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Search results “Anaerobic incubation temperature determining”
Is no growth of microorganism after 24hrs of aerobic incubation possible? - Dr. Sanjay Gupta
 
02:11
So generally we have to find out if there is a microorganism or any infection in the urine or not. So putting a urine sample for culture in an aerobic medium, if there is no growth, then it is possible that there is infection. But if the urine has infection and suspecting the growth and the microorganism is there. So growth or no growth depends on the microorganism in the urine or the infection that is present in the urine. So no growth in the urine culture specifies that the urine does not have any infection or the patient may be on antibiotics suppressing growth of the microorganism, then only we can subject the urine to some tests like sensitivity of the bacterial growth, to which antibiotic they are sensitive otherwise is to see if it is acidic or alkaline, does it have RBC’s or casts. So we can subject the urine samples for a routine microscopy and we don’t have to do a culture. Even routine microscopy can give also information on the urine sample.
Media Prep
 
03:31
Explore our free eLearning modules at ncbionetwork.org/educational-resources/elearning. In order to grow, cells need very specific environmental conditions such as food, energy, proper temperature and humidity. When growing cells in the lab, we have to create these conditions using culture media. Solid culture media is a mixture of agar and nutrients poured into Petri dishes. We can transfer cells to the Petri dishes where they will grow with proper incubation. Sterile technique is required to create culture media so you don't have unwanted microorganisms growing in your culture. In this video, we'll demonstrate the steps for preparing Brain Heart Infusion Agar. It's a general-purpose media used for a variety of bacterial and fungal species including pathogens like Streptococcus and Pneumococcus.
Views: 415253 BioNetwork
Growing Bacteria - Petri Dish
 
04:03
Order now at http://www.stevespanglerscience.com/search?sSearch=agar&sClass=Product&sType=&submit.x=0&submit.y=0 You can smell a good science project a block away. In this case, multiply the fun by six and you have one of our most popular science fair project kits. You'll get six large Petri dishes, 10 cm (4 in) in diameter, a microwave safe plastic beaker, cotton swabs and the highest quality nutrient agar. This is the same nutrient agar used by microbiologists to grow really funky stuff in the lab. The instructions give you great suggestions for collecting samples and ways to gross out your parents.
Views: 620433 Sick Science!
Fermentation of Yeast & Sugar - The Sci Guys: Science at Home
 
04:18
Welcome to science at home in this experiment we are exploring the fermentation between yeast and sugar. Yeast uses sugar as energy and releases carbon dioxide and ethanol as waste. Yeast and fermentation have been used for thousands of years when making bread. At the end of this episode you will be able to demonstrate fermentation, explain why yeast and fermentation make a balloon grow and explain the chemical reaction that occurs during fermentation. Help support us to do more experiments by becoming a patron on patreon: http://www.patreon.com/thesciguys Equipment and Ingredients: Water Yeast Sugar Balloons Bottles Lab Coat or Apron Gloves Goggles Previous Episode: Leidenfrost Effect: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sgk4sY9Xn1U&index=3&list=PL7VnnL-CJ-z5fZDvjxy7TATkITyw32erX Next Episode: Copper Plating: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T3qhqTVssoo&index=6&list=PL7VnnL-CJ-z5fZDvjxy7TATkITyw32erX Check out our website for more experiments, written explanations of the steps and the material list. http://www.thesciguys.ca If you enjoyed the video remember to subscribe, comment and like us to show us you care. Remember to like us on Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/thesciguys Follow us on Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/thesciguys
Views: 257874 The Sci Guys
If a bacterium divides every 20 minutes-Formula
 
04:20
This video explains Bacterial growth problems using a simple equation f=ix2n where f=final number of bacteria i=initial number of bacteria for more visit: http://www.biologyexams4u.com/2017/05/if-bacterium-divides-every-20-minutes-formula.html
Views: 15985 biologyexams4u
Role of the Laboratory in Antimicrobial Stewardship
 
44:03
This presentation discusses the major roles of the clinical laboratory in antimicrobial stewardship and identifies when and how diagnostic tests should be incorporated in antimicrobial stewardship efforts. Dr. Diekema delivered this presentation during the Nebraska Antimicrobial Stewardship Summit held on June 1st, 2018.
Views: 185 Nebraska ASAP
Beautiful Sea Turtle
 
00:25
A Beautiful sea ​​turtle swims in the Mediterranean Sea! Una bellissima Tartaruga marina nuota nelle acque del mar Mediterraneo! Sea turtles (superfamily Chelonioidea) are marine reptiles that inhabit all of the world's oceans except the Arctic. Sea turtles are almost always submerged, and, therefore, have developed an anaerobic system of respiration. Although all sea turtles breathe air, under dire circumstances they may divert to anaerobic respiration for long periods of time. When surfacing to breathe, a sea turtle can quickly refill its lungs with a single explosive exhalation and rapid inhalation. Their large lungs have adapted to permit rapid exchange of oxygen and to avoid trapping gases during deep dives. However, sea turtles must emerge while breeding, given the extra level of activity. The mature nesting female hauls herself onto the beach, nearly always at night, and finds suitable sand on which to create a nest. Using her hind flippers, she digs a circular hole 40 to 50 centimetres (16 to 20 in) deep. After the hole is dug, the female then starts filling the nest with a clutch of soft-shelled eggs one by one until she has deposited around 50 to 200 eggs, depending on the species. Some species have been reported to lay 250 eggs, such as the hawksbill. After laying, she re-fills the nest with sand, re-sculpting and smoothing the surface until it is relatively undetectable visually. The whole process takes thirty to sixty minutes. She then returns to the ocean, leaving the eggs untended. The hatchling's gender depends on the sand temperature. Lighter sands maintain higher temperatures, which decreases incubation time and results in more female hatchlings. Hawksbill sea turtle from Black Hills, Honduras Incubation takes about two months. The eggs in one nest hatch together over a very short period of time. When ready, hatchlings tear their shells apart with their snout and dig through the sand. Again, this usually takes place at night. Once they reach the surface, they instinctively head towards the sea. If, as happens on rare occasions, hatching takes place during daylight, only a very small proportion of each hatch (usually 0.01%) succeed, because local opportunist predators, such as the common seagull, gorge on the new sea turtles. Thus there is an obvious evolutionary drive to hatch at night, when survival rates on the beach are much higher. The hatchlings then proceed into the ocean, where a variety of marine predators await them. In 1987, Carr discovered that the young of Chelonia mydas and Caretta caretta spent a great deal of their pelagic lives in floating sargassum beds, where there are thick mats of unanchored seaweed. Within these beds, they found ample shelter and food. In the absence of sargassum beds, sea turtle young feed in the vicinity of upwelling "fronts". In 2007, Reich determined that green sea turtle hatchlings spend the first three to five years of their lives in pelagic waters. In the open ocean, pre-juveniles of this particular species were found to feed on zooplankton and smaller nekton before they are recruited into inshore seagrass meadows as obligate herbivores. Instead of nesting individually like the other species, Ridley sea turtles come ashore en masse, known as an "arribada" (arrival). With the Kemp's ridley sea turtles this occurs during the day.!
Views: 7268 metocco
Nitrification test
 
24:28
This video features the use of a titrimetric method for determination of the nitrification activity of an activated sludge.
Culturing Microbes
 
06:20
Views: 17754 Becky Boone
Shelli Kramer - Nitrosomonas Eutropha and the Effects of Modern Hygienic Practices
 
22:03
Modern hygienic practices may affect the ability for the Nitrosomonas to colonize the skin's normal flora and negate it’s potentially benefits to humans. The potential benefits of reintroducing the Nitrosomonas artificially back into the skin's normal flora are explored in this research project. For more information on this and other happenings at the college, visit http://www.jccc.edu.
Views: 357 JCCCvideo
Biochemical oxygen demand
 
18:05
Biochemical oxygen demand or B.O.D is the amount of dissolved oxygen needed by aerobic biological organisms in a body of water to break down organic material present in a given water sample at certain temperature over a specific time period. The term also refers to a chemical procedure for determining this amount. This is not a precise quantitative test, although it is widely used as an indication of the organic quality of water. The BOD value is most commonly expressed in milligrams of oxygen consumed per litre of sample during 5 days of incubation at 20 °C and is often used as a robust surrogate of the degree of organic pollution of water. BOD can be used as a gauge of the effectiveness of wastewater treatment plants. It is listed as a conventional pollutant in the U.S. Clean Water Act. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 13034 Audiopedia
Getting by with a little help from their friends: how bacteria aid virus infection
 
01:01:12
Getting by with a little help from their friends: how bacteria aid virus infection Air date: Wednesday, May 8, 2019, 3:00:00 PM Category: WALS - Wednesday Afternoon Lectures Runtime: 01:01:12 Description: NIH Director's Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series Enteric viruses encounter a vast microbial community in the mammalian digestive tract prior to initiating infection. Dr. Pfeiffer and her colleagues found that gut microbes are required for replication and pathogenesis of two unrelated mammalian enteric viruses, poliovirus, and reovirus. Similarly, other groups have demonstrated that a mouse retrovirus and norovirus also rely on intestinal microbiota for replication. A common theme has emerged: Enteric viruses bind bacterial surface polysaccharides. Dr. Pfeiffer's lab found that exposure to bacteria or bacterial surface polysaccharides enhanced viral stability and cell attachment, providing one mechanism by which intestinal microbiota promote enteric virus infection. Virion stabilization by bacteria may be important for transmission since a mutant poliovirus with reduced binding to bacteria had a fecal-oral transmission defect due to virion instability in feces. Additionally, Dr. Pfeiffer's lab has visualized virion-bacteria interactions using electron microscopy and found that each bacterium binds several poliovirus or reovirus virions. The lab has also demonstrated that bacteria can deliver multiple virions to host cells to initiate infection. In fact, virion-bound bacteria are likely transmitted between hosts, which may redefine the viral “infectious unit.” The Khoury Lecture is organized by NIH scientists to honor the memory of Dr. George Khoury, who was highly regarded as a superb scientist and caring mentor of the postdoctoral fellows in his laboratory. This annual lecture is part of the Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series. Speakers are selected by a committee led by Dr. Eric Freed, NCI-CCR. This lecture will be followed by a reception in the NIH Library. Special thanks to the Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences (FAES) for its support of the weekly reception. FAES is proud to co-sponsor with the NIH in hosting the Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series. For more information go to https://oir.nih.gov/wals/2018-2019 Author: Julie Pfeiffer, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Permanent link: https://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?27501
Views: 78 nihvcast
Anammox activity test
 
38:46
A manometric approach is applied in this test to determine the activity of an Anammox culture.
Sri Lanka,ශ්‍රී ලංකා,Ceylon,Baby Sea turtles at Kosgoda Beach (01)
 
04:22
A privatly sponsored turtle hatching place "Kosgoda Turtle Conservation Project" located beside the town of Kosgoda, shows visitors the fresh born seaturtles a few hours before their release back into nature.Sea turtles (superfamily Chelonioidea) are marine reptiles that inhabit all of the world's oceans except the Arctic.The superfamily Chelonioidea has a world-wide distribution; sea turtles can be found in all oceans except for the polar regions.Some species travel between oceans. The flatback sea turtle is found solely on the northern coast of Australia.Sea turtles are almost always submerged in water, and, therefore, have developed an anaerobic system of respiration. Although all sea turtles breathe air, under dire circumstances they may divert to anaerobic respiration for long periods of time. When surfacing to breathe, a sea turtle can quickly refill its lungs with a single explosive exhalation and rapid inhalation. Their large lungs have adapted to permit rapid exchange of oxygen and to avoid trapping gases during deep dives. However, sea turtles must emerge while breeding, given the extra level of activity.According to SeaWorld Parks & Entertainment, a lifespan of 80 years is feasible for sea turtles.It takes decades for sea turtles to reach sexual maturity. After mating at sea, adult female sea turtles return to land to nest at night. Different species of sea turtles exhibit various levels of philopatry. In the extreme case, females return to the beach where they hatched. This can take place every two to four years in maturity. They make from one to eight nests per season.The mature nesting female hauls herself onto the beach, nearly always at night, and finds suitable sand on which to create a nest. Using her hind flippers, she digs a circular hole 40 to 50 centimetres (16 to 20 in) deep. After the hole is dug, the female then starts filling the nest with a clutch of soft-shelled eggs one by one until she has deposited around 50 to 200 eggs, depending on the species. Some species have been reported to lay 250 eggs, such as the hawksbill. After laying, she re-fills the nest with sand, re-sculpting and smoothing the surface until it is relatively undetectable visually. The whole process takes thirty to sixty minutes. She then returns to the ocean, leaving the eggs untended.The hatchling's gender depends on the sand temperature. Lighter sands maintain higher temperatures, which decreases incubation time and results in more female hatchlings.Incubation takes about two months. The eggs in one nest hatch together over a very short period of time. When ready, hatchlings tear their shells apart with their snout and dig through the sand. Again, this usually takes place at night, when predators such as seagulls cannot fly. Once they reach the surface, they instinctively head towards the sea. If, as happens on rare occasions, hatching takes place during daylight, only a very small proportion of each hatch (usually 0.01%) succeed, because local opportunist predators, such as the common seagull, gorge on the new sea turtles. Thus there is an obvious evolutionary drive to hatch at night, when survival rates on the beach are much higher.The hatchlings then proceed into the ocean, where a variety of marine predators await them. In 1987, Carr discovered that the young of Chelonia mydas and Caretta caretta spent a great deal of their pelagic lives in floating sargassum beds, where there are thick mats of unanchored seaweed. Within these beds, they found ample shelter and food. In the absence of sargassum beds, sea turtle young feed in the vicinity of upwelling "fronts".In 2007, Reich determined that green sea turtle hatchlings spend the first three to five years of their lives in pelagic waters. In the open ocean, pre-juveniles of this particular species were found to feed on zooplankton and smaller nekton before they are recruited into inshore seagrass meadows as obligate herbivores.Instead of nesting individually like the other species, Ridley sea turtles come ashore en masse, known as an "arribada" (arrival). With the Kemp's ridley sea turtles this occurs during the day.Sea turtles, along with other turtles and tortoises, are part of the order Testudines.The seven living species of sea turtles are: flatback sea turtle, green sea turtle, hawksbill sea turtle, Kemp's ridley sea turtle, leatherback sea turtle, loggerhead sea turtle and olive ridley sea turtle.All species except the leatherback are in the family Cheloniidae. The leatherback belongs to the family Dermochelyidae and is its only member.(wikipedia)
Views: 2502 NickVenture1
Sri Lanka,ශ්‍රී ලංකා,Ceylon,Baby Sea turtles hatched the night before release
 
00:59
A privatly sponsored turtle hatching place shows visitors the fresh born seaturtles a few hours before their release back into nature.Sea turtles (superfamily Chelonioidea) are marine reptiles that inhabit all of the world's oceans except the Arctic.The superfamily Chelonioidea has a world-wide distribution; sea turtles can be found in all oceans except for the polar regions.Some species travel between oceans. The flatback sea turtle is found solely on the northern coast of Australia.Sea turtles are almost always submerged in water, and, therefore, have developed an anaerobic system of respiration. Although all sea turtles breathe air, under dire circumstances they may divert to anaerobic respiration for long periods of time. When surfacing to breathe, a sea turtle can quickly refill its lungs with a single explosive exhalation and rapid inhalation. Their large lungs have adapted to permit rapid exchange of oxygen and to avoid trapping gases during deep dives. However, sea turtles must emerge while breeding, given the extra level of activity.According to SeaWorld Parks & Entertainment, a lifespan of 80 years is feasible for sea turtles.It takes decades for sea turtles to reach sexual maturity. After mating at sea, adult female sea turtles return to land to nest at night. Different species of sea turtles exhibit various levels of philopatry. In the extreme case, females return to the beach where they hatched. This can take place every two to four years in maturity. They make from one to eight nests per season.The mature nesting female hauls herself onto the beach, nearly always at night, and finds suitable sand on which to create a nest. Using her hind flippers, she digs a circular hole 40 to 50 centimetres (16 to 20 in) deep. After the hole is dug, the female then starts filling the nest with a clutch of soft-shelled eggs one by one until she has deposited around 50 to 200 eggs, depending on the species. Some species have been reported to lay 250 eggs, such as the hawksbill. After laying, she re-fills the nest with sand, re-sculpting and smoothing the surface until it is relatively undetectable visually. The whole process takes thirty to sixty minutes. She then returns to the ocean, leaving the eggs untended.The hatchling's gender depends on the sand temperature. Lighter sands maintain higher temperatures, which decreases incubation time and results in more female hatchlings.Incubation takes about two months. The eggs in one nest hatch together over a very short period of time. When ready, hatchlings tear their shells apart with their snout and dig through the sand. Again, this usually takes place at night, when predators such as seagulls cannot fly. Once they reach the surface, they instinctively head towards the sea. If, as happens on rare occasions, hatching takes place during daylight, only a very small proportion of each hatch (usually 0.01%) succeed, because local opportunist predators, such as the common seagull, gorge on the new sea turtles. Thus there is an obvious evolutionary drive to hatch at night, when survival rates on the beach are much higher.The hatchlings then proceed into the ocean, where a variety of marine predators await them. In 1987, Carr discovered that the young of Chelonia mydas and Caretta caretta spent a great deal of their pelagic lives in floating sargassum beds, where there are thick mats of unanchored seaweed. Within these beds, they found ample shelter and food. In the absence of sargassum beds, sea turtle young feed in the vicinity of upwelling "fronts".In 2007, Reich determined that green sea turtle hatchlings spend the first three to five years of their lives in pelagic waters. In the open ocean, pre-juveniles of this particular species were found to feed on zooplankton and smaller nekton before they are recruited into inshore seagrass meadows as obligate herbivores.Instead of nesting individually like the other species, Ridley sea turtles come ashore en masse, known as an "arribada" (arrival). With the Kemp's ridley sea turtles this occurs during the day.Sea turtles, along with other turtles and tortoises, are part of the order Testudines.The seven living species of sea turtles are: flatback sea turtle, green sea turtle, hawksbill sea turtle, Kemp's ridley sea turtle, leatherback sea turtle, loggerhead sea turtle and olive ridley sea turtle.All species except the leatherback are in the family Cheloniidae. The leatherback belongs to the family Dermochelyidae and is its only member.(wikipedia)
Views: 977 NickVenture1
Biochemical oxygen demand | Wikipedia audio article
 
22:43
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biochemical_oxygen_demand 00:00:49 1 Background 00:04:48 1.1 Typical values 00:05:42 2 Methods 00:05:55 2.1 Dilution method 00:09:57 2.2 Manometric method 00:11:06 3 Alternative methods 00:11:15 3.1 Biosensor 00:13:27 3.2 Fluorescent RedOx Indicator 00:14:10 3.3 Software sensor 00:15:01 4 Dissolved oxygen probes: Membrane and luminescence 00:18:15 5 Test limitations 00:18:35 5.1 Toxicity 00:19:14 5.2 Appropriate microbial population 00:20:07 6 History 00:22:19 7 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9134738451548989 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-B "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD, also called Biological Oxygen Demand) is the amount of dissolved oxygen needed (i.e. demanded) by aerobic biological organisms to break down organic material present in a given water sample at certain temperature over a specific time period. The BOD value is most commonly expressed in milligrams of oxygen consumed per litre of sample during 5 days of incubation at 20 °C and is often used as a surrogate of the degree of organic pollution of water.BOD can be used as a gauge of the effectiveness of wastewater treatment plants. BOD is similar in function to chemical oxygen demand (COD), in that both measure the amount of organic compounds in water. However, COD is less specific, since it measures everything that can be chemically oxidized, rather than just levels of biodegradable organic matter.
Views: 11 wikipedia tts
PNEUMONIA - WikiVidi Documentary
 
45:00
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli. Typically symptoms include some combination of productive or dry cough, chest pain, fever, and trouble breathing. Severity is variable. Pneumonia is usually caused by infection with viruses or bacteria and less commonly by other microorganisms, certain medications and conditions such as autoimmune diseases. Risk factors include other lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis, COPD, and asthma, diabetes, heart failure, a history of smoking, a poor ability to cough such as following a stroke, or a weak immune system. Diagnosis is often based on the symptoms and physical examination. Chest X-ray, blood tests, and culture of the sputum may help confirm the diagnosis. The disease may be classified by where it was acquired with community, hospital, or health care associated pneumonia. Vaccines to prevent certain types of pneumonia are available. Other methods of prevention include hand... http://www.wikividi.com ____________________________________ Shortcuts to chapters: 00:02:24: Signs and symptoms 00:04:40: Cause 00:06:03: Bacteria 00:07:47: Viruses 00:09:07: Fungi 00:09:56: Parasites 00:11:03: Noninfectious 00:11:32: Mechanisms 00:11:47: Viral 00:13:02: Bacterial 00:14:18: Diagnosis 00:16:24: Physical exam 00:17:18: Imaging 00:19:08: Microbiology 00:20:12: Classification 00:21:24: Community 00:21:47: Healthcare 00:23:07: Differential diagnosis 00:23:47: Prevention 00:24:16: Vaccination 00:25:28: Medications 00:25:56: Other 00:27:54: Management 00:29:32: Bacterial 00:31:34: Viral 00:32:50: Aspiration 00:33:34: Prognosis 00:34:42: Clinical prediction rules 00:34:59: Pleural effusion, empyema, and abscess 00:36:31: Respiratory and circulatory failure 00:37:27: Epidemiology 00:38:11: Children 00:39:16: History 00:43:06: Awareness 00:43:25: Costs ____________________________________ Copyright WikiVidi. Licensed under Creative Commons. Wikipedia link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pneumonia
Sri Lanka,ශ්‍රී ලංකා,Ceylon,Baby Sea turtles at Kosgoda Beach (02)
 
04:00
A privatly sponsored turtle hatching place "Kosgoda Turtle Conservation Project" located beside the town of Kosgoda, shows visitors the fresh born seaturtles a few hours before their release back into nature.Sea turtles (superfamily Chelonioidea) are marine reptiles that inhabit all of the world's oceans except the Arctic.The superfamily Chelonioidea has a world-wide distribution; sea turtles can be found in all oceans except for the polar regions.Some species travel between oceans. The flatback sea turtle is found solely on the northern coast of Australia.Sea turtles are almost always submerged in water, and, therefore, have developed an anaerobic system of respiration. Although all sea turtles breathe air, under dire circumstances they may divert to anaerobic respiration for long periods of time. When surfacing to breathe, a sea turtle can quickly refill its lungs with a single explosive exhalation and rapid inhalation. Their large lungs have adapted to permit rapid exchange of oxygen and to avoid trapping gases during deep dives. However, sea turtles must emerge while breeding, given the extra level of activity.According to SeaWorld Parks & Entertainment, a lifespan of 80 years is feasible for sea turtles.It takes decades for sea turtles to reach sexual maturity. After mating at sea, adult female sea turtles return to land to nest at night. Different species of sea turtles exhibit various levels of philopatry. In the extreme case, females return to the beach where they hatched. This can take place every two to four years in maturity. They make from one to eight nests per season.The mature nesting female hauls herself onto the beach, nearly always at night, and finds suitable sand on which to create a nest. Using her hind flippers, she digs a circular hole 40 to 50 centimetres (16 to 20 in) deep. After the hole is dug, the female then starts filling the nest with a clutch of soft-shelled eggs one by one until she has deposited around 50 to 200 eggs, depending on the species. Some species have been reported to lay 250 eggs, such as the hawksbill. After laying, she re-fills the nest with sand, re-sculpting and smoothing the surface until it is relatively undetectable visually. The whole process takes thirty to sixty minutes. She then returns to the ocean, leaving the eggs untended.The hatchling's gender depends on the sand temperature. Lighter sands maintain higher temperatures, which decreases incubation time and results in more female hatchlings.Incubation takes about two months. The eggs in one nest hatch together over a very short period of time. When ready, hatchlings tear their shells apart with their snout and dig through the sand. Again, this usually takes place at night, when predators such as seagulls cannot fly. Once they reach the surface, they instinctively head towards the sea. If, as happens on rare occasions, hatching takes place during daylight, only a very small proportion of each hatch (usually 0.01%) succeed, because local opportunist predators, such as the common seagull, gorge on the new sea turtles. Thus there is an obvious evolutionary drive to hatch at night, when survival rates on the beach are much higher.The hatchlings then proceed into the ocean, where a variety of marine predators await them. In 1987, Carr discovered that the young of Chelonia mydas and Caretta caretta spent a great deal of their pelagic lives in floating sargassum beds, where there are thick mats of unanchored seaweed. Within these beds, they found ample shelter and food. In the absence of sargassum beds, sea turtle young feed in the vicinity of upwelling "fronts".In 2007, Reich determined that green sea turtle hatchlings spend the first three to five years of their lives in pelagic waters. In the open ocean, pre-juveniles of this particular species were found to feed on zooplankton and smaller nekton before they are recruited into inshore seagrass meadows as obligate herbivores.Instead of nesting individually like the other species, Ridley sea turtles come ashore en masse, known as an "arribada" (arrival). With the Kemp's ridley sea turtles this occurs during the day.Sea turtles, along with other turtles and tortoises, are part of the order Testudines.The seven living species of sea turtles are: flatback sea turtle, green sea turtle, hawksbill sea turtle, Kemp's ridley sea turtle, leatherback sea turtle, loggerhead sea turtle and olive ridley sea turtle.All species except the leatherback are in the family Cheloniidae. The leatherback belongs to the family Dermochelyidae and is its only member.(wikipedia)
Views: 1346 NickVenture1
Tutorial on Chatacterization of wastes
 
28:10
This video contains the numerical problem on the Characterization of waste to the course Waste to Energy Conversion.
Multi-contaminant interactions at aquifer-river interfaces
 
47:04
Presented by Stefan Krause - Professor and Chair or Ecohydrology and Biogeochemistry at the University of Birmingham, UK - at the 2018 Emerging Contaminants in the Aquatic Environment Conference. Hyporheic zones at the interfaces between aquifers and rivers are characterized by the spatially and temporally dynamic mixing of groundwater and surface water resources. The mixing of these diverse water sources creates streambed hotspots where different types of legacy and emerging contaminants meet, potentially react or compete for reaction partners. This demands the development of integrated management strategies for groundwater and surface water resources. This talk investigates the organizational principles of drivers and controls of multiple contaminant interactions in hyporheic zones, including examples of different diffuse and point source legacy pollutants as well as emerging contaminants such as engineered nanoparticles and microplastics. The environmental impacts of multiple pollutants on ecosystem functioning (whole stream metabolism, biofilm primary production) are furthermore analyzed in relation to other stressors, such as increasing water temperatures, flood or drought conditions.
Landfill Methane Emissions and Oxidation
 
01:10:13
Presented by Dr. Jean Bogner, Research Professor, Dept. of Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois - Chicago; and President, Landfill +, Inc.
Bacillus
 
06:35
Bacillus is a genus of Gram-positive, rod-shaped (bacillus), bacteria and a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Bacillus species can be obligate aerobes (oxygen reliant), or facultative anaerobes (having the ability to be aerobic or anaerobic). They will test positive for the enzyme catalase when there has been oxygen used or present. Ubiquitous in nature, Bacillus includes both free-living (non-parasitic) and parasitic pathogenic species. Under stressful environmental conditions, the bacteria can produce oval endospores that are not true spores but which the bacteria can reduce themselves to and remain in a dormant state for very long periods. These characteristics originally defined the genus, but not all such species are closely related, and many have been moved to other genera of Firmicutes. Many species of Bacillus can produce copious amounts of enzymes which are made use of in different industries. Some Bacillus species can form intracellular inclusions of polyhydroxyalkanoates under certain adverse environmental conditions, as in a lack of elements such as phosphorus, nitrogen, or oxygen combined with an excessive supply of carbon sources. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 5003 Audiopedia
Isolation (microbiology) | Wikipedia audio article
 
10:28
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isolation_(microbiology) 00:00:49 1 History 00:01:30 2 General techniques 00:03:31 3 Bacterial and fungal culture 00:03:41 3.1 Inoculation 00:05:58 3.2 Incubation 00:07:24 3.3 Identification 00:09:20 4 Bacteria, culture-independent Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8775700393552337 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-A "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= In microbiology, the term isolation refers to the separation of a strain from a natural, mixed population of living microbes, as present in the environment, for example in water or soil flora, or from living beings with skin flora, oral flora or gut flora, in order to identify the microbe(s) of interest. Historically, the laboratory techniques of isolation first developed in the field of bacteriology and parasitology (during the 19th century), before those in virology during the 20th century. Methods of microbial isolation have drastically changed over the past 50 years, from a labor perspective with increasing mechanization, and in regard to the technology involved, and hence speed and accuracy.
Views: 1 wikipedia tts
Carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand | Wikipedia audio article
 
14:26
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbonaceous_biochemical_oxygen_demand 00:00:30 1 The CBODsub5/sub test 00:01:51 2 Dissolved oxygen probes: Membrane and luminescence 00:05:22 3 Method summary 00:08:15 4 Bacterial seed CBOD correction 00:09:41 5 CBOD seed 00:10:15 6 Sample toxicity 00:10:51 7 Appropriate microbial population 00:11:35 8 Glucose-glutamic acid check sample 00:12:34 9 Regulatory use 00:13:59 10 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9333982730117718 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-A "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand or CBOD is a method defined test measured by the depletion of dissolved oxygen by biological organisms in a body of water in which the contribution from nitrogenous bacteria has been suppressed. CBOD is a method defined parameter is widely used as an indication of the pollutant removal from wastewater. It is listed as a conventional pollutant in the U.S. Clean Water Act.
Views: 32 wikipedia tts
Prebiotic (chemistry) | Wikipedia audio article
 
02:00:54
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abiogenesis 00:05:07 1 Early geophysical conditions on Earth 00:08:45 1.1 Earliest biological evidence for life 00:15:52 2 Conceptual history 00:16:02 2.1 Spontaneous generation 00:20:22 2.2 Etymology 00:23:09 2.3 Louis Pasteur and Charles Darwin 00:25:10 2.4 "Primordial soup" hypothesis 00:30:33 2.5 Proteinoid microspheres 00:32:59 3 Current models 00:38:52 4 Chemical origin of organic molecules 00:42:35 4.1 Chemical synthesis 00:50:03 4.2 Autocatalysis 00:53:39 4.3 Homochirality 00:56:14 5 Self-enclosement, reproduction, duplication and the RNA world 00:56:28 5.1 Protocells 00:59:45 5.2 RNA world 01:02:30 5.2.1 Viral origins 01:04:21 5.3 RNA synthesis and replication 01:08:35 5.4 Pre-RNA world 01:11:52 6 Origin of biological metabolism 01:13:11 6.1 Iron–sulfur world 01:18:23 6.2 Zn-world hypothesis 01:22:13 6.3 Deep sea vent hypothesis 01:28:10 6.4 Thermosynthesis 01:31:04 7 Other models 01:31:13 7.1 Clay hypothesis 01:33:08 7.2 Gold's "deep-hot biosphere" model 01:34:16 7.3 Panspermia 01:35:37 7.4 Extraterrestrial organic molecules 01:42:12 7.5 Lipid world 01:44:22 7.6 Polyphosphates 01:45:46 7.7 PAH world hypothesis 01:48:21 7.8 Radioactive beach hypothesis 01:50:14 7.9 Thermodynamic dissipation 01:56:21 7.10 Multiple genesis 01:57:45 7.11 Fluctuating hydrothermal pools on volcanic islands or proto-continents Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.827097206046715 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-A "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Abiogenesis, or informally the origin of life, is the natural process by which life has arisen from non-living matter, such as simple organic compounds. While the details of this process are still unknown, the prevailing scientific hypothesis is that the transition from non-living to living entities was not a single event, but a gradual process of increasing complexity that involved molecular self-replication, self-assembly, autocatalysis, and the emergence of cell membranes. Although the occurrence of abiogenesis is uncontroversial among scientists, there is no single, generally accepted model for the origin of life, and this article presents several principles and hypotheses for how abiogenesis could have occurred. Researchers study abiogenesis through a combination of molecular biology, paleontology, astrobiology, oceanography, biophysics, geochemistry and biochemistry, and aim to determine how pre-life chemical reactions gave rise to life. The study of abiogenesis can be geophysical, chemical, or biological, with more recent approaches attempting a synthesis of all three, as life arose under conditions that are strikingly different from those on Earth today. Life functions through the specialized chemistry of carbon and water and builds largely upon four key families of chemicals: lipids (fatty cell walls), carbohydrates (sugars, cellulose), amino acids (protein metabolism), and nucleic acids (self-replicating DNA and RNA). Any successful theory of abiogenesis must explain the origins and interactions of these classes of molecules. Many approaches to abiogenesis investigate how self-replicating molecules, or their components, came into existence. Researchers generally think that current life on Earth descends from an RNA world, although RNA-based life may not have been the first life to have existed.The classic 1952 Miller–Urey experiment and similar research demonstrated that most amino acids, the chemical constituents of the proteins used in all living organisms, can be synthesized from inorganic compounds under conditions intended to replicate those of the early Earth. Scientists have proposed various external sources of energy that may have triggered these reactions, including lightning and radiation. Other approaches ("metabolism-first" hypotheses) focus on understanding how catalysis in chemical systems on the early Earth might have provided the precursor molecules ...
Views: 5 wikipedia tts
Coffee wastewater | Wikipedia audio article
 
14:01
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Coffee wastewater 00:00:45 1 Processing 00:00:54 1.1 Dry 00:01:39 1.2 Semi-washed 00:02:22 1.2.1 Becolsub 00:04:57 1.3 Fully washed 00:06:04 2 Water usage 00:06:46 2.1 General 00:09:53 2.2 De-pulping 00:11:38 2.3 Washing 00:13:48 3 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Coffee wastewater, also known as coffee effluent, is a byproduct of coffee processing. Its treatment and disposal is an important environmental consideration for coffee processing as wastewater is a form of industrial water pollution.The unpicked fruit of the coffee tree, known as the coffee cherry, undergoes a long process to make it ready for consumption. This process often entails use of large quantities of water and the production of considerable amounts of solid and liquid waste. The type of waste is a result of the type of process that the coffee cherries go through. The conversion of the cherry to oro or green bean (the dried coffee bean which is ready to be exported) is achieved through either a dry, semi-washed or fully washed process.
Views: 8 wikipedia tts
Clostridium perfringens | Wikipedia audio article
 
13:33
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Clostridium perfringens 00:01:34 1 Genome 00:02:24 2 Motility 00:03:26 3 Food poisoning 00:06:08 4 Infection 00:06:48 5 Treatment 00:07:23 6 Diagnosis 00:08:43 7 Prevention 00:09:37 8 Food poisoning incidents 00:12:46 9 Epidemiology Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Clostridium perfringens (formerly known as C. welchii, or Bacillus welchii) is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming pathogenic bacterium of the genus Clostridium. C. perfringens is ever-present in nature and can be found as a normal component of decaying vegetation, marine sediment, the intestinal tract of humans and other vertebrates, insects, and soil. It has the shortest reported generation time of any organism at 6.3 minutes in thioglycolate medium.C. perfringens is one of the most common causes of food poisoning in the United States, alongside norovirus, Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Staphylococcus aureus. However, it can sometimes be ingested and cause no harm.Infections due to C. perfringens show evidence of tissue necrosis, bacteremia, emphysematous cholecystitis, and gas gangrene, which is also known as clostridial myonecrosis. The toxin involved in gas gangrene is known as α-toxin, which inserts into the plasma membrane of cells, producing gaps in the membrane that disrupt normal cellular function. C. perfringens can participate in polymicrobial anaerobic infections. It is commonly encountered in infections as a component of the normal flora. In this case, its role in disease is minor. The action of C. perfringens on dead bodies is known to mortuary workers as tissue gas. It causes extremely accelerated decomposition, and cannot be stopped by normal embalming measures. The bacteria is resistant to the presence of formaldehyde in normal concentrations.
Views: 127 wikipedia tts
Abiogensis | Wikipedia audio article
 
02:03:41
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abiogenesis 00:05:15 1 Early geophysical conditions on Earth 00:08:56 1.1 Earliest biological evidence for life 00:16:13 2 Conceptual history 00:16:23 2.1 Spontaneous generation 00:20:47 2.2 Etymology 00:23:34 2.3 Louis Pasteur and Charles Darwin 00:25:33 2.4 "Primordial soup" hypothesis 00:31:01 2.5 Proteinoid microspheres 00:33:29 3 Current models 00:39:26 4 Chemical origin of organic molecules 00:43:15 4.1 Chemical synthesis 00:50:52 4.2 Autocatalysis 00:54:31 4.3 Homochirality 00:57:08 5 Self-enclosement, reproduction, duplication and the RNA world 00:57:22 5.1 Protocells 01:00:42 5.2 RNA world 01:03:31 5.2.1 Viral origins 01:05:23 5.3 RNA synthesis and replication 01:09:39 5.4 Pre-RNA world 01:12:52 6 Origin of biological metabolism 01:14:13 6.1 Iron–sulfur world 01:19:32 6.2 Zn-world hypothesis 01:23:28 6.3 Deep sea vent hypothesis 01:29:34 6.4 Thermosynthesis 01:32:30 7 Other models 01:32:39 7.1 Clay hypothesis 01:34:36 7.2 Gold's "deep-hot biosphere" model 01:35:46 7.3 Panspermia 01:37:07 7.4 Extraterrestrial organic molecules 01:43:33 7.5 Lipid world 01:45:44 7.6 Polyphosphates 01:47:10 7.7 PAH world hypothesis 01:49:46 7.8 Radioactive beach hypothesis 01:51:41 7.9 Thermodynamic dissipation 01:58:00 7.10 Multiple genesis 01:59:23 7.11 Fluctuating hydrothermal pools on volcanic islands or proto-continents 02:02:32 7.12 Information theory 02:03:27 8 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8474264054020412 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-D "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Abiogenesis, or informally the origin of life, is the natural process by which life has arisen from non-living matter, such as simple organic compounds. While the details of this process are still unknown, the prevailing scientific hypothesis is that the transition from non-living to living entities was not a single event, but a gradual process of increasing complexity that involved molecular self-replication, self-assembly, autocatalysis, and the emergence of cell membranes. Although the occurrence of abiogenesis is uncontroversial among scientists, there is no single, generally accepted model for the origin of life, and this article presents several principles and hypotheses for how abiogenesis could have occurred. Researchers study abiogenesis through a combination of molecular biology, paleontology, astrobiology, oceanography, biophysics, geochemistry and biochemistry, and aim to determine how pre-life chemical reactions gave rise to life. The study of abiogenesis can be geophysical, chemical, or biological, with more recent approaches attempting a synthesis of all three, as life arose under conditions that are strikingly different from those on Earth today. Life functions through the specialized chemistry of carbon and water and builds largely upon four key families of chemicals: lipids (fatty cell walls), carbohydrates (sugars, cellulose), amino acids (protein metabolism), and nucleic acids (self-replicating DNA and RNA). Any successful theory of abiogenesis must explain the origins and interactions of these classes of molecules. Many approaches to abiogenesis investigate how self-replicating molecules, or their components, came into existence. Researchers generally think that current life on Earth descends from an RNA world, although RNA-based life may not have been the first life to have existed.The classic 1952 Miller–Urey experiment and similar research demonstrated that most amino acids, the chemical constituents of the proteins used in all living organisms, can be synthesized from inorganic compounds under conditions intended to replicate those of the early Earth. Scientists have proposed various external sources of energy that may have triggered these reactions, including lightning and radiation. Other approaches ("metabolism-first" hypotheses) focus on understanding how catalysis in chemical systems on the ea ...
Views: 26 wikipedia tts
Biological fuel cell | Wikipedia audio article
 
23:07
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microbial_fuel_cell 00:00:54 1 History 00:02:55 2 Definition 00:04:22 3 Applications 00:04:32 3.1 Power generation 00:06:30 3.2 Education 00:07:27 3.3 Biosensor 00:10:01 3.4 Biorecovery 00:10:26 3.5 Wastewater treatment 00:11:10 4 Types 00:11:19 4.1 Mediated 00:11:48 4.2 Mediator-free 00:13:05 4.3 Microbial electrolysis 00:14:00 4.4 Soil-based 00:15:56 4.5 Phototrophic biofilm 00:16:41 4.6 Nanoporous membrane 00:17:53 4.7 Ceramic membrane 00:18:28 5 Generation process 00:22:32 6 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.862909919071245 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-A "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= A microbial fuel cell (MFC), or biological fuel cell, is a bio-electrochemical system that drives an electric current by using bacteria and mimicking bacterial interactions found in nature. MFCs can be grouped into two general categories: mediated and unmediated. The first MFCs, demonstrated in the early 20th century, used a mediator: a chemical that transfers electrons from the bacteria in the cell to the anode. Unmediated MFCs emerged in the 1970s; in this type of MFC the bacteria typically have electrochemically active redox proteins such as cytochromes on their outer membrane that can transfer electrons directly to the anode. In the 21st century MFCs started to find a commercial use in wastewater treatment.
Views: 3 wikipedia tts
Biological oxygen demand | Wikipedia audio article
 
30:05
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biochemical_oxygen_demand 00:01:08 1 Background 00:06:33 1.1 Typical values 00:07:42 2 Methods 00:07:57 2.1 Dilution method 00:13:15 2.2 Manometric method 00:14:44 3 Alternative methods 00:14:54 3.1 Biosensor 00:17:52 3.2 Fluorescent RedOx Indicator 00:18:45 3.3 Software sensor 00:19:52 4 Dissolved oxygen probes: Membrane and luminescence 00:24:12 5 Test limitations 00:24:35 5.1 Toxicity 00:25:26 5.2 Appropriate microbial population 00:26:34 6 History 00:29:37 7 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.7838381752293425 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-C "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD, also called Biological Oxygen Demand) is the amount of dissolved oxygen needed (i.e. demanded) by aerobic biological organisms to break down organic material present in a given water sample at certain temperature over a specific time period. The BOD value is most commonly expressed in milligrams of oxygen consumed per litre of sample during 5 days of incubation at 20 °C and is often used as a surrogate of the degree of organic pollution of water.BOD can be used as a gauge of the effectiveness of wastewater treatment plants. BOD is similar in function to chemical oxygen demand (COD), in that both measure the amount of organic compounds in water. However, COD is less specific, since it measures everything that can be chemically oxidized, rather than just levels of biodegradable organic matter.
Views: 4 wikipedia tts
Sulphate reduction test
 
52:47
The sulfate reduction activity of an activated sludge is estimated by applying a sacrificial bottle test.
Pharmaceutical microbiology | Wikipedia audio article
 
07:22
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharmaceutical_microbiology 00:00:50 1 Drug safety 00:01:19 2 Antimicrobial activity and disinfection 00:02:38 3 Methods and specifications 00:03:41 4 Cleanrooms and controlled environments 00:06:51 5 Professional guidance Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9309336282512177 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-D "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Pharmaceutical Microbiology is an applied branch of Microbiology. It involves the study of microorganisms associated with the manufacture of pharmaceuticals e.g. minimizing the number of microorganisms in a process environment, excluding microorganisms and microbial biproducts like exotoxin and endotoxin from water and other starting materials, and ensuring the finished pharmaceutical product is sterile. Other aspects of pharmaceutical microbiology include the research and development of anti-infective agents, the use of microorganisms to detect mutagenic and carcinogenic activity in prospective drugs, and the use of microorganisms in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products like insulin and human growth hormone.
Views: 1 wikipedia tts
Abiogenisis | Wikipedia audio article
 
02:29:38
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abiogenesis 00:06:21 1 Early geophysical conditions on Earth 00:10:53 1.1 Earliest biological evidence for life 00:19:46 2 Conceptual history 00:19:57 2.1 Spontaneous generation 00:25:20 2.2 Etymology 00:28:46 2.3 Louis Pasteur and Charles Darwin 00:31:17 2.4 "Primordial soup" hypothesis 00:37:59 2.5 Proteinoid microspheres 00:41:01 3 Current models 00:48:19 4 Chemical origin of organic molecules 00:52:55 4.1 Chemical synthesis 01:02:10 4.2 Autocatalysis 01:06:35 4.3 Homochirality 01:09:46 5 Self-enclosement, reproduction, duplication and the RNA world 01:10:02 5.1 Protocells 01:14:05 5.2 RNA world 01:17:25 5.2.1 Viral origins 01:19:44 5.3 RNA synthesis and replication 01:24:55 5.4 Pre-RNA world 01:29:00 6 Origin of biological metabolism 01:30:37 6.1 Iron–sulfur world 01:37:06 6.2 Zn-world hypothesis 01:41:52 6.3 Deep sea vent hypothesis 01:49:11 6.4 Thermosynthesis 01:52:47 7 Other models 01:52:57 7.1 Clay hypothesis 01:55:18 7.2 Gold's "deep-hot biosphere" model 01:56:42 7.3 Panspermia 01:58:21 7.4 Extraterrestrial organic molecules 02:06:28 7.5 Lipid world 02:09:09 7.6 Polyphosphates 02:10:51 7.7 PAH world hypothesis 02:14:01 7.8 Radioactive beach hypothesis 02:16:21 7.9 Thermodynamic dissipation 02:23:58 7.10 Multiple genesis 02:25:39 7.11 Fluctuating hydrothermal pools on volcanic islands or proto-continents Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.7109698781395264 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-C "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Abiogenesis, or informally the origin of life, is the natural process by which life has arisen from non-living matter, such as simple organic compounds. While the details of this process are still unknown, the prevailing scientific hypothesis is that the transition from non-living to living entities was not a single event, but a gradual process of increasing complexity that involved molecular self-replication, self-assembly, autocatalysis, and the emergence of cell membranes. Although the occurrence of abiogenesis is uncontroversial among scientists, there is no single, generally accepted model for the origin of life, and this article presents several principles and hypotheses for how abiogenesis could have occurred. Researchers study abiogenesis through a combination of molecular biology, paleontology, astrobiology, oceanography, biophysics, geochemistry and biochemistry, and aim to determine how pre-life chemical reactions gave rise to life. The study of abiogenesis can be geophysical, chemical, or biological, with more recent approaches attempting a synthesis of all three, as life arose under conditions that are strikingly different from those on Earth today. Life functions through the specialized chemistry of carbon and water and builds largely upon four key families of chemicals: lipids (fatty cell walls), carbohydrates (sugars, cellulose), amino acids (protein metabolism), and nucleic acids (self-replicating DNA and RNA). Any successful theory of abiogenesis must explain the origins and interactions of these classes of molecules. Many approaches to abiogenesis investigate how self-replicating molecules, or their components, came into existence. Researchers generally think that current life on Earth descends from an RNA world, although RNA-based life may not have been the first life to have existed.The classic 1952 Miller–Urey experiment and similar research demonstrated that most amino acids, the chemical constituents of the proteins used in all living organisms, can be synthesized from inorganic compounds under conditions intended to replicate those of the early Earth. Scientists have proposed various external sources of energy that may have triggered these reactions, including lightning and radiation. Other approaches ("metabolism-first" hypotheses) focus on understanding how catalysis in chemical systems on the early Earth might have provided the precursor molecules ...
Views: 3 wikipedia tts
Lecture 31
 
33:48
This lecture covers basics of wide range techniques that are high throughput and cost effective for the microbe study.
UIC Campus Insights 2014: John Edel
 
07:38
UIC alumnus John Edel describes The Plant, an initiative to transform a vacant meatpacking plant in Chicago's Back of the Yards neighborhood into a zero-emissions indoor hydroponic farm.
Views: 293 thisisUIC
Abiogenesis | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:43:41
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Abiogenesis 00:04:18 1 Early geophysical conditions on Earth 00:07:24 1.1 Earliest biological evidence for life 00:13:32 2 Conceptual history 00:13:42 2.1 Spontaneous generation 00:17:24 2.2 Etymology 00:19:45 2.3 Louis Pasteur and Charles Darwin 00:21:25 2.4 "Primordial soup" hypothesis 00:26:00 2.5 Proteinoid microspheres 00:28:05 3 Current models 00:33:06 4 Chemical origin of organic molecules 00:36:18 4.1 Chemical synthesis 00:42:42 4.2 Autocatalysis 00:45:47 4.3 Homochirality 00:48:00 5 Self-enclosement, reproduction, duplication and the RNA world 00:48:13 5.1 Protocells 00:51:02 5.2 RNA world 00:53:26 5.2.1 Viral origins 00:55:01 5.3 RNA synthesis and replication 00:58:37 5.4 Pre-RNA world 01:00:51 6 Origin of biological metabolism 01:02:00 6.1 Iron–sulfur world 01:06:30 6.2 Zn-world hypothesis 01:09:49 6.3 Deep sea vent hypothesis 01:14:57 6.4 Thermosynthesis 01:17:25 7 Other models 01:17:34 7.1 Clay hypothesis 01:19:13 7.2 Gold's "deep-hot biosphere" model 01:20:13 7.3 Panspermia 01:21:12 7.4 Extraterrestrial organic molecules 01:26:38 7.5 Lipid world 01:28:29 7.6 Polyphosphates 01:29:41 7.7 PAH world hypothesis 01:31:54 7.8 Radioactive beach hypothesis 01:33:32 7.9 Thermodynamic dissipation 01:38:51 7.10 Multiple genesis 01:40:02 7.11 Fluctuating hydrothermal pools on volcanic islands or proto-continents 01:42:41 7.12 Information theory 01:43:27 8 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Abiogenesis, or informally the origin of life, is the natural process by which life arises from non-living matter, such as simple organic compounds. The transition from non-living to living entities was not a single event, but a gradual process of increasing complexity that involved molecular self-replication, self-assembly, autocatalysis and cell membranes. Although the occurrence of abiogenesis is uncontroversial among scientists, there is no single, generally accepted model for the origin of life, and this article presents several principles and hypotheses for how abiogenesis could have occurred. Researchers study abiogenesis through a combination of molecular biology, paleontology, astrobiology, oceanography, biophysics, geochemistry and biochemistry, and aim to determine how pre-life chemical reactions gave rise to life. The study of abiogenesis can be geophysical, chemical, or biological, with more recent approaches attempting a synthesis of all three, as life arose under conditions that are strikingly different from those on Earth today. Life functions through the specialized chemistry of carbon and water and builds largely upon four key families of chemicals: lipids (fatty cell walls), carbohydrates (sugars, cellulose), amino acids (protein metabolism), and nucleic acids (self-replicating DNA and RNA). Any successful theory of abiogenesis must explain the origins and interactions of these classes of molecules. Many approaches to abiogenesis investigate how self-replicating molecules, or their components, came into existence. Researchers generally think that current life on Earth descends from an RNA world, although RNA-based life may not have been the first life to have existed.The classic 1952 Miller–Urey experiment and similar research demonstrated that most amino acids, the chemical constituents of the proteins used in all living organisms, can be synthesized from inorganic compounds under conditions intended to replicate those of the early Earth. Scientists have proposed various external sources of energy that may have triggered these reactions, including lightning and radiation. Other approaches ("metabolism-first" hypotheses) focus on understanding how catalysis in chemical systems on the early Earth might have provided the precursor molecules necessary for self-replication. Complex organic molecules occur in the Solar System and in interstellar space, and these molecules may have provided starting material for the development of life on Earth.The biochemistry of life may have begun shortly aft ...
Views: 31 wikipedia tts
Abiogenesis | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:42:19
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Abiogenesis Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Abiogenesis, or informally the origin of life, is the natural process by which life arises from non-living matter, such as simple organic compounds. The transition from non-living to living entities was not a single event, but a gradual process of increasing complexity that involved molecular self-replication, self-assembly, autocatalysis and cell membranes. Although the occurrence of abiogenesis is uncontroversial among scientists, there is no single, generally accepted model for the origin of life, and this article presents several principles and hypotheses for how abiogenesis could have occurred. Researchers study abiogenesis through a combination of molecular biology, paleontology, astrobiology, oceanography, biophysics, geochemistry and biochemistry, and aim to determine how pre-life chemical reactions gave rise to life. The study of abiogenesis can be geophysical, chemical, or biological, with more recent approaches attempting a synthesis of all three, as life arose under conditions that are strikingly different from those on Earth today. Life functions through the specialized chemistry of carbon and water and builds largely upon four key families of chemicals: lipids (fatty cell walls), carbohydrates (sugars, cellulose), amino acids (protein metabolism), and nucleic acids (self-replicating DNA and RNA). Any successful theory of abiogenesis must explain the origins and interactions of these classes of molecules. Many approaches to abiogenesis investigate how self-replicating molecules, or their components, came into existence. Researchers generally think that current life on Earth descends from an RNA world, although RNA-based life may not have been the first life to have existed.The classic 1952 Miller–Urey experiment and similar research demonstrated that most amino acids, the chemical constituents of the proteins used in all living organisms, can be synthesized from inorganic compounds under conditions intended to replicate those of the early Earth. Scientists have proposed various external sources of energy that may have triggered these reactions, including lightning and radiation. Other approaches ("metabolism-first" hypotheses) focus on understanding how catalysis in chemical systems on the early Earth might have provided the precursor molecules necessary for self-replication. Complex organic molecules occur in the Solar System and in interstellar space, and these molecules may have provided starting material for the development of life on Earth.The biochemistry of life may have begun shortly after the Big Bang, 13.8 billion years ago, during a habitable epoch when the age of the universe was only 10 to 17 million years. The panspermia hypothesis suggests that microscopic life was distributed to the early Earth by space dust, meteoroids, asteroids and other small Solar System bodies and that life may exist throughout the universe. The panspermia hypothesis proposes that life originated outside the Earth, but does not definitively explain its origin. Nonetheless, Earth remains the only place in the universe known to harbour life, and fossil evidence from the Earth informs most studies of abiogenesis. The age of the Earth is about 4.54 billion years; the earliest undisputed evidence of life on Earth dates from at least 3.5 billion years ago, and possibly as early as the Eoarchean Era (between 3.6 and 4.0 billion years ago), after geological crust started to solidify following the molten Hadean Eon. In May 2017 scientists found possible evidence of early life on land in 3.48-billion-year-old geyserite and other related mineral deposits (often found around hot springs and geysers) uncovered in the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia. However, a number of discoveries suggest that life may have appeared on Earth even earlier. As of 2017, microfossils, or fossilised microorganisms, within hydrothermal-vent precipitates dated from 3.77 to 4.28 billion years ol ...
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Pneumonia | Wikipedia audio article
 
47:28
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Pneumonia Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli. Typically symptoms include some combination of productive or dry cough, chest pain, fever, and trouble breathing. Severity is variable.Pneumonia is usually caused by infection with viruses or bacteria and less commonly by other microorganisms, certain medications and conditions such as autoimmune diseases. Risk factors include other lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis, COPD, and asthma, diabetes, heart failure, a history of smoking, a poor ability to cough such as following a stroke, or a weak immune system. Diagnosis is often based on the symptoms and physical examination. Chest X-ray, blood tests, and culture of the sputum may help confirm the diagnosis. The disease may be classified by where it was acquired with community, hospital, or health care associated pneumonia.Vaccines to prevent certain types of pneumonia are available. Other methods of prevention include handwashing and not smoking. Treatment depends on the underlying cause. Pneumonia believed to be due to bacteria is treated with antibiotics. If the pneumonia is severe, the affected person is generally hospitalized. Oxygen therapy may be used if oxygen levels are low.Pneumonia affects approximately 450 million people globally (7% of the population) and results in about 4 million deaths per year. Pneumonia was regarded by William Osler in the 19th century as "the captain of the men of death". With the introduction of antibiotics and vaccines in the 20th century, survival improved. Nevertheless, in developing countries, and among the very old, the very young, and the chronically ill, pneumonia remains a leading cause of death. Pneumonia often shortens suffering among those already close to death and has thus been called "the old man's friend".
Views: 20 wikipedia tts
Lecture 18
 
35:23
This lecture describes the microbial ecosystems and the water based diseases.
Pneumonia | Wikipedia audio article
 
52:14
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pneumonia 00:02:04 1 Signs and symptoms 00:04:13 2 Cause 00:06:06 2.1 Bacteria 00:07:40 2.2 Viruses 00:08:57 2.3 Fungi 00:09:54 2.4 Parasites 00:11:00 2.5 Noninfectious 00:11:41 3 Mechanisms 00:12:32 3.1 Bacterial 00:13:46 3.2 Viral 00:15:03 4 Diagnosis 00:17:42 4.1 Physical exam 00:18:36 4.2 Imaging 00:21:09 4.3 Microbiology 00:22:49 4.4 Classification 00:23:56 4.4.1 Community 00:24:23 4.4.2 Healthcare 00:24:52 4.4.2.1 Hospital 00:25:26 4.4.2.2 Ventilator 00:25:51 4.5 Differential diagnosis 00:27:03 5 Prevention 00:27:35 5.1 Vaccination 00:29:35 5.2 Medications 00:30:06 5.3 Other 00:32:30 6 Management 00:34:23 6.1 Bacterial 00:38:11 6.2 Viral 00:39:26 6.3 Aspiration 00:40:09 7 Prognosis 00:41:48 7.1 Clinical prediction rules 00:42:21 7.2 Pleural effusion, empyema, and abscess 00:43:48 7.3 Respiratory and circulatory failure 00:44:52 8 Epidemiology 00:45:41 8.1 Children 00:46:52 9 History 00:50:34 10 Society and culture 00:50:43 10.1 Awareness 00:51:06 10.2 Costs Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9424961554360147 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-E "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli. Typically symptoms include some combination of productive or dry cough, chest pain, fever, and trouble breathing. Severity is variable.Pneumonia is usually caused by infection with viruses or bacteria and less commonly by other microorganisms, certain medications and conditions such as autoimmune diseases. Risk factors include other lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis, COPD, and asthma, diabetes, heart failure, a history of smoking, a poor ability to cough such as following a stroke, or a weak immune system. Diagnosis is often based on the symptoms and physical examination. Chest X-ray, blood tests, and culture of the sputum may help confirm the diagnosis. The disease may be classified by where it was acquired with community, hospital, or health care associated pneumonia.Vaccines to prevent certain types of pneumonia are available. Other methods of prevention include handwashing and not smoking. Treatment depends on the underlying cause. Pneumonia believed to be due to bacteria is treated with antibiotics. If the pneumonia is severe, the affected person is generally hospitalized. Oxygen therapy may be used if oxygen levels are low.Pneumonia affects approximately 450 million people globally (7% of the population) and results in about 4 million deaths per year. Pneumonia was regarded by William Osler in the 19th century as "the captain of the men of death". With the introduction of antibiotics and vaccines in the 20th century, survival improved. Nevertheless, in developing countries, and among the very old, the very young, and the chronically ill, pneumonia remains a leading cause of death. Pneumonia often shortens suffering among those already close to death and has thus been called "the old man's friend".
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Plastic | Wikipedia audio article
 
48:22
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plastic 00:02:21 1 Etymology 00:03:23 2 Structure 00:04:23 3 Properties and classifications 00:05:41 3.1 Thermoplastics and thermosetting polymers 00:06:52 3.2 Amorphous plastics and crystalline plastics 00:07:41 3.3 Conductive polymers 00:08:14 3.4 Biodegradable plastics and bioplastics 00:09:21 3.4.1 Bioplastics 00:10:15 4 Types 00:10:23 4.1 Common plastics 00:12:51 4.2 Specialist plastics 00:16:16 5 History 00:19:59 6 Plastics industry 00:20:55 6.1 Industry standards 00:21:30 7 Additives 00:21:56 7.1 Stabilizers 00:22:18 7.2 Fillers 00:22:58 7.3 Plasticizers 00:23:21 7.4 Colorants 00:23:34 8 Toxicity 00:25:14 8.1 Bisphenol A (BPA) 00:26:42 9 Environmental effects 00:28:12 9.1 Climate change 00:28:52 9.2 Production of plastics 00:29:49 9.3 Incineration of plastics 00:30:41 9.4 Pyrolytic disposal 00:31:01 9.5 Decomposition of plastics 00:36:24 9.6 Recycling 00:39:54 10 Representative polymers 00:40:03 10.1 Bakelite 00:41:17 10.2 Polystyrene 00:42:10 10.3 Polyvinyl chloride 00:43:14 10.4 Nylon 00:45:55 10.5 Poly(methyl methacrylate) 00:46:29 10.6 Rubber 00:47:16 10.7 Synthetic rubber 00:48:09 11 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9528274673785361 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-C "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects. Plasticity is the general property of all materials which can deform irreversibly without breaking but, in the class of moldable polymers, this occurs to such a degree that their actual name derives from this specific ability. Plastics are typically organic polymers of high molecular mass and often contain other substances. They are usually synthetic, most commonly derived from petrochemicals, however, an array of variants are made from renewable materials such as polylactic acid from corn or cellulosics from cotton linters.Due to their low cost, ease of manufacture, versatility, and imperviousness to water, plastics are used in a multitude of products of different scale, including paper clips and spacecraft. They have prevailed over traditional materials, such as wood, stone, horn and bone, leather, metal, glass, and ceramic, in some products previously left to natural materials. In developed economies, about a third of plastic is used in packaging and roughly the same in buildings in applications such as piping, plumbing or vinyl siding. Other uses include automobiles (up to 20% plastic), furniture, and toys. In the developing world, the applications of plastic may differ — 42% of India's consumption is used in packaging.Plastics have many uses in the medical field as well, with the introduction of polymer implants and other medical devices derived at least partially from plastic. The field of plastic surgery is not named for use of plastic materials, but rather the meaning of the word plasticity, with regard to the reshaping of flesh. The world's first fully synthetic plastic was bakelite, invented in New York in 1907 by Leo Baekeland who coined the term 'plastics'. Many chemists have contributed to the materials science of plastics, including Nobel laureate Hermann Staudinger who has been called "the father of polymer chemistry" and Herman Mark, known as "the father of polymer physics".The success and dominance of plastics starting in the early 20th century led to environmental concerns regarding its slow decomposition rate after being discarded as trash due to its composition of large molecules. Toward the end of the century, one approach to this problem was met with wide efforts toward recycling.
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Escherichia coli | Wikipedia audio article
 
34:33
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Escherichia coli 00:01:52 1 Biology and biochemistry 00:02:02 1.1 Type and morphology 00:03:12 1.2 Metabolism 00:03:48 1.3 Culture growth 00:05:05 1.4 Cell cycle 00:05:58 1.5 Genetic adaptation 00:06:37 2 Diversity 00:08:25 2.1 Serotypes 00:09:07 2.2 Genome plasticity and evolution 00:11:12 2.3 Neotype strain 00:12:27 2.4 Phylogeny of iE. coli/i strains 00:13:58 3 Genomics 00:15:49 4 Gene nomenclature 00:16:33 5 Proteomics 00:17:05 5.1 Proteome 00:17:32 5.2 Interactome 00:17:41 6 Normal microbiota 00:19:00 6.1 Therapeutic use 00:20:11 7 Role in disease 00:21:00 7.1 Incubation period 00:21:28 7.2 Treatment 00:25:12 7.3 Prevention 00:25:49 8 Model organism in life science research 00:27:03 8.1 Model organism 00:28:52 9 History 00:31:28 10 See also 00:33:15 11 References Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Escherichia coli (), also known as E. coli (), is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms). Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes can cause serious food poisoning in their hosts, and are occasionally responsible for product recalls due to food contamination. The harmless strains are part of the normal microbiota of the gut, and can benefit their hosts by producing vitamin K2, and preventing colonization of the intestine with pathogenic bacteria, having a symbiotic relationship. E. coli is expelled into the environment within fecal matter. The bacterium grows massively in fresh fecal matter under aerobic conditions for 3 days, but its numbers decline slowly afterwards.E. coli and other facultative anaerobes constitute about 0.9% of gut microbiota, and fecal–oral transmission is the major route through which pathogenic strains of the bacterium cause disease. Cells are able to survive outside the body for a limited amount of time, which makes them potential indicator organisms to test environmental samples for fecal contamination. A growing body of research, though, has examined environmentally persistent E. coli which can survive for extended periods outside a host.The bacterium can be grown and cultured easily and inexpensively in a laboratory setting, and has been intensively investigated for over 60 years. E. coli is a chemoheterotroph whose chemically defined medium must include a source of carbon and energy. E. coli is the most widely studied prokaryotic model organism, and an important species in the fields of biotechnology and microbiology, where it has served as the host organism for the majority of work with recombinant DNA. Under favorable conditions, it takes up to 20 minutes to reproduce.
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Anthrax | Wikipedia audio article
 
53:01
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthrax 00:03:01 1 Signs and symptoms 00:03:10 1.1 Skin 00:05:05 1.2 Lungs 00:06:47 1.3 Gastrointestinal 00:07:44 2 Cause 00:07:53 2.1 Bacteria 00:11:32 2.2 Exposure 00:13:11 2.3 Mode of infection 00:14:20 3 Mechanism 00:17:47 4 Diagnosis 00:19:52 5 Prevention 00:22:22 5.1 Vaccines 00:24:07 5.2 Antibiotics 00:25:16 6 Treatment 00:26:19 6.1 Antibiotics 00:27:17 6.2 Monoclonal antibodies 00:28:27 7 Epidemiology 00:28:41 7.1 United States 00:30:17 7.2 United Kingdom 00:30:53 8 History 00:31:02 8.1 Etymology 00:32:05 8.2 Discovery 00:34:18 8.3 First vaccination 00:36:35 8.4 Engineered strains 00:38:29 9 Society and culture 00:38:39 9.1 Site cleanup 00:42:55 9.2 Biological warfare 00:45:52 9.2.1 Sverdlovsk incident (2 April 1979) 00:49:25 9.2.2 Anthrax bioterrorism 00:50:56 9.2.3 Decontaminating mail 00:51:41 9.3 Popular culture 00:52:05 10 Other animals Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8111188094687933 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-C "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Anthrax is an infection caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. It can occur in four forms: skin, lungs, intestinal, and injection. Symptoms begin between one day and two months after the infection is contracted. The skin form presents with a small blister with surrounding swelling that often turns into a painless ulcer with a black center. The inhalation form presents with fever, chest pain, and shortness of breath. The intestinal form presents with diarrhea which may contain blood, abdominal pains, and nausea and vomiting. The injection form presents with fever and an abscess at the site of drug injection.Anthrax is spread by contact with the bacterium's spores, which often appear in infectious animal products. Contact is by breathing, eating, or through an area of broken skin. It does not typically spread directly between people. Risk factors include people who work with animals or animal products, travelers, postal workers, and military personnel. Diagnosis can be confirmed based on finding antibodies or the toxin in the blood or by culture of a sample from the infected site.Anthrax vaccination is recommended for people who are at high risk of infection. Immunizing animals against anthrax is recommended in areas where previous infections have occurred. Two months of antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and doxycycline after exposure can also prevent infection. If infection occurs treatment is with antibiotics and possibly antitoxin. The type and number of antibiotics used depends on the type of infection. Antitoxin is recommended for those with widespread infection.Although a rare disease, human anthrax, when it does occur, is most common in Africa and central and southern Asia. It also occurs more regularly in Southern Europe than elsewhere on the continent, and is uncommon in Northern Europe and North America. Globally, at least 2,000 cases occur a year with about two cases a year in the United States. Skin infections represent more than 95% of cases. Without treatment, the risk of death from skin anthrax is 24%. For intestinal infection, the risk of death is 25 to 75%, while respiratory anthrax has a mortality of 50 to 80%, even with treatment. Until the 20th century, anthrax infections killed hundreds of thousands of people and animals each year. Anthrax has been developed as a weapon by a number of countries. In plant-eating animals, infection occurs when they eat or breathe in the spores while grazing. Carnivores may become infected by eating infected animals.
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Prebiotic evolution | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abiogenesis 00:05:39 1 Early geophysical conditions on Earth 00:09:37 1.1 Earliest biological evidence for life 00:17:26 2 Conceptual history 00:17:36 2.1 Spontaneous generation 00:22:20 2.2 Etymology 00:25:20 2.3 Louis Pasteur and Charles Darwin 00:27:34 2.4 "Primordial soup" hypothesis 00:33:22 2.5 Proteinoid microspheres 00:36:01 3 Current models 00:42:23 4 Chemical origin of organic molecules 00:46:29 4.1 Chemical synthesis 00:54:41 4.2 Autocatalysis 00:58:36 4.3 Homochirality 01:01:24 5 Self-enclosement, reproduction, duplication and the RNA world 01:01:38 5.1 Protocells 01:05:13 5.2 RNA world 01:08:14 5.2.1 Viral origins 01:10:16 5.3 RNA synthesis and replication 01:14:52 5.4 Pre-RNA world 01:18:20 6 Origin of biological metabolism 01:19:46 6.1 Iron–sulfur world 01:25:25 6.2 Zn-world hypothesis 01:29:37 6.3 Deep sea vent hypothesis 01:36:07 6.4 Thermosynthesis 01:39:15 7 Other models 01:39:24 7.1 Clay hypothesis 01:41:28 7.2 Gold's "deep-hot biosphere" model 01:42:43 7.3 Panspermia 01:44:11 7.4 Extraterrestrial organic molecules 01:51:22 7.5 Lipid world 01:53:43 7.6 Polyphosphates 01:55:12 7.7 PAH world hypothesis 01:57:59 7.8 Radioactive beach hypothesis 02:00:02 7.9 Thermodynamic dissipation 02:06:46 7.10 Multiple genesis 02:08:14 7.11 Fluctuating hydrothermal pools on volcanic islands or proto-continents Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8111899463550981 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-E "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Abiogenesis, or informally the origin of life, is the natural process by which life has arisen from non-living matter, such as simple organic compounds. While the details of this process are still unknown, the prevailing scientific hypothesis is that the transition from non-living to living entities was not a single event, but a gradual process of increasing complexity that involved molecular self-replication, self-assembly, autocatalysis, and the emergence of cell membranes. Although the occurrence of abiogenesis is uncontroversial among scientists, there is no single, generally accepted model for the origin of life, and this article presents several principles and hypotheses for how abiogenesis could have occurred. Researchers study abiogenesis through a combination of molecular biology, paleontology, astrobiology, oceanography, biophysics, geochemistry and biochemistry, and aim to determine how pre-life chemical reactions gave rise to life. The study of abiogenesis can be geophysical, chemical, or biological, with more recent approaches attempting a synthesis of all three, as life arose under conditions that are strikingly different from those on Earth today. Life functions through the specialized chemistry of carbon and water and builds largely upon four key families of chemicals: lipids (fatty cell walls), carbohydrates (sugars, cellulose), amino acids (protein metabolism), and nucleic acids (self-replicating DNA and RNA). Any successful theory of abiogenesis must explain the origins and interactions of these classes of molecules. Many approaches to abiogenesis investigate how self-replicating molecules, or their components, came into existence. Researchers generally think that current life on Earth descends from an RNA world, although RNA-based life may not have been the first life to have existed.The classic 1952 Miller–Urey experiment and similar research demonstrated that most amino acids, the chemical constituents of the proteins used in all living organisms, can be synthesized from inorganic compounds under conditions intended to replicate those of the early Earth. Scientists have proposed various external sources of energy that may have triggered these reactions, including lightning and radiation. Other approaches ("metabolism-first" hypotheses) focus on understanding how catalysis in chemical systems on the early Earth might have provided the precursor molecules ...
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