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Cryptococcus neoformans, Unlike Candida albicans, Forms Aneuploid Clones Directly from Uninucleated
 
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Cryptococcus neoformans, Unlike Candida albicans, Forms Aneuploid Clones Directly from Uninucleated Cells under Fluconazole Stress. Yun C. Chang et al (2018), mBio https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01290-18 Heteroresistance to fluconazole (FLC) in Cryptococcus is a transient adaptive resistance which is lost upon release from the drug pressure. It is known that clones heteroresistant to FLC invariably contain disomic chromosomes, but how disomy is formed remains unclear. Previous reports suggested that the aneuploid heteroresistant colonies in Cryptococcus emerge from multinucleated cells, resembling the case in Candida albicans. Although a small number of cells containing multiple nuclei appear in a short time after FLC treatment, we provide evidence that the heteroresistant colonies in the presence of FLC arise from uninucleate cells without involving multinuclear/multimeric stages. We found that fidelity of chromosome segregation in mitosis plays an important role in regulation of FLC heteroresistance frequency in C. neoformans. Although FLC-resistant colonies occurred at a very low frequency, we were able to modulate the frequency of heteroresistance by overexpressing SMC1, which encodes a protein containing an SMC domain in chromosome segregation. Using time-lapse microscopy, we captured the entire process of colony formation from a single cell in the presence of FLC. All the multinucleated cells formed within a few hours of FLC exposure failed to multiply after a few cell divisions, and the cells able to proliferate to form colonies were all uninucleate without exception. Furthermore, no nuclear fusion event or asymmetric survival between mother and daughter cells, a hallmark of chromosome nondisjunction in haploid organisms, was observed. Therefore, the mechanisms of aneuploidy formation in C. neoformans appear different from most common categories of aneuploid formation known for yeasts.
Views: 7 ScienceVio
Chapter 21 Part 14 Cryptococcus neoformans Clinical Microbiology made Ridiculously Simple
 
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Cryptococcus neoformans Isoniazid INH See my website at: http://www.futuredochouse.com/ Follow me on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/futuredochouse/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/FutureDocHouse --- Get access to QUPI.com our Medical Question Bank - https://www.qupi.com/ Follow QUPI on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/qupipage/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/Qupi_questions1
Views: 1508 Future Doc House
C. neoformans
 
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Views: 1182 Duy Nguyen
Clinical Microbiology made Ridiculously Simple Chapter 21 Part 5 Candida
 
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Candida, Candidiasis, oral thrush,, Isoniazid INH See my website at: http://www.futuredochouse.com/ Follow me on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/futuredochouse/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/FutureDocHouse --- Get access to QUPI.com our Medical Question Bank - https://www.qupi.com/ Follow QUPI on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/qupipage/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/Qupi_questions1
Views: 1725 Future Doc House
USMLE 1 Opportunistic Fungi | Aspergillus, Mucormycosis, P jirovecii, Candida & Cryptococcus
 
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Hello again doctors! In this video I review the Opportunistic fungi for Step 1. Play close attention to each microbe's morphology [SO sorry for the background noise. Won't happen again]. Leave any questions below in the comments section. I wish you all the very best of luck studying, stay positive and keep moving forward. Timestamps -Aspergillus 1:30 -Mucor & Rhizophus 5:41 -Pneumocystis jirovecii 9:30 -Candida albicans 13:31 -Cryptococcus neoformans 18:05 Sources -Robbin's Pathology -Lippincott's Medical Microbiology -Sketchy Micro -Individual photo sources are listed on slides Outro song: Mine -Bazzi
Views: 280 Tina DeMe
VRE , C  albicans & C  neoformans AST pattern, greenish metallic sheen by E  coli in EMB agar  and i
 
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Miscellaneos experiments in a single video... Vancomycin Resistance enterococcus VRE Candida albicans Cryptococcus Antibiotic Sensitivity Testing E .coli greenish metallic sheen on EMB agar
Views: 345 Microhub Plus
Cryptococcus neoformans Brown pigmented  colony  on Coffee creatinine dextrose agar
 
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All the constituents of Bird seed agar except Niger seed, wchich is replaced by Coffee (Nescafe) used Colony of Cryptococcus neoformans is brown but not of Candida albicans as shown in video ...
Views: 171 Microhub Plus
Fungal Pathogens: Part 1 of 2
 
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Fungi are a natural part of the environment and can be found all around us. Some types of fungi, including those found in our environment and others in mold infested indoor environments can cause infections in some people. This is particularly true with people with a weakened immune system. The following are some of the more well known fungal diseases and the pathogenic fungi that cause them: Aspergillus is a common fungus that can be found in some indoor and outdoor environments. Aspergillosis is the name of the infection caused by Aspergillus. There are several different kinds of aspergillosis. Blastomycosis is a disease caused by the fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis. The fungus lives in moist soil and in association with decomposing organic matter such as wood and leaves. The symptoms of blastomycosis are often similar to flu symptoms. Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by yeasts that belong to the genus Candida. There are over 20 species of Candida yeasts that can cause infection in humans, the most common of which is Candida albicans. Coccidioidomycosis, also called Valley Fever, is an infection caused by the fungus Coccidioides, which lives in the soil of dry, low rainfall areas. It is endemic in many areas of the southwestern United States, Mexico, Central and South America. Cryptococcosis is an infection caused by fungi that belong to the genus Cryptococcus. There are over 30 different species of Cryptococcus, but two species -- Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii cause nearly all cryptococcal infections in humans and animals. Dermatophytes are fungi that cause skin, hair and nail infections. Infections caused by these fungi are also sometimes known as "ringworm" or "tinea." There are many different species of dermatophytes that can cause infection in humans. Two of the most common types are Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton tonsurans, These are just a few things to know about fungal pathogens and Part 2 of this video series will discuss other common fungal pathogens.
Views: 43018 Paul Cochrane
Defenses Against Candida Species
 
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Animation Description: Candida species can be readily found on the skin, in the genital tract and on the epithelial surface of the gastrointestinal tract. To prevent infection by Candida species, anatomical physical barriers such as the skin and mucous membranes must remain intact without maceration or degradation. Watch this animation for more information.
phagocytosis human macrophage ingesting the yeast candida albicans cellsalive com
 
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phagocytosis human macrophage ingesting the yeast candida albicans cellsalive.com
Views: 794 The Vet. Doctors
Chrom agar for Candida species differential and Yeast sensitivity medium
 
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Please watch: "Chicken pox" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rvWo141B-ZI -~-~~-~~~-~~-~-
Views: 641 Microhub Plus
Chapter 21 Part 13 Candida albicans Clinical Microbiology made Ridiculously Simple
 
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Candida albicans Isoniazid INH See my website at: http://www.futuredochouse.com/ Follow me on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/futuredochouse/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/FutureDocHouse --- Get access to QUPI.com our Medical Question Bank - https://www.qupi.com/ Follow QUPI on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/qupipage/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/Qupi_questions1
Views: 687 Future Doc House
Cryptococcus neoformans migrating between macrophages
 
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This video describes how a yeast cell from the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans is phagocytosed by a macrophages and then, how it is able to get out and be phagocytosed by another macrophage
Views: 669 Oscar Zaragoza
Cryptococcus capsule
 
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Negative stains- India ink or Nigrosine preparation In video, Nigrosine stain was used as negative stain- showing Capsulated Cryptococcus neoformans like organism... Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated fungal organism and it can cause disease in apparently immunocompetent, as well as immunocompromised, hosts.The particles of ink pigment do not enter the capsule that surrounds the spherical yeast cell, resulting in a zone of clearance or "halo" around the cells. This allows for quick and easy identification of C. neoformans.
Views: 458 Microhub Plus
Candida albicans - Medical Definition
 
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https://word2speech.com/medical/ Candida albicans Candida albicans: A yeast-like fungal organism found in small amounts in the normal human intestinal tract. Normally kept in check by the body's own helpful bacteria, C. albicans can increase in numbers when this balance is disturbed to cause candidiasis of the intestinal tract, or yeast infections of other parts of the body. C. albicans causes thrush. Also called Monilia albicans. See also Candidiasis. How to pronounce, definition of, audio dictionary, medical dictionary
Views: 178 Medical Dictionary
Candida: Mucosal candidiasis
 
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1. Mucosal candidiasis This video is part of a comprehensive medical school microbiology, immunology & infectious diseases course. Your comments on videos will be key as we iterate content. If you are interested in implementing all or part of this course, we are happy to share and would only ask for your candid evaluation in return: https://stanfordmedicine.qualtrics.com/SE/?SID=SV_8i98rRk2XRCXQ45 If you are interested in collaborating with us, please contact: [email protected] This course was created collaboratively between Stanford, UW, Duke, UCSF, and University of Michigan and made possible by support from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.
1126: Candida Albicans or Cryptococcus Neoformans
 
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USMLE Step 1 Questions at http://www.latisom.com Life and Times in Schools of Medicine Inc. LATISOM offers a video streaming question bank for USMLE Step 1 and second year of medical school course work. Hematology questions
Views: 37 latisom
Cryptococcus neoformans   growth on SDA , BSA urea hydrolization Positive
 
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Cryptococcus neoformans growth on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar Bird Seed Agar- Niger seed is replaced by Nescafe Coffee Urea Hydrolization Test-Positive as shown in Video...
Views: 558 Microhub Plus
What is VOMOCYTOSIS? What does VOMOCYTOSIS mean? VOMOCYTOSIS meaning, definition & explanation
 
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What is VOMOCYTOSIS? What does VOMOCYTOSIS mean? VOMOCYTOSIS meaning - VOMOCYTOSIS definition - VOMOCYTOSIS explanation. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Vomocytosis is the cellular process by which live organisms that have previously been engulfed by a white blood cell are expelled without being destroyed. Vomocytosis was first reported in 2006 by two groups, working simultaneously in the UK and the USA, based on time-lapse microscopy footage characterising the interaction between macrophages and the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Subsequently, this process has also been seen with other fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans and Candida krusei. It has also been speculated that the process may be related to the expulsion of bacterial pathogens such as Mycobacterium marinum from host cells. Vomocytosis has been observed in phagocytic cells from mice, humans and birds, as well as being directly observed in zebrafish and indirectly detected (via flow cytometry) in mice. The mechanism of vomocytosis remains unclear although it is known to be influenced by inflammatory signals and rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton within the host cell. Erk5 has been identified has a negative regulator of vomocytosis and may act via both modulating inflammatory signals and the macrophage cytoskeleton. Different morphologies of vomocytosis have been documented and it is possible that the underlying cellular mechanism may vary between them.
Views: 19 The Audiopedia
Generally budding and rarely Blastospore of Cryptococcus neoformans in Gram's stain
 
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Generally budding and rarely blastospore of Cryptococcus neoformans in Gram's stain... conformed organism biochemically and others too...
Views: 101 Microhub Plus
Mycology colour atlas
 
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Clinical/ Medical Mycology Color Atlas-Genuine click on:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i9eNyWRp7Zg Other links:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IvwWVAUgOW4&t=5s Mycology color atlas:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i9eNyWRp7Zg&t=7s Amoeba, trophozoites and cyst in LPCB preparation: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-Na4fTyajeg AFB stained slide of Mycobacterium tuberculosis like bacteria on counter stain Malachite green: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pm80zK-v3Ac Tzanck smear positive:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dvaTTbgLj3E&t=13s Urethral discharge due to Neisseria gonorrhorae:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EczeAWwsoQw&t=1s Having following informations: -Color plate of Fungus, bacteria and tracking of maggots i.e. parasites -Yeast cells and budding on Gram's stain -Pseudohyphae of Candida on Gram's stain of sputum specimen -Candida albicans, C. krusei and C. tropicalis growth on Candida CHROMAgar and Sabouraud Dextrose Agar( SDA) -Candida tropicalis growth on SDA, Corn Meal Agar (CMA), Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), Candida CHROMAgar and Antifungal Sensitivity Test Medium(AFST) respectively. -Germ Tube Test (GTT)- Positive -Chlamydospores of Candida albicans -Nigrosine preparation-Positive -India Ink Preparation-Positive -Cryptococcus neoformans growth on SDA -Bird Seed Agar showing brown pigment colonies of Cryptococcus neoformans -Evidence of capsules on Gram's stain showing clear zone around the yeast cells of Cryptococcus neoformans -Geotrichum candidum growth on SDA and its microscopy structures under LPCB tease mount -Mucor -Rhizopus -Penicillium -Penicillium cheresanum -KOH preparation -Positive -LPCB tease mount showing fungal spores -Aspergillus niger growth on SDA -Aspergillus niger growth on CMA -Aspergillus niger under LPCB tease mount -Aspergillus flavus growth on Czapek-Dox Agar -LPCB tease mount from Czapek-Dox Agar -Aspergillus fumigatus on SDA -KOH preparation from skin scales showing fungal elements i.e positive -Trichophyton mentagrophytes colonies on Dermatophyte Test Medium(DTM) -Microconidia and macroconidia of Trichophyton rubrub -Bamboo hyphae of Microsporum ferrugineum -Epidermophyton floccosum lacking microconidia -Acremonium growth on SDA -Bipolaris growth -Bipolaris structures on LPCB - Curvularia growth on SDA -Curvularia microscopic structures -Pus oozing from Ochroconis infected hand -Ochroconis structures on Tween 80 agent -Ochroconis gallopava growth on SDA showing brownish black colonies -Ochroconis gallopava structures under microscopy -Fusarium oxysporum growth - and its structure on LPCB tease mount -Fusarium solani growth - and its structures under microscopy -Trichosporon inkin growth on PDA -and its microscopic structures under LPCB tease mount -Cysts of Pneumocystis jirovecii in Giemsa stain of Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL) specimen -Syncephalastrum racemosum stuctures on LPCB tease mount -Malassezia colonies - and its microscopic structures -~-~~-~~~-~~-~- Please watch: "Germ tube test" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W-fSMpaRA2o -~-~~-~~~-~~-~-
Views: 770 Microhub Plus
What is BLASTOCONIDIUM? What does BLASTOCONIDIUM mean? BLASTOCONIDIUM meaning & explanation
 
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What is BLASTOCONIDIUM? What does BLASTOCONIDIUM mean? BLASTOCONIDIUM meaning - BLASTOCONIDIUM pronunciation - BLASTOCONIDIUM definition - BLASTOCONIDIUM explanation - How to pronounce BLASTOCONIDIUM? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Blastoconidium is a holoblastic conidium that is produced singly or in chains, and detached at maturity leaving a bud scar, as in the budding of a yeast cell. Yeasts such as Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans produce budded cells known as blastoconidia. The formation of blastoconidia involves three basic steps: bud emergence, bud growth, and conidium separation. During bud emergence, the outer cell wall of the parent cell thins. Concurrently, new inner cell wall material and plasma membrane are synthesized at the site where new growth is occurring. New cell wall material is formed locally by activation of the polysaccharide synthetase zymogen. The process of bud emergence is regulated by the synthesis of these cellular components as well as by the turgor pressure in the parent cell. Mitosis occurs, as the bud grows, and both the developing conidium and the parent cell will contain a single nucleus. A ring of chitin forms between the developing blastoconidium and its parent yeast cell. This ring grows in to form a septum. Separation of the two cells leaves a bud scar on the parent cell wall. The bud scar contains much more chitin than does the rest of the parent cell wall. When the production of blastoconidia continues without separation of the conidia from each other, a pseudohypha, consisting of a filament of attached blastoconidia, is formed. In addition to budding yeast cells and pseudohyphae, yeasts such as Candida albicans may form true hyphae.
Views: 223 The Audiopedia
Кандитрал - официальная инструкция по применению.
 
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ИНСТРУКЦИЯ по медицинскому применению препарата(информация для специалистов). Регистрационный номер -. Торговое название - Кандитрал®. Международное непатентованное название (МНН) - итраконазол. Лекарственная форма - капсулы. СоставОдна капсула содержит: Итраконазола пеллет - 470 мг, содержащих: Активное вещество: итраконазол -100 мг Вспомогательные вещества: гипромеллоза (гидроксипропилметилцеллюлоза Е-5), метилметакрилата, диметиламиноэтилметакрилата и бутилметакрилата сополимер (эудрагит Е-100), сахароза. Твердая желатиновая капсула № 0: желатин, вода очищенная, метилпарагидроксибензоат, пропилпарагидроксибензоат, натрия лаурилсульфат, красители: крышечка капсулы - титана диоксид, краситель железа оксид черный (для нанесения логотипа фирмы «G»), корпус капсулы - краситель пунцовый (Понсо 4R), краситель азорубин (кармоизин), титана диоксид (для надписи «canditral»). ОписаниеТвердые желатиновые капсулы № 0 с корпусом красного цвета и крышечкой белого цвета с логотипом фирмы черного цвета на крышечке и надписью «canditral» белого цвета на корпусе. Содержимое капсул - сферические микрогранулы от белого до белого с бежевым оттенком цвета. Фармакотерапевтическая группаПротивогрибковое средство. Код АТХ: [J02АС02]. Фармакологические свойства. ФармакодинамикаСинтетическое противогрибковое средство широкого спектра действия, производное триазола. Ингибирует синтез эргостерола, являющегося важным компонентом клеточной мембраны грибов. Итраконазол активен в отношении дерматофитов (Trichophyton spp.^ Microsporum spp., Epidermophyton floccosum) дрожжеподобных грибов и дрожжей (Cryptococcus neoformans, Pityrosporum spp., Trichosporon spp., Geotrichum spp., Candida spp., включая Candida albicans, Candida glabrata и Candida krusei) Aspergillus spp., Histoplasma spp., Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Sporothrix schenckii, Fonsecaea spp., Cladosporium spp., Blastomyces dermatitidis, Pseudallescheria boydii Penicillium marneffei, а также других дрожжевых и плесневых грибов. ФармакокинетикаВсасываниеПри пероральном применении максимальная биодоступность итраконазола отмечается при приеме капсул сразу же после еды. Время достижения максимальной концентрации в плазме крови составляет 3-4 ч. РаспределениеРавновесная концентрация итраконазола в плазме через 3-4 часа после приема препарата составляет 0,4 мкг/мл (при приеме 100 мг один раз в сутки), 1,1 мкг/м
Carbohydrate assimilation test of various yeasts
 
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Please watch: "Chicken pox" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rvWo141B-ZI -~-~~-~~~-~~-~- Carbohydrate Assimilation tests of following yeasts- preparation Candida albicans Candida glabrata Cryptococcus neoformans Saccharomyces cerevisiae using following carbohydrates M-maltose G-glucose L-lactose S-sucrose and D-dulcitol...
Views: 459 Microhub Plus
Cryptococcus neoformans Intracellular Proliferation and Capsule Size Determines Early Macrophage
 
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Cryptococcus neoformans Intracellular Proliferation and Capsule Size Determines Early Macrophage Control of Infection. Aleksandra Bojarczuk et al (2016), Scientific Reports http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep21489 Cryptococcus neoformans is a significant fungal pathogen of immunocompromised patients. Many questions remain regarding the function of macrophages in normal clearance of cryptococcal infection and the defects present in uncontrolled cryptococcosis. Two current limitations are: 1) The difficulties in interpreting studies using isolated macrophages in the context of the progression of infection, and 2) The use of high resolution imaging in understanding immune cell behavior during animal infection. Here we describe a high-content imaging method in a zebrafish model of cryptococcosis that permits the detailed analysis of macrophage interactions with C. neoformans during infection. Using this approach we demonstrate that, while macrophages are critical for control of C. neoformans, a failure of macrophage response is not the limiting defect in fatal infections. We find phagocytosis is restrained very early in infection and that increases in cryptococcal number are driven by intracellular proliferation. We show that macrophages preferentially phagocytose cryptococci with smaller polysaccharide capsules and that capsule size is greatly increased over twenty-four hours of infection, a change that is sufficient to severely limit further phagocytosis. Thus, high-content imaging of cryptococcal infection in vivo demonstrates how very early interactions between macrophages and cryptococci are critical in the outcome of cryptococcosis.
Views: 181 ScienceVio
Fungal Infections and Antifungal Treatments Ringworm Candida Aspergillus Histoplasmosis
 
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SKIP AHEAD: 0:32 – Intro to Fungi 2:17 – Systemic vs. Opportunistic Mycoses 4:52 – Coccidioidomycosis 5:41 – Histoplasmosis 6:23 – Blastomycosis 6:54 – Geographic Map of Systemic Fungi 7:26 – Cryptococcus 8:17 - Aspergillus 9:30 – PCP and Pneumocystis 10:06 - Zygomycosis (Mucormycosis & Rhizopus) 11:06 – Tineae (Athletes Foot, Ring worm, Tinea Versicolor …) 12:50 – Candida 14:07 – Sporothrix 14:29 – Azoles (Diflucan, Flucanazole, ketoconazole…) 15:20 – Amphotericin B & Nystatin 15:58 - Capsofungin & Micanofungin For the text and pictures in this video please go to my website http://www.stomponstep1.com/fungal-infections-antifungal-treatments-ringworm-candida-aspergillus-histoplasmosis/ Pictures Used: “Coccidioidomycosis_Spherule” by CDC available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Coccidioidomycosis_Spherule.jpg via Public Domain ” Histoplasmosis Capsulatum” by CDC available at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Histoplasmosis#/media/File:Histoplasmosis_capsulatum.jpg via Public Domain “Blastomyces dermatitidis” by CDC available at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blastomycosis#/media/File:Blastomyces_dermatitidis_GMS.jpeg via Public Domain Derivative of “Blastomycosis cropped” by Joel Mills available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Blastomycosis_cropped.JPG via Creative Commons 3.0 Attribution-Share Alike Derivative of “Cryptococcus neoformans using a light India ink staining” by CDC available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cryptococcus_neoformans_using_a_light_India_ink_staining_preparation_PHIL_3771_lores.jpg via Public Domain Derivative of “Cryptoccocus Gram Film” by Graham Beards available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cryptococcus_Gram_film.jpg via Creative Commons 3.0 Attribution Share Alike Derivative of “Aspergilloma complicating tuberculosis 2” by Yale Rosen available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Aspergilloma_complicating_tuberculosis_2.jpg via Creative Commons 2.0 Attribution-Share Alike “Aspergillosis, angioinvasive, intravascular” by Yale Rosen available at https://www.flickr.com/photos/pulmonary_pathology/5390967599 via Creative Commons 2.0 Attribution-Share Alike Derivative of “Zygomycosis/mucormycosis” by Yale Rosen available at https://www.flickr.com/photos/pulmonary_pathology/5390897069 via Creative Commons 2.0 Atribution Share Alike Derivative of “Zygomycosis, Mucormycosis 1” by Yale Rosen available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Zygomycosis,_mucormycosis_1.jpg via Creative Commons 2.0 Attribution-Share Alike Derivative of “Zygomycosis” by Nephron available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Zygomycosis.jpg via Creative Commons 3.0 Attribution-Share Alike “Ringworm on the arm, or tinea corporis due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes” by CDC available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ringworm_on_the_arm,_or_tinea_corporis_due_to_Trichophyton_mentagrophytes_PHIL_2938_lores.jpg via Public Domain “Teigne - Tinea capitis” by Grook Da Oger available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Teigne_-_Tinea_capitis.jpg via Creative Commons 4.0 International Attribution Share Alike License “Onychomycosis due to Trychophyton rubrum, right and left great toe” by CDC available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Onychomycosis_due_to_Trychophyton_rubrum,_right_and_left_great_toe_PHIL_579_lores.jpg via Public Domain “Tinea versicolor1” by Sarahrosenau available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tinea_versicolor1.jpg via Creative Commons 2.0 Attribution-Share Alike “Candida albicans” by Y Tambe available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Candida_albicans.jpg via Creative Commons 3.0 Unported Attribution-Share Alike License “Human tongue infected with oral candidiasis” by James Heilman available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Human_tongue_infected_with_oral_candidiasis.jpg via Creative Commons 3.0 Unported Attribution-Share Alike
Views: 14503 Stomp On Step 1
Candida albicans filamentation
 
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Induction of germ tubes and hyphae by Candida albicans
Views: 1571 Oscar Zaragoza
Cryptococcus research
 
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This video shows the brain immediately before Cryptococcus starts to flow in the blood vessels. The dark areas are large blood vessels. The white things are Cryptococcus and you can see that very early on the the video, three organisms get trapped and stop. From the research lab of Dr. Chris Mody at the University of Calgary Faculty of Medicine.
Views: 812 UCalgaryMedicine
L81 Fungal Diseases 1
 
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Views: 11 kchen255
Complement system part 5 (MBL pathway)
 
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For more information, log on to- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/bio-materials.html The lectin pathway is a type of cascade reaction, similar in structure to the classical complement pathway,[1] in that, after activation, it proceeds through the action of C4 and C2 to produce activated complement proteins further down the cascade. In contrast to the classical complement pathway, the lectin pathway does not recognize antibody bound to its target. The lectin pathway starts with mannose-binding lectin or ficolin binding to certain sugars. In this pathway, mannose-binding lectin binds to mannose, glucose or other sugars with 3- and 4-OH groups placed in the equatorial plane, in terminal positions on carbohydrate or glycoprotein components of microorganisms including bacteria such as Salmonella, Listeria, and Neisseria strains. Fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans as well as some viruses such as HIV-1 and Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are bound by MBL. Mannan-binding lectin (MBL, also called mannose-binding protein) is a protein belonging to the collectin family that is produced by the liver and can initiate the complement cascade by binding to pathogen surfaces. MBL forms oligomers of subunits, which are trimers (6- to 18-heades correspond to a dimer and a hexamer, respectively). Multimers of MBL form a complex with MASP1 (Mannose-binding lectin-Associated Serine Protease), MASP2 and MASP3, that are protease zymogens. The MASPs are very similar to C1r and C1s molecules of the classical complement pathway, respectively, and are thought to have a common evolutionary ancestor. When the carbohydrate-recognising heads of MBL bind to specifically arranged mannose residues on the surface of a pathogen, MASP-1 and MASP-2 are activated to cleave complement components C4 and C2 into C4a, C4b, C2a, and C2b. In addition, two smaller MBL-associated proteins (MAps) are found in complex with MBL. MBL-associated protein of 19 kDa (MAp19) and MBL-associated protein of 44 kDa (Map44). MASP-1, MASP-3 and MAp44 are alternative splice products of the MASP1 gene, while MASP-2 and MAp19 are alternative splice products of the MASP-2 gene. MAp44 has been suggested to act as a competitive inhibitor of lectin pathway activation, by displacing MASP-2 from MBL, hence preventing cleavage of C4 and C2 [2] Source of the article published in description is Wikipedia. I am sharing their material. Copyright by original content developers of Wikipedia. Link- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
Views: 16068 Shomu's Biology
chromagar- detection of various Candida spp.
 
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chromagar- detection of various Candida spp.
Views: 360 Microhub Plus
Румикоз - официальная инструкция по применению.
 
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ИНСТРУКЦИЯ по медицинскому применению препарата. Регистрационный номер: П №001739. Торговое название препарата: Румикоз®. Международное непатентованное название: итраконазол. Лекарственная форма: капсулы. Состав Одна капсула содержит в качестве активного вещества:пеллеты итраконазола 0,464 г: итраконазол 0,1 г, гипромеллоза, полоксамер (лутрол), крахмал пшеничный, сахароза.Капсулы твердые желатиновые: желатин, титана диоксид, хинолиновый желтый, железа оксид красный, железа оксид черный, желтый закатный, азорубин. ОписаниеКапсулы № 0 двухцветные: корпус белый, крышечка розово-коричневая. Содержимое капсул - сферические микрогранулы от светло-желтого до желтовато-бежевого цвета. Фармакотерапевтическая группа: противогрибковое средство. Код-АТХ: [J02АС02]. Фармакологические свойства. Фармакодинамика Синтетическое противогрибковое средство широкого спектра действия, производное триазола. Ингибирует синтез эргостерола, являющегося важным компонентом клеточной мембраны грибов. Итраконазол активен в отношении дерматофитов (Trichophyton spp., Microsporum spp., Epidermophyton floccosum) дрожжеподобных грибов и дрожжей (Cryptococcus neoformans, Pityrosporum spp., Trichosporon spp., Geotrichum spp., Candida spp., включая Candida albicans, Candida glabrata и Candida krusei) Aspergillus spp., Histoplasma spp., Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Sporothrix schenckii, Fonsecaea spp., Cladosporium spp., Blastomyces dermatitidis, Pseudallescheria boydii, Penicillium marneffei, а также других дрожжевых и плесневых грибов. ФармакокинетикаВсасывание: При пероральном применении максимальная биодоступность итраконазола отмечается при приеме капсул сразу же после еды. Время достижения максимальной концентрации в плазме крови составляет 3-4 ч.Распределение Равновесная концентрация итраконазола в плазме через 3-4 часа после приема препарата составляет 0,4 мкг/мл (при приеме 100 мг один раз в сутки), 1,1 мкг/мл (при приеме 200 мг один раз в сутки) и 2,0 мкг/мл (при приеме 200 мг два раза в сутки). При длительном приеме равновесная концентрация достигается в течение 1-2 недель. Связь с белками плазмы - 99,8%. Итраконазол хорошо проникает и распределяется в тканях и органах. Концентрация препарата в легких, почках, печени, селезенке, желудке, костях, скелетных мышцах в 2-3 раза превышает его концентрацию в плазме. Накопление итраконазола в кератиновых тканях, особенно в ко�
Fluconazole Drug, ហ្លុយកូណាហ្សុល-ថ្នាំប្រឆាំងមេរោគផ្សិត
 
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Welcome to Medical KH channel!! fluconazole, fluconazole 150 mg, fluconazole tablet, fluconazole review, fluconazole tablets 150 mg, fluconazole nail fungus, fluconazole for candida, fluconazole tablets ip 200 mg, fluconazole acne, fluconazole aquarium, fluconazole aquarium treatment, fluconazole at walmart, fluconazole and alcohol, fluconazole and food, fluconazole buy over the counter, fluconazole before or after food, biozole fluconazole, fluconazole capsules 150 mg, fluconazole capsules ip conflu 150, fluconazole candida, fluconazole capsules ip 150 mg, fluconazole cream uses, fluconazole capsules ip 150 mg in hindi, fluconazole diagram paggamit ng kuko halamang-singaw, fluconazole dose, fluconazole dispersible tablets 50mg, fluconazole did not work, fluconazole doesn't work, fluconazole doesn't work for me, fluconazole does not work, fluconazole definition, fluconazole ear drops, fluconazole experience, fluconazole side effects, fluconazole side effects in hindi, fluconazole for yeast infection, fluconazole for ringworm treatment, fluconazole for nail fungus, fluconazole for reef tank, fluconazole hair algae treatment, fluconazole how long it takes to work, fluconazole how does it work, fluconazole how long until it works, fluconazole how long does it work, fluconazole how long does it take, fluconazole injection, fluconazole injection uses, fluconazole in hindi, fluconazole in reef tank, fluconazole isn't working, fluconazole medicine, fluconazole meaning, fluconazole meaning in hindi khmer health, khmer healthy, khmer health care, khmer healthy food, khmer health news, khmer health information, rfi khmer health, health time in khmer, health speak khmer candida albican, candida albicans, candida albicans symptoms, candida albicans osmosis, candida albicans test, candida albicans in mouth, candida albicans culture, candida albicans infection, candida albican traitement naturel cryptococcus neoformans india ink, cryptococcus neoformans, cryptococcus neoformans microbiology, cryptococcus neoformans sketchy, cryptococcus neoformans usmle, cryptococcus neoformans pronunciation antifungal, antifungal drugs, antifungal powder, antifungal medication, antifungal activity, antifungal cream uses, antifungal cream for skin, antifungal drugs classification, antifungal drugs pharmacology, antifungal eczema, antifungal face cream, antifungal for candida, antifungal injection, antifungal immune response, antifungal in nose, antifungal infection medical khmer, khmer medical terminology, khmer medical
Views: 198 Medical KH
candida growth  on Cystine electrolyte Deficient agar ( CLED) agar
 
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Candida growth on Cystine electrolyte Deficient agar ( CLED) agar Yeast cells seen in gram staining Germ tube test (GTT)- Positive So, the organism is Candida albicans ( specimen was urine) -~-~~-~~~-~~-~- Please watch: "Germ tube test" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W-fSMpaRA2o -~-~~-~~~-~~-~-
Views: 398 Microhub Plus
Fungal Pathogens Part 1 of 2
 
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Published on May 23, 2013 Fungi are a natural part of the environment and can be found all around us. Some types of fungi, including those found in our environment and others in mold infested indoor environments can cause infections in some people. This is particularly true with people with a weakened immune system. The following are some of the more well known fungal diseases and the pathogenic fungi that cause them: Aspergillus is a common fungus that can be found in some indoor and outdoor environments. Aspergillosis is the name of the infection caused by Aspergillus. There are several different kinds of aspergillosis. Blastomycosis is a disease caused by the fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis. The fungus lives in moist soil and in association with decomposing organic matter such as wood and leaves. The symptoms of blastomycosis are often similar to flu symptoms. Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by yeasts that belong to the genus Candida. There are over 20 species of Candida yeasts that can cause infection in humans, the most common of which is Candida albicans. Coccidioidomycosis, also called Valley Fever, is an infection caused by the fungus Coccidioides, which lives in the soil of dry, low rainfall areas. It is endemic in many areas of the southwestern United States, Mexico, Central and South America. Cryptococcosis is an infection caused by fungi that belong to the genus Cryptococcus. There are over 30 different species of Cryptococcus, but two species -- Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii cause nearly all cryptococcal infections in humans and animals. Dermatophytes are fungi that cause skin, hair and nail infections. Infections caused by these fungi are also sometimes known as "ringworm" or "tinea." There are many different species of dermatophytes that can cause infection in humans. Two of the most common types are Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton tonsurans, These are just a few things to know about fungal pathogens and Part 2 of this video series will discuss other common fungal pathogens
Immunology: lectin and classical complement pathway
 
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The lectin pathway is a type of cascade reaction in the complement system, similar in structure to the classical complement pathway,[1] in that, after activation, it proceeds through the action of C4 and C2 to produce activated complement proteins further down the cascade. In contrast to the classical complement pathway, the lectin pathway does not recognize an antibody bound to its target. The lectin pathway starts with mannose-binding lectin or ficolin binding to certain sugars. In this pathway, mannose-binding lectin binds to mannose, glucose or other sugars with 3- and 4-OH groups placed in the equatorial plane, in terminal positions on carbohydrate or glycoprotein components of microorganisms including bacteria such as Salmonella, Listeria, and Neisseria strains. Fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans as well as some viruses such as HIV-1 and Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are bound by MBL. Mannan-binding lectin (MBL, also called mannose-binding protein) is a protein belonging to the collectin family that is produced by the liver and can initiate the complement cascade by binding to pathogen surfaces 1976 copyright act entitles fair use for non profit educational purposes. I don’t make any money off of videos, and the dmca extends the definition of fair use from the 1976 copyright act
Views: 2388 Thomas Underhill
Cryptococci
 
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Cryptococci, Cryptococcus, Parafsite, cryptococcosis, Medically important parasite, infection by parasite,
Views: 42 MedicoFem
Как повысить иммунитет Чеснок и его целебные свойства
 
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Как повысить иммунитет? Чеснок и его целебные свойства. Меня зовут Наталья Митрякова, я сертифицированный #нутрициолог. Сегодня мы с вами поговорим о том, как работает чеснок для того чтобы улучшить и простимулировать наш иммунитет. Чеснок — это популярная вкусовая приправа к пище, а также лечебное средство. Он эффективен от гипертонии и сердечно-сосудистых заболеваний, для борьбы с инфекциями, профилактики рака, лечения #сахарногодиабета. Зубчики чеснока — это сокровищница полезных веществ для организма человека. В чесноке содержатся #витамины, #минералы, #микроэлементы, а также аллицин, который придает им характерный запах и острый вкус. #Аллицин уничтожает вредные бактерии, #грибки, #глистов и даже #вирусы. #Чеснок — более эффективное средство для сердца и сосудов, чем пустырник, боярышник и другие популярные травы. В осенне-зимний период взрослые и дети принимают чеснок, чтобы повысить иммунитет. Они хотят уберечься от простудных заболеваний. При этом мало кто задумывается, что хороший #иммунитет важен и для #профилактикирака. Чеснок помогает защититься от онкологических заболеваний кишечника, ротовой полости, мужской простаты и женских яичников. Лечебные свойства чеснока — это #уничтожениемикробов, #повышениеиммунитета, профилактика многих видов рака, торможение развития #атеросклероза, снижение #артериальногодавления, защита от сердечно-сосудистых и других возрастных заболеваний. Основные биологически активные вещества — те, которые содержат серу, в частности, повышает иммунитет. Эти же вещества придают чесноку его характерный запах. К сожалению, попытки избавиться от запаха нейтрализуют почти все целебные свойства. Ученые убедились в этом, проводя лабораторные исследования, а также в реальной клинической практике. Чеснок уничтожает многие виды бактерий, грибков, вирусов и даже глистов. Народная медицина использует это свойство уже многие сотни лет. Современная наука подтверждают его по результатам лабораторных исследований. Чеснок напрямую уничтожает вредных микробов, а также повышает иммунитет, чтобы организм лучше справлялся с инфекцией. Каких же микробов уничтожает чеснок, это: Бактерии Стрептококк Escherichia coli Helicobacter pylori Klebsiella pneumoniae Золотистый стафилококк Грибки Candida albicans Cryptococcus neoformans Глисты Аскариды Нематоды Вирусы Вирусы герпеса типа 1 и типа 2 Человеческий риновирус типа 2 Вирус парагриппа типа 3 Вирус везикулярного стоматита Чеснок, уничтожает бактерии не хуже, чем часто используемые антибиотики — пенициллин, стрептомицин, эритромицин, тетрациклин. Чеснок может бороться с микробами, которые приобрели устойчивость к антибиотикам. Вот лишь немногое что я хотела сказать про действие чеснока на повышение иммунитета. Желающие зарегистрироваться на следующий вебинар проходите по ссылке: http://zdorovietrend.plp7.ru/ Пишите мне вопросы с удовольствием отвечу: Viber/What's App +79170275587 Почта: [email protected] Подписывайтесь Инстаграмм: https://www.instagram.com/nataliamitriakova/ Фейсбук: https://www.facebook.com/natalia.mitryakova.1 Просмотр видео: https://youtu.be/a_R5FWCwF2U
Neutrophil Attack Triggers Extracellular Trap-Dependent Candida Cell Wall Remodeling and Altered
 
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Neutrophil Attack Triggers Extracellular Trap-Dependent Candida Cell Wall Remodeling and Altered Immune Recognition. Alex Hopke et al (2016), PLOS Pathogens http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1005644 Pathogens hide immunogenic epitopes from the host to evade immunity, persist and cause infection. The opportunistic human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, which can cause fatal disease in immunocompromised patient populations, offers a good example as it masks the inflammatory epitope β-glucan in its cell wall from host recognition. It has been demonstrated previously that β-glucan becomes exposed during infection in vivo but the mechanism behind this exposure was unknown. Here, we show that this unmasking involves neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) mediated attack, which triggers changes in fungal cell wall architecture that enhance immune recognition by the Dectin-1 β-glucan receptor in vitro. Furthermore, using a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis, we demonstrate the requirement for neutrophils in triggering these fungal cell wall changes in vivo. Importantly, we found that fungal epitope unmasking requires an active fungal response in addition to the stimulus provided by neutrophil attack. NET-mediated damage initiates fungal MAP kinase-driven responses, particularly by Hog1, that dynamically relocalize cell wall remodeling machinery including Chs3, Phr1 and Sur7. Neutrophil-initiated cell wall disruptions augment some macrophage cytokine responses to attacked fungi. This work provides insight into host-pathogen interactions during disseminated candidiasis, including valuable information about how the C. albicans cell wall responds to the biotic stress of immune attack. Our results highlight the important but underappreciated concept that pattern recognition during infection is dynamic and depends on the host-pathogen dialog.
Views: 917 ScienceVio
Human neutrophil versus Coccidioides (cause of Valley fever): Chemotaxis, adhesion, and phagocytosis
 
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Coccidioides endospores and spherules draw strong chemotactic, adhesive, and phagocytic responses by individual human neutrophils. This video presents an overview of a collaborative interdisciplinary study of the recognition of the pathogenic fungus Coccidioides posadasii (cause of Valley fever) by neutrophils. The study was published in PLOS ONE (http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129522). The paper's abstract is included below. This study showcases how innovative concepts and approaches developed by bioengineers can provide new insight into the mechanisms of vital cellular behavior, and help us tackle scientific questions that are inaccessible to traditional biological methods. An authoritative overview of new insights gained from modern, interdisciplinary single-live-cell studies of phagocytosis can be found at http://bme.ucdavis.edu/heinrichlab/files/2015/11/Heinrich_BJ2015.pdf. Coccidioides spp. are dimorphic pathogenic fungi whose parasitic forms cause coccidioidomycosis (Valley fever) in mammalian hosts. We use an innovative interdisciplinary approach to analyze one-on-one encounters between human neutrophils and two forms of Coccidioides posadasii. To examine the mechanisms by which the innate immune system coordinates different stages of the host response to fungal pathogens, we dissect the immune-cell response into chemotaxis, adhesion, and phagocytosis. Our single-cell technique reveals a surprisingly strong response by initially quiescent neutrophils to close encounters with C. posadasii, both from a distance (by complement-mediated chemotaxis) as well as upon contact (by serum-dependent adhesion and phagocytosis). This response closely resembles neutrophil interactions with Candida albicans and zymosan particles, and is significantly stronger than the neutrophil responses to Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Rhizopus oryzae under identical conditions. The vigorous in vitro neutrophil response suggests that C. posadasii evades in vivo recognition by neutrophils through suppression of long-range mobilization and recruitment of the immune cells. This observation elucidates an important paradigm of the recognition of microbes, i.e., that intact immunotaxis comprises an intricate spatiotemporal hierarchy of distinct chemotactic processes. Moreover, in contrast to earlier reports, human neutrophils exhibit vigorous chemotaxis toward, and frustrated phagocytosis of, the large spherules of C. posadasii under physiological-like conditions. Finally, neutrophils from healthy donors and patients with chronic coccidioidomycosis display subtle differences in their responses to antibody-coated beads, even though the patient cells appear to interact normally with C. posadasii endospores.
Views: 3339 Heinrich Lab

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