Search results “Cryptosporidium infection in immunocompromised patients diet”
Cryptosporidium: What You Should Know
Cryptosporidium lives in the intestine of infected humans and animals. It is a microscopic parasite that may be found in soil, food, water, or surfaces that have been contaminated with the feces from an infected host. Cryptosporidiosis is the name of the diarrheal disease caused by Cryptosporidium. Both the disease and the parasite are commonly referred to as "Crypto." An infected person or animal sheds the parasites in their stool. In fact, millions of the parasites can be released in a bowel movement from an infected human or animal. The parasite is protected by an outer shell that allows it to survive outside the body for long periods of time and makes it very resistant to chlorine-based disinfectants. Crypto can be spread: • By putting something in your mouth or accidentally swallowing something that has come into contact with waste infected with Crypto. • By swallowing recreational water contaminated with Crypto. • By swallowing contaminated water or beverages. • By eating uncooked food contaminated with Crypto. • By touching your mouth with contaminated hands. People in buildings that have suffered from a sanitary sewer overflow or due to a flooding event should be aware of this parasite. Child care workers who change diapers and healthcare workers are also at risk. The most common symptom of cryptosporidiosis is watery diarrhea. Other symptoms include: • Stomach cramps or pain • Dehydration • Nausea • Vomiting • Fever • Weight loss Some people with Crypto will have no symptoms at all. While the small intestine is the site most commonly affected, Crypto infections could possibly affect other areas of the digestive tract or the respiratory tract. These are just a few things to know about Cryptosporidium, to learn more about this or other environmental, health and safety, occupational or indoor environmental issues, please visit the websites shown on the video.
Views: 26268 Paul Cochrane
Cryptosporidiosis in calves - AHDB Dairy
Cryptosporidium in young calves can impact the animal not just during the time it is infected but throughout its growing period. Understanding the routes of infection and the role that management has to play in minimising risks are covered in this webinar with Dr Beth Wells of Moredun Research Institute.
Views: 2563 AHDB Dairy
Views: 827 shikha gupta
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Views: 179 Health Apta
Parasites of the Immunocompromised Host: Cyclospora
Cyclospora cayatenensis. All images are used for educational purposes only and are owned by their respective owners.
Views: 262 #KILrMind Alpha
Cryptosporidium - Water born parasite will sure make ya poop!
This parasite can live up to 10 days in chlorinated water like swimming pools. But, there is good news..... www.thesecretsofeden.com 1-888-820-2126
Views: 4040 Rick Strawcutter
Cryptosporidium Symptoms, Treatment, Causes and Cures - A Guide to Understanding Cryptosporidium
Cryptosporidium Symptoms, Treatment, Causes and Cures - A Health Guide to Understanding Cryptosporidium. Subscribe this channel to watch more motivational, inspirational, valuable and informative videos to soothe, cleanse and inspire your health, mind, body and spirit. Stay tuned and keep watching. YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/user/HealthMindBodySpirit Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/ashvercom Twitter: https://twitter.com/ashvercom
Diarrhea-causing 'crypto' parasite cases spike around Ohio
A dip in the pool is one way to beat the heat this hot, humid summer, but it also can spread illness ◂ WCPO - 9 On Your Side brings you the latest trusted news and information for the greater Cincinnati Tri-State area, including Northern Kentucky and Indiana. WCPO Channel 9 News brings you breaking news alerts, weather, traffic, streaming video and in-depth coverage of topics important to you and your community. For more download the WCPO mobile app: iPhone: http://bit.ly/iOS-wcpo Android: http://bit.ly/wcpo-android
AIDS Infections and Malignancies | NCLEX Review 2019
*Subscribe for more great NCLEX videos: https://www.goo.gl/8mBXbY Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is an acquired infection that causes severe immune dysfunction. HIV infection causes the person to be unusually susceptible to other life-threatening infections and malignancies. HIV is caused by a retrovirus that in its most serious form, results in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Click here: https://www.mometrix.com/academy/nclex-exam/drug-suffixes/ ► Visit: http://www.mometrix.com/academy ► Subscribe to more free test preparation videos: http://bit.ly/1dJH1yb ► Follow Mometrix Academy on Pinterest: http://bit.ly/1hZE2Jj ► Learn more About Us: http://bit.ly/1ewIADC
Views: 6575 NCLEX Study Guide
The Time When Killing Animals Infected 400,000 People
The time when killing animals (most likely) infected 400,000 people, resulting in the largest outbreak of its kind in the United States. Oops. - Links and Sources - https://www.patreon.com/micthevegan https://www.facebook.com/micthevegan https://www.instagram.com/micthevegan - @micthevegan https://plantspace.org My Cookbook: https://micthevegan.com/product/mics-whole-vegan-cookbook/ TIY Tiny House Channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCYhthOBh4_459pAge62at8g Amazon Wish List: http://a.co/aTEpQpK Main Study: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM199407213310304 Death Toll Source: https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jvms/60/5/60_5_585/_pdf Cost Study: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2957981/ Life cycle: https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/crypto/pathogen.html Source for sampling not standard in 1993 quote: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK28459/ Peck Lawsuit Article: https://www.bizjournals.com/milwaukee/stories/1998/12/14/daily5.html Milwaukee Stockyards are the largest veal and calf market: https://www.upi.com/Archives/1985/03/03/Milwaukee-Stockyards-strongest-cow-market-in-country/7038478674000/ Calves Higher Risk: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/70117/WHO_HSE_WSH_09.04_eng.pdf;jsessionid=3E1537A17BD17B39C83203DB70488B2D?sequence=1 Dairy Article Using 90% Stat: https://hoards.com/article-6433-cryptosporidium-parvum-is-silently-stealing-pounds--and-threatening-your-family.html 30% US Beef calves were infected in 1993. http://sds.hss.cmu.edu/risk/articles/crypto.pdf Stockyard Flush Risk Study: https://academic.oup.com/epirev/article/18/2/118/476317 Study on Fecal Contamination: http://jfoodprotection.org/doi/pdf/10.4315/0362-028X-68.7.1340 Milwaukee Stockyards Moved in 1994: http://www.wdtimes.com/news/local/article_c3409b8b-ae77-5dd6-abbd-ff315b7bb136.html Cattle Main infection source outside of US: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK28459/ Gov Paper on Scale of Livestock Waste in US: https://www.gao.gov/archive/1999/rc99205.pdf Top 10 food borne infections: https://folio.iupui.edu/handle/10244/1022 Cattle Highly Suspected Article: https://newspaperarchive.com/bluefield-daily-telegraph-oct-16-1993-p-75/ 403,000 Cases Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2957981/ Milwaukee Footage Credits: @jmke.photography: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rQsjba_FEYo Adrian Campos: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UrnjdyrMhCc Jon Baumann https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4UkhvZ1X8Dw American Water Works: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1yyXHqkl9bc Sedução Momentânea by Roulet: http://freemusicarchive.org/music/Roulet/Beats_dAmor/Roulet_-_Beats_dAmor_-_07_Seduo_Momentnea
Views: 27107 Mic the Vegan
Water transmission parasites
II Workshop Bioauga - Water transmission parasites Detection and control In this congress we are about to study the different adopted measures by the enterprises for the right control, study,. Kristen Jellison, assistant professor of civil and environmental engineering, seeks ways of reducing the waterborne transmission of Cryptosporidium parvum, a parasite that can cause life-threatenin. Our stop-motion video follows the life cycle of Schistosoma, a life-threatening parasite that can live in water, snails and even people. Learn more about how Museum scientists and collections.
Views: 18 Josette Macky
What Is Candida? | Stomach Problems
Watch more How to Prevent Stomach Problems & Digestive Disorders videos: http://www.howcast.com/videos/504395-What-Is-Candida-Stomach-Problems Candida's actually a fungal infection and it's fairly common. It most commonly affects the skin or vaginal flora or in the mouth or nails. It usually can be treated quite well with an anti-fungal agent. In cases of systemic infections which happens in people who are immunocompromised whether they're Cancer patients or HIV or AIDS patients they need a systemic anti-fungal agent to help clear up the infection. There has been some discussion or some controversy whether Candida affects the digestive track and if it may cause some digestive complaints. It can infect the esophagus, in which case you have problems swallowing or painful swallowing. Again that happens in patients that have some sort of immunocompromised state. There has been some discussion that it causes some GI discomfort or joint pains or some sort of systemic infection. But it's still debatable and it's questionable if it does contribute to those systems as well.
Views: 5694 Howcast
Cryptosporidium parvum project
Food science project
Views: 152 griffer22
Babesiosis - Medical Meaning
https://word2speech.com/medical/ Babesiosis Babesiosis: An illness caused by the parasite Babesia which is transmitted from animals to humans by ticks. In the US, it is typically contracted in the Northeast or Midwest -- in southern New England or New York State and in Wisconsin or Minnesota. The signs and symptoms include fever, chills, sweating, myalgias (muscle aches), fatigue, hepatosplenomegaly (enlargement of the liver and spleen) and hemolytic anemia (anemia due to break-up of red cells). Symptoms typically occur after an incubation period of 1 to 4 weeks and can last several weeks. The disease is more severe in patients who are immunosuppressed, splenectomized (lack their spleen), or elderly. It can cause death. Treatment involves antibiotics, usually clindamycin and quinine or atovaquone and azithromycin. The parasite: While more than 100 species of Babesia have been reported, only a few have been identified as causing human infections. Babesia microti and Babesia divergens have been identified in most human cases, but variants (considered different species) have been recently identified. Little is known about the occurrence of Babesia species in malarial areas where Babesia can easily be misdiagnosed as Plasmodium (the agent of malaria). The life cycle of the parasite: (This contains some technical information.) The B. microti life cycle involves two hosts, which includes a rodent, primarily the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus. During a blood meal, a Babesia-infected tick introduces sporozoites into the mouse host. Sporozoites enter erythrocytes and undergo asexual reproduction (budding). In the blood, some parasites differentiate into male and female gametes although these cannot be distinguished at the light microscope level. The definitive host is a tick, in this case the deer tick, Ixodes dammini (I. scapularis). Once ingested by an appropriate tick, gametes unite and undergo a sporogonic cycle resulting in sporozoites. Transovarial transmission (also known as vertical, or hereditary, transmission) has been documented for large Babesia spp. but not for the small babesia, such as B. microti. Humans enter the cycle when bitten by infected ticks. During a blood meal, a Babesia-infected tick introduces sporozoites into the human host. Sporozoites enter erythrocytes and undergo asexual replication (budding). Multiplication of the blood stage parasites is responsible for the clinical manifestations of the disease. Humans are, for all practical purposes, dead-end hosts and there is probably little, if any, subsequent transmission that occurs from ticks feeding on infected persons. However, human to human transmission can occur through blood transfusions. Deer are the hosts upon which the adult ticks feed and are indirectly part of the Babesia cycle as they influence the tick population. When deer populations increase, the tick population also increases, thus heightening the potential for transmission. How to pronounce, definition of, audio dictionary, medical dictionary
Views: 246 Medical Dictionary
Cat scat fever: Biology of the prevalent human parasite _Toxoplasma gondii_ .
Kicking off this Summer's (2018) Undergraduate Research Seminars: Dr. Michael Behnke is currently an Assistant Professor in the Department of Pathobiological Sciences at the School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, where he is studying the Apicomplexan parasite _Toxoplasma gondii_ . In his presentation to the Louisiana Biomedical Research Network Summer Undergraduate Program, Dr. Behnke discusses his current research and how he got to where he is today. More can be read about Dr. Behnke and his research at: http://facultypages.vetmed.lsu.edu/faculty/mbehnke This recording was made on July 5, 2018 at LSU Life Science Annex A101.
Cryptosporidiosis | Wikipedia audio article
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Cryptosporidiosis 00:01:04 1 Signs and symptoms 00:02:33 1.1 Intestinal cryptosporidiosis 00:03:34 1.2 Respiratory cryptosporidiosis 00:04:09 2 Cause 00:06:22 2.1 Transmission 00:08:25 2.2 Life cycle 00:10:13 3 Pathogenesis 00:11:39 4 Diagnosis 00:13:21 5 Prevention 00:17:20 6 Treatment 00:17:49 6.1 Immunocompetent 00:18:40 6.2 Immunocompromised 00:20:52 7 Epidemiology 00:21:39 8 History 00:21:55 9 Research 00:23:33 10 Other animals 00:24:05 11 Notable cases 00:24:14 11.1 Before 2000 00:25:56 11.2 2001–2009 00:30:15 11.3 2010 and later 00:32:19 12 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Cryptosporidiosis, also known as crypto, is a parasitic disease caused by Cryptosporidium, a genus of protozoan parasites in the phylum Apicomplexa. It affects the distal small intestine and can affect the respiratory tract in both immunocompetent (i.e., individuals with a normal functioning immune system) and immunocompromised (e.g., persons with HIV/AIDS or autoimmune disorders) individuals, resulting in watery diarrhea with or without an unexplained cough. In immunosuppressed individuals, the symptoms are particularly severe and can be fatal. It is primarily spread through the fecal-oral route, often through contaminated water; recent evidence suggests that it can also be transmitted via fomites in respiratory secretions.Cryptosporidium is commonly isolated in HIV-positive patients presenting with diarrhea. Despite not being identified until 1976, it is one of the most common waterborne diseases and is found worldwide. The infection beings when a human consumes food or water containing cysts of the Cryptosporidium organism.
Views: 21 wikipedia tts
Reducing Waterborne Transmission of Parasites
Kristen Jellison, assistant professor of civil and environmental engineering, seeks ways of reducing the waterborne transmission of Cryptosporidium parvum, a parasite that can cause life-threatening gastrointestinal illness in persons with compromised immune systems.
Views: 699 Lehigh University
Isospora suis-infected pig intestine
Section of Isospora suis-infected pig intestine stained with hematoxylin and eosin
Views: 4306 multilocularis
Case Study - GIMAP Gut Testing
Want to see how I heal a client’s gut? Today I am going through the Case Study of my client, Lacey. Lacey had chronic constipation, fatigue, migraines and bloating. She had tried everything! Let’s take a look at what came up on her gut panel and the protocol I used to reverse her symptoms and heal her gut. Grab the case study document with Lacey's tests and the diet, lifestyle and supplement recommendations I used to help her reverse her symptoms. Just comment "Amazing" in the comments and I'll send it to you via Facebook messenger. Want to learn how my Gut Fix 180 can help you heal IBS and other chronic GI symptoms (i.e., gas, bloating, pain and multiple food sensitivities)? Book your free consult: https://kendraperrynutrition.practicebetter.io/#/5b00569667c6b907ec4f8753/bookings?s=5b0ef88867c6b911707be700 Get my free Hormone Imbalance Cheat Sheet: https://go.kendraperry.net/free-hormone-imbalance-cheat-sheet Learn more about me: http://kendraperry.net
পোষা প্রাণী কি শ্বাসযন্ত্রের জন্য খারাপ ।Health tips in bangla।। Dr.partho
Zoonoses are infectious diseases of animals (usually vertebrates) that can naturally be transmitted to humans. Major modern diseases such as Ebola virus disease and salmonellosis are zoonoses. HIV was a zoonotic disease transmitted to humans in the early part of the 20th century, though it has now evolved to a separate human-only disease. Most strains of influenza that infect humans are human diseases, although many strains of swine and bird flu are zoonoses; these viruses occasionally recombine with human strains of the flu and can cause pandemics such as the 1918 Spanish flu or the 2009 swine flu. Taenia solium infection is one of the neglected tropical diseases with public health and veterinary concern in endemic regions.Zoonoses can be caused by a range of disease pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites; of 1,415 pathogens known to infect humans, 61% were zoonotic.Most human diseases originated in animals; however, only diseases that routinely involve animal to human transmission, like rabies, are considered direct zoonosis. Zoonoses have different modes of transmission. In direct zoonosis the disease is directly transmitted from animals to humans through media such as air (influenza) or through bites and saliva (rabies).In contrast, transmission can also occur via an intermediate species (referred to as a vector), which carry the disease pathogen without getting infected. When humans infect animals, it is called reverse zoonosis or anthroponosis. Zoonotic transmission can occur in any context in which there is companionistic (pets), economic (farming, etc.), predatory (hunting, butchering or consuming wild game) or research contact with or consumption of animals, animal products, or animal derivatives (vaccines, etc.). The most significant zoonotic pathogens causing foodborne diseases are Escherichia coli O157:H7, Campylobacter, Caliciviridae, and Salmonella] In 2006, a conference held in Berlin was focusing on the issue of zoonotic pathogen effects on food safety, urging governments to intervene, and the public to be vigilant towards the risks of catching food-borne diseases from farm-to-dining table. Many food outbreaks can be linked to zoonotic pathogens. Many different types of food can be contaminated that have an animal origin. Some common foods linked to zoonotic contaminations include eggs, seafood, meat, dairy, and even some vegetables.]Food outbreaks should be handled in preparedness plans to prevent widespread outbreaks and to efficiently and effectively contain outbreaks.Contact with farm animals can lead to disease in farmers or others that come into contact with infected animals. Glanders primarily affects those who work closely with horses and donkeys. Close contact with cattle can lead to cutaneous anthrax infection, whereas inhalation anthrax infection is more common for workers in slaughterhouses, tanneries and wool mills. Close contact with sheep who have recently given birth can lead to clamydiosis, or enzootic abortion, in pregnant women, as well as an increased risk of Q fever, toxoplasmosis, and listeriosis in pregnant or the otherwise immunocompromised. Echinococcosis is caused by a tapeworm which can be spread from infected sheep by food or water contaminated with feces or wool. Bird flu is common in chickens. While rare in humans, the main public health worry is that a strain of bird flu will recombine with a human flu virus and cause a pandemic like the 1918 Spanish flu. In 2017, free range chickens in the UK were temporarily ordered to remain inside due to the threat of bird flu. Cattle are an important reservoir of cryptosporidiosis[15] and mainly affects the immunocompromised.Pets can transmit a number of diseases. Dogs and cats are routinely vaccinated against rabies. Pets can also transmit ringworm and Giardia, which are endemic in both animal and human populations. Toxoplasmosis is a common infection of cats; in humans it is a mild disease although it can be dangerous to pregnant women. Dirofilariasis is caused by Dirofilaria immitis through mosquitoes infected by mammals like dogs and cats. Cat-scratch disease is caused by Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana from fleas which are endemic in cats. Toxocariasis is infection of humans of any of species of roundworm, including species specific to the dog (Toxocara canis) or the cat (Toxocara cati). Cryptosporidiosis can be spread to humans from pet lizards, such as the leopard gecko. WHO. "Zoonoses". Retrieved 18 December 2014.
Views: 191 Dr Partho
CDC ZOHU Call March 2018
CDC ZOHU Call March 2018 Comments on this video are allowed in accordance with our comment policy: http://www.cdc.gov/SocialMedia/Tools/CommentPolicy.html This video can also be viewed at https://www.cdc.gov/wcms/video/low-res/onehealth/2018/13151315One_Health_Update_Call.mp4
Food Safety Partnership: Food Code Training
This Food Safety Partnership training focuses on the Minnesota Food Code that will be implemented on January 1, 2019. Trainers reviewed 20 major changes about the food code that affect regulators and regulated food agencies. Jump to a particular point in the video by clicking on the hyperlinked timecode below. 00:02:20 Rule Making Requirements 00:07:15 Online Foodborne and Waterborne Illness Report Form 00:27:35 Time/Temperature Control for Safety Food 00:36:28 Priority 1, Priority 2, Priority 3 00:41:17 Certified Food Protection Manager 00:49:15 Highly Susceptible Population 00:54:26 Consumer Advisory 00:58:47 Hot Holding Temperatures 01:02:04 Variances Required for Specialized Processes 01:07:29 Time as a Public Health Control 01:12:04 Wild Mushrooms 01:19:27 Date Marking of Packaged Food from Manufacturers Opened On-site 01:25:25 Noncontinuous Cooking 01:55:09 Employee Illness 02:02:17 Clean Up of Vomiting and Diarrheal Events 02:04:54 Fingernail Brushes and Hand Dryers 02:07:09 Handwashing Signage 02:09:12 Preventing Contamination from Hands 02:19:12 Equipment 02:26:15 Take-Home Food Container Reuse 02:30:23 Food Thermometers 02:31:57 Warewashing Temperature Measuring Devices
Views: 712 mnhealth
Antibiotic resistance | Wikipedia audio article
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antimicrobial_resistance 00:04:05 1 Definition 00:04:39 2 Overview 00:05:48 3 Causes 00:07:23 3.1 Human medicine 00:11:33 3.2 Veterinary medicine 00:12:38 3.3 Natural occurrence 00:14:42 3.4 Water pollution 00:17:12 4 Prevention 00:18:02 4.1 Duration of antibiotics 00:18:42 4.2 Monitoring and mapping 00:19:56 4.3 Limiting antibiotic use 00:21:12 4.3.1 At the hospital level 00:21:50 4.3.2 At the level of GP 00:23:19 4.3.3 At the individual level 00:23:45 4.3.4 Country examples 00:24:24 4.4 Water, sanitation, hygiene 00:27:06 4.5 Industrial wastewater treatment 00:27:31 4.6 Management in animal use 00:27:40 4.6.1 Europe 00:28:40 4.6.2 United States 00:30:07 4.7 Global action plans and awareness 00:31:39 4.7.1 Antibiotic Awareness Week 00:32:43 5 Mechanisms and organisms 00:32:53 5.1 Fundamentals 00:37:02 5.2 Bacteria 00:39:38 5.3 Viruses 00:40:49 5.4 Fungi 00:42:09 5.5 Parasites 00:43:34 6 History 00:45:36 7 Society and culture 00:46:47 7.1 Legal frameworks 00:47:46 7.1.1 U.S. 00:50:21 7.2 Policies 00:50:57 8 Further research 00:51:14 8.1 Vaccines 00:52:23 8.2 Alternating therapy 00:53:28 8.3 Development of new drugs 00:58:12 8.4 Rapid diagnostics 00:59:40 8.5 Phage therapy Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8142995496424837 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-F "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe. The term antibiotic resistance (AR or ABR) is a subset of AMR, as it applies only to bacteria becoming resistant to antibiotics. Resistant microbes are more difficult to treat, requiring alternative medications or higher doses of antimicrobials. These approaches may be more expensive, more toxic or both. Microbes resistant to multiple antimicrobials are called multidrug resistant (MDR). Those considered extensively drug resistant (XDR) or totally drug resistant (TDR) are sometimes called "superbugs".Resistance arises through one of three mechanisms: natural resistance in certain types of bacteria, genetic mutation, or by one species acquiring resistance from another. All classes of microbes can develop resistance. Fungi develop antifungal resistance. Viruses develop antiviral resistance. Protozoa develop antiprotozoal resistance, and bacteria develop antibiotic resistance. Resistance can appear spontaneously because of random mutations. However, extended use of antimicrobials appears to encourage selection for mutations which can render antimicrobials ineffective.Preventive measures include only using antibiotics when needed, thereby stopping misuse of antibiotics or antimicrobials. Narrow-spectrum antibiotics are preferred over broad-spectrum antibiotics when possible, as effectively and accurately targeting specific organisms is less likely to cause resistance. For people who take these medications at home, education about proper use is essential. Health care providers can minimize spread of resistant infections by use of proper sanitation and hygiene, including handwashing and disinfecting between patients, and should encourage the same of the patient, visitors, and family members.Rising drug resistance is caused mainly by use of antimicrobials in humans and other animals, and spread of resistant strains between the two. Growing resistance has also been linked to dumping of inadequately treated effluents from the pharmaceutical industry, especially in countries where bulk drugs are manufactured. Antibiotics increase selective pressure in bacterial populations, causing vulnerable bacteria to die; this increases the percentage of resistant bacteria which continue growing. Even at very low levels of antibiotic, resistant bacteria can have a growth advantage and grow faster than vulnerable bacteria. With resistance to antibiotics becoming more common there is greater need fo ...
Views: 35 wikipedia tts