact that a single gene is able to affect multiple systems and characteristics of your body proves that cystic fibrosis is a common model of pleiotropy. Next up is epistasis, which is when one gene can mask the expression of another. So let’s say that a mouse has a gene for fur color: it can either be brown or black. Black is the dominant allele, and brown is the recessive allele. But there’s also another gene that determines if the mouse has any color at all! So we’ll say that capital C stands for color, and lowercase c, which is the recessive allele, will stand for no color. So a mouse has this genotype (BbCc). The presence of the uppercase B determines that the mouse will be black, since it’s a dominant allele and it doesn’t matter if there’s a dominant or recessive allele afterwards, and the presence of the uppercase C verifies that the mouse will indeed be black because it will have color. But what if we changed that uppercase C into a lowercase one? Then the mouse would be white, because the genes for color would be no color no color. So, this gene masks this one, and it doesn’t matter if the mouse has brown or black alleles anymore. Last up is the influence that the environment has on genes. What’s in the environment surrounding an organism will impact the phenotype of the organism. For instance, the pH of the soil influences the color of hydrangea flowers. That means color in hydrangeas isn’t necessarily genetic, it relies on the pH value of the soil.
Views: 1998 Tangerine Education
Autosomal Dominant & Autosomal Recessive
 
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Punnett Squares & Autosomal traits
Views: 9304 Lori Lambert-Osburn
Interpreting Pedigrees - Autosomal Recessive
 
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Determining the mode of inheritance - autosomal recessive This is one in a series of videos investigating the possible modes of inheritance for a specific pedigree. images from Wikipedia
Views: 1060 bionerdery
X Linked Dominant Pedigree
 
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Views: 48615 Biologybyme
Sex-linked traits | Biomolecules | MCAT | Khan Academy
 
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Chromosomal basis of sex. Sex-linked traits. Created by Sal Khan. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/biomolecules/chromosomal-inheritance/v/punnett-square-fun?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=mcat Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/biomolecules/chromosomal-inheritance/v/evidence-that-dna-is-genetic-material-2?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=mcat MCAT on Khan Academy: Go ahead and practice some passage-based questions! About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s MCAT channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCDkK5wqSuwDlJ3_nl3rgdiQ?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Views: 685106 Khan Academy
Sex Linked Traits
 
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This video talks explains sex linked traits with an example and the punnett square.
Views: 89428 MontagnaScience
How to Interpret Pedigrees for AP Biology
 
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Erika Tan walks through a sample pedigree diagram. *** If there are any pictures used in this video, they are NOT MINE and I will not take credit for them. *** TRANSCRIPT: Pedigrees are used to determine if a trait is dominant, recessive, sex-linked, or autosomal. A lot of these types of questions tend to pop up on the AP exam, too, so they’re important to pay attention to. Here I’ve got a sample pedigree for you. The circles symbolize females and the squares symbolize males. Any shape that’s colored in represents a person that has an attached earlobe. Now, our job is to find out whether the attached earlobe is dominant or recessive, and whether it’s autosomal or sex-linked. By the way, autosomal traits are traits that aren’t located on the sex chromosomes, so they’re any traits that aren’t sex-linked. So, there aren’t any genotypes shown here, just colored and blank shapes. How are we going to solve this? Well, we can see in this section that the parents don’t have an attached earlobe, but one of their children does. Let’s think about it: if the parents were hybrids, we’ll say that they have one dominant earlobe allele and one recessive earlobe allele each. When we solve the Punnett square, we get this. Three of the children have the dominant phenotype like the parents, and one child has the recessive phenotype. Now we know that having an attached earlobe is recessive, because this genotype is the only one with a phenotype other than the parents. So, that phenotype must be this child. And, we know that the child has attached earlobes because his box is colored in. Therefore, attached earlobes are a recessive trait because the child has a recessive genotype. Now let’s try to figure out if this trait is sex-linked or autosomal. In this section of the pedigree, we see that the parents are not affected, but one of their children is. So let’s just ASSUME that this trait IS sex-linked. If that were the case, then the father wouldn’t have an affected X chromosome. So, his genotype would be XY. Now, the mother could either have no affected X chromosomes or one affected X chromosome, since we know it’s a recessive trait and even if she has one affected X chromosome, she won’t express the trait because it’s recessive. Now, let’s take a look at the Punnett squares for this cross. In this Punnett square with the mother having one affected X chromosome, we see that one of the daughters is a carrier, and the other isn’t. In this other Punnett square with the mother having no affected X chromosomes, both possible daughters have no affected X chromosomes either. Well, neither of these match up with the pedigree that we have originally, because in this pedigree, we have one daughter who DOES express the trait, meaning she MUST have two affected X chromosomes since the trait is recessive. Therefore, we know that the trait is not sex-linked, because in these Punnett squares, none of the possible daughters have two affected X chromosomes. And there it is: the trait is autosomal recessive. The key thing to examining pedigrees is to try different combinations like we did with the Punnett squares. Once you can prove if a trait is recessive or not, or sex-linked or not, then you can figure it out from there.
Views: 351 Tangerine Education
Biology Inheritance Principle part 8 (Genotypes & Phenotypes) class 12 XII
 
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Biology Inheritance Principle part 8 (Genotypes & Phenotypes) class 12 XII
Views: 32564 ExamFear Education
Probabilities in Genetics
 
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If interested, enroll in my biology course at www.udemy.com (biology course with the frog pic)
Views: 22089 ProfAmann