This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:
00:03:04 1 Biology
00:03:13 1.1 Ecology
00:15:45 1.2 Epidemiology
00:25:24 1.3 Microbiology
00:29:30 1.4 Immunology
00:34:59 2 Chemistry
00:35:07 2.1 Electro-chemistry
00:37:52 2.2 Food chemistry
00:41:27 2.3 Inorganic chemistry
00:45:04 2.4 Organic chemistry
00:50:56 3 Engineering
00:51:05 3.1 Civil engineering
00:53:29 3.2 Hydraulic engineering
00:54:48 3.3 Food engineering
00:57:28 3.4 Structural engineering
00:59:38 3.5 Petroleum engineering
01:01:01 4 Inventors
01:14:48 5 Mathematics
01:14:57 5.1 Calculus
01:24:00 6 Medicine
01:24:09 6.1 Experimental medicine
01:31:21 6.2 Internal medicine
01:35:25 6.3 Surgery
01:44:10 7 Physics
01:44:19 7.1 Astrophysics
01:49:01 7.2 Particle physics
01:51:45 7.3 Theoretical physics
01:53:27 8 Social sciences
01:53:36 8.1 Education
01:56:20 8.2 Sociology
02:01:11 8.3 Science journalism
02:03:31 9 Technology
02:03:40 9.1 Computer science
02:11:10 9.2 Materials Technology
02:13:18 10 Scientific institutions
02:17:29 11 See also
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Speaking Rate: 0.7382326410246569
Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-D
"I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think."
Science and technology in Venezuela includes research based on exploring Venezuela's diverse ecology and the lives of its indigenous peoples.
Under the Spanish rule, the monarchy made very little effort to promote education in the American colonies and in particular in those in which they had less commercial interest, as in Venezuela. The country only had its first university some two hundred years later than Mexico, Colombia or Peru.
The first studies on the native languages of Venezuela and the indigenous customs were made in the middle of the XVIII century by the Catholic missionaries. The Italian Jesuit Filippo Salvatore Gilii was one of the first to theorize about linguistic relations and propose possible language families for the Orinoco river basin. The Swedish botanist Pehr Löfling, one of the 12 Apostles of Carl Linnaeus, classificated for the first time the exhuberant tropical flora of the Orinoco river basin.
In the XIX century several scientists visited Venezuela such as Alexander Humboldt, Aimé Bonpland, Agostino Codazzi, Jean-Baptiste Boussingault, Mariano Rivero, François de Pons, Robert Hermann Schomburgk, Wilhelm Sievers, Carl Ferdinand Appun, Gustav Karsten, Adolf Ernst, Benedikt Roezl, Karl Moritz, Friedrich Gerstäcker, Anton Goering, Johann Gottlieb Benjamin Siegert, Alfred Russel Wallace, Jean Chaffanjon, Émile-Arthur Thouar, Jules Crevaux and many others, some of whom are buried in Venezuela.
The Venezuelan Institute for Scientific Research (IVIC) founded on February 9, 1959 by government decree, has its origins in the Venezuelan Institute of Neurology and Brain Research (IVNIC) which Dr. Humberto Fernandez Moran founded in 1955.
Other major research institutions include the Central University of Venezuela and the University of the Andes, Venezuela.
Notable Venezuelan scientists include nineteenth century physician José María Vargas , the chemist Vicente Marcano and the botanist and geographer Alfredo Jahn (1867–1940). More recently, Baruj Benacerraf shared the 1980 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Augusto Pi Sunyer (1955), Aristides Bastidas (1980), Marcel Roche (1987) and Marisela Salvatierra (2002) have been recipients of UNESCO's Kalinga Prize for promotion of the public understanding of science. On July 2, 2012, L. Rafael Reif – a Venezuelan American electrical engineer, inventor and academic administrator – was elected president of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.