This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:
History of Minnesota
00:02:20 1 Native American inhabitation
00:06:12 2 European exploration
00:11:36 3 Territorial foundation and settlement
00:11:46 3.1 Land acquisition
00:13:34 3.2 Fort Snelling and the establishment of Minneapolis and Saint Paul
00:19:16 3.3 Early European settlement and development
00:21:15 3.4 Minnesota Territory
00:22:55 3.5 Statehood
00:26:24 4 Civil War era and Dakota War of 1862
00:29:33 5 Economic and social development
00:29:43 5.1 Farming and railroad development
00:33:51 5.2 Industrial development
00:35:34 5.3 Mayo Clinic
00:36:55 5.4 Urbanization and government
00:38:46 5.5 Great Depression
00:41:52 6 Modern Minnesota
00:42:01 6.1 Arts and culture
00:44:05 6.2 Minnesota in World War II
00:46:21 6.3 Modern economy
00:48:11 6.4 The digital state
00:49:40 6.5 Postwar politics
00:57:59 7 See also
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"The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing."
The history of the U.S. state of Minnesota is shaped by its original Native American residents, European exploration and settlement, and the emergence of industries made possible by the state's natural resources. Minnesota achieved prominence through fur trading, logging, and farming, and later through railroads, and iron mining. While those industries remain important, the state's economy is now driven by banking, computers, and health care.
The earliest known settlers followed herds of large game to the region during the last glacial period. They preceded the Anishinaabe, the Dakota, and other Native American inhabitants. Fur traders from France arrived during the 17th century. Europeans moving west during the 19th century, drove out most of the Native Americans. Fort Snelling, built to protect United States territorial interests, brought early settlers to the area. Early settlers used Saint Anthony Falls for powering sawmills in the area that became Minneapolis, while others settled downriver in the area that became Saint Paul.
Minnesota gained legal existence as the Minnesota Territory in 1849, and became the 32nd U.S. state on May 11, 1858. After the upheaval of the American Civil War and the Dakota War of 1862, the state's economy started to develop when natural resources were tapped for logging and farming. Railroads attracted immigrants, established the farm economy, and brought goods to market. The power provided by St. Anthony Falls spurred the growth of Minneapolis, and the innovative milling methods gave it the title of the "milling capital of the world".
New industry came from iron ore, discovered in the north, mined relatively easily from open pits, and shipped to Great Lakes steel mills from the ports at Duluth and Two Harbors. Economic development and social changes led to an expanded role for state government and a population shift from rural areas to cities. The Great Depression brought layoffs in mining and tension in labor relations but New Deal programs helped the state. After World War II, Minnesota became known for technology, fueled by early computer companies Sperry Rand, Control Data and Cray. The Twin Cities also became a regional center for the arts with cultural institutions such as the Guthrie Theater, Minnesota Orchestra, and the Walker Art Center.