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Zirconium - A Metal for the NUCLEAR REACTOR!
 
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Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Interesting page about chemical experiments: http://m.chemicum.com/ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/ So today I will tell you about such metal as zirconium. Zirconium is a transition metal, which is located in the 4th group in the periodic table of chemical elements. Externally zirconium looks very similar to titanium but what makes it different to it is zirconium’s slightly different properties. The density of zirconium is 30% higher than that of titanium, this metal is relatively soft and is easy to forge. And from a chemical point of view, zirconium is very stable. It does not react with most acids, such as the concentrated hydrochloric (**pause**), or the concentrated nitric acids. Even if you pass an electric current through the acid and connect zirconium to the anode, the metal will still not dissolve in acid. The only acids in which zirconium can dissolve is the concentrated hydrofluoric acid, which I don’t have for safety reasons, and the sulfuric acid. And even then, zirconium still dissolves very slowly in sulfuric acid and only under strong heating. If you heat a piece of zirconium with a burner to make it really red, zirconium will cover itself in a dense film of zirconium dioxide, after which this metal becomes fearless (like Hulk), because the oxide film protects it from any further oxidation. Zirconium has an interesting property – pyrophoricity. That is, if you rub it on a file, all those small zirconium particles will light up in air, forming bright sparks. Also, zirconium powder does burn very brightly in air, making it to the first place of metals with the highest combustion temperatures having one of about 4650 °C. At this temperature the product of combustion of zirconium in air, zirconium dioxide, emits significant amount of light that is used very widely in pyrotechnics and the old lamps for photography. However, zirconium also has disadvantages (like everything in life pretty much). Due to its inability to absorb slow neutrons and its high melting temperature, zirconium is used for the construction of nuclear reactors. In an emergency situation when the reactor overheating, zirconium may begin to react with water in the reactor, releasing explosive hydrogen, which is exactly what happened at Fukushima in 2011. The released hydrogen caused the explosion of the building with the reactor. Also, pure zirconium is used as a gas absorber or a getter in vacuum tubes and as a component of alloys for medical equipment. Zirconium dioxide is used for the creation of heat-resistant ceramics, ceramic knives and dental fillings. Some time ago a lot of people were promoting zirconium bracelets practically as a universal cure for any sickness, however studies have shown that the positive effects from wearing the bracelet are only caused by the strong belief of the person wearing it that it would work, i.e. the placebo effect. Biologically though zirconium doesn’t affect human health.
Lithium - The Lightest Metal on Earth
 
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Please note that this video was made solely for demonstration purposes! Do not attempt to repeat the experiments shown in this video! Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Music: http://audiomicro.com Interesting chemical experiments: http://www.m.chemicum.com/ So today, I will tell you about the lightest metal on Earth - Lithium. Lithium is in the first group in the periodic table of chemical elements. Except for the smallest atomic mass, lithium has the lowest density of all metals, which is nearly 2 times lower than that of water. In appearance, lithium represents a shiny metal, which can be cut with a knife, but it would be required to exert sufficient force to achieve that. Lithium rapidly oxidizes in air, and while that is happening it’s being covered with a layer of oxides, carbonates, and lithium nitride black coating because this is the only metal that can react with atmospheric nitrogen at room temperature. Lithium can be stored in kerosene, however, due to its low density it will float on its surface. Now shall we look at some of the chemical properties of lithium. A piece of lithium reacts rather calmly with water, forming hydrogen and lithium hydroxide. If you ignite the released hydrogen, the flames will turn beautifully red, due to lithium ions. However, if we take lithium in the shape of thin lithium foil, which is used in lithium batteries btw, that will ignite and explode upon reaction with water, which is very dangerous. If you set fire to a little piece of lithium, it will melt, and then light up with are very bright white flame to then form lithium oxide during combustion. The temperature of burning Lithium in the air is more than 2,300 degrees Celsius. It is surprising, however, that when it’s melted at temperature above 300 degrees Celsius, lithium practically doesn’t oxidize by the air and its surface remains glossy. Li, as well as all other alkali metals, is an excellent reducing agent that easily loses electrons. If you ignite lithium on sand, it will react with the silica, that the sand consists of, forming an amorphous silicon. In addition, lithium reacts perfectly with sulfur. This reaction of lithium with sulfur formed so much energy that even our can melted, on which the reaction was carried. And yes, I have also burned through the carpet with this reaction, but that's alright, I have many carpets. The other very dangerous lithium property is that when it starts to burn while being on wood, it will pick up oxygen from the cellulose molecules that make up the aforementioned wood. As such lithium explodes, creating a lot of hot sparks. Do NOT try to repeat the experiment! Similarly, lithium can react with dry copper sulfate, recovering copper from its salt. These days Lithium finds many applications in science and technology. The most common use of it, of course, would be lithium-ion batteries and other power sources. Also, lithium is used in nuclear power, lasers, as well as metallurgy. Lithium compounds are used in medicine for the treatment of mental disorders; because of its ability to be an antagonist of sodium ions. Subscribe to my channel to see many more of new and interesting! Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Music: http://audiomicro.com Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/
Alcohol + Potassium permanganate = Explosive reaction!
 
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Please note that this video was made solely for demonstration purposes! Do not attempt to repeat the experiments shown in this video! So, in this episode, I’ll show you an amazing reaction between Ethanol and Potassium Permanganate. For this reaction, we need Ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH), concentrated Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4) and Potassium Permanganate (KMnO4). Firstly, let’s put some potassium permanganate into our evaporation bowl and add several sulfuric acid drops. After a while, strong oxidizer Manganese oxide (VII) is formed from potassium permanganate. Let’s take a droplet of manganese oxide and drip an ethanol droplet on it. At contact of alcohol with manganese oxide, alcohol instantly ignites. Let’s do the same in this evaporation bowl. The reaction is very rough and sometimes is accompanied by an explosion. This is what happens: manganese oxide decays into manganese dioxide, and alcohol burns down forming a small amount of ethanal (CH3CHO). Subscribe to my channel to learn about some more astonishing reactions. Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Music: http://audiomicro.com Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/
Bismuth - A METAL To GROW CRYSTALS.
 
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Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Interesting page about chemical experiments: http://m.chemicum.com/ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/ So in this video I’ll talk about a very interesting metal - bismuth. Bismuth is a heavy metal and in the periodic table of chemical elements is located next to the Lead. Bismuth is a shiny and very brittle metal. I bought bismuth in these sticks which are very easy to break if you slightly hit them with a hammer. The breaking point shows that bismuth rod has a very clear crystal structure. Now I will melt it to show you one interesting property of bismuth. Bismuth’s melting point is 271 degrees Celsius, so it can even be melted on a hot plate. And unlike lead, bismuth is not toxic. Bismuth’s surprising property is that it starts to form beautiful crystals during solidification. The size and shape of the crystals will be dependent on the solidification rate, as well as the presence of impurities. My bismuth’s purity is only 97.2%, so turning it into large crystals will be problematic. Once bismuth is melted, I turn the hot plate off and wait until the bismuth will gradually harden. Bismuth’s solidification rate can be reduced by heating in a sand bath or by using a thick-walled container. The slower the cooling, the higher and more beautiful crystals will be obtained. Furthermore, you need to make sure to remove the cover from the crystals in time, which is formed on the top of solidifying metal. At some point later, around the time when a third of bismuth is crystallised you would need to drain the liquid metal to expose the beautiful crystals. To avoid burns and injuries, do not repeat this experiment! If this was a pure bismuth, the hot crystals on air would have begun to cover with a beautiful oxide film. However, my bismuth has a lot of lead impurities and on air the film of oxides does not form. To make the crystals colorful I'll apply a current of pure oxygen on our hot crystals. I get the oxygen from the decomposition reaction of hydrogen peroxide. When bismuth contacts pure hot oxygen, it is covered with colored patterns caused by the oxide film on the metal surface. Once the cup with crystals is cooled, those can be removed. The crystals obtained are not very big, however with a beautiful oxide film. I made several attempts to grow larger crystals, but every time I got only polycrystalline aggregates of small bismuth crystals. I think the problem is in the impurities. As it is known, the purer the material, the more beautiful and larger the crystals are obtained. Bismuth and its compounds have many uses. It is used as a component of some alloys, aldo bismuth oxide is used in organic synthesis and in medicine as a remedy for gastrointestinal diseases, other bismuth compounds are used in nuclear power engineering, electrical engineering as well as for the creation of magnetic materials and superconductors. Subscribe to my channel to see many more new and interesting! Thank you.
Nitinol - Metallic Muscles with Shape Memory.
 
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Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Music: http://audiomicro.com Interesting chemical experiments: http://www.m.chemicum.com/ So today I will tell you about one unusual object - the paper clip. This clip is made from a very unusual material - nitinol. Nitinol is an alloy of nickel and titanium in proportions of 45% titanium and 55% nickel. This alloy has the unique property that was discovered in 1961 by American scientists. The property of this alloy is called "shape memory". So to demonstrate this property let’s conduct an experiment. Take a clip of nitinol and deform it. Besides the clip I as well have a spring made of nitinol, which I also deform into a random shape. The activation temperature of nitinol is about 40 degrees Celsius. I’ve turned on the burner on the stove and put the deformed Nitinol clip on its surface. Over time, while heated, the clip begins to return to its original shape. The same thing happens with the spring. This happens because when the temperature changes the crystal lattice configuration of nitinol changes from one phase to another. Also, nitinol is 10 times more elastic than other metals. While nitinol restores the shape it can also do some work. Let’s see what kind of work a small spring of nitinol can make. I’ve attached the spring to a tripod and hung a porcelain basket on to it, which weighs 118 grams. Next, we stretch the spring. For the spring to be tightened again, I'll heat it with a lighter. Let’s proceed. As you can see, the spring has lift the basket quite easily. Now we’ll complicate the task. I’m adding metal bars into the basket, and the total weight now becomes 278 grams. Testing the spring. As you can see the spring can easily handle that task. Adding more weight. I now put the stone and a piece of pyrite into the basket. Total weight is now 440 grams. Again I’m heating the spring and as you can see nothing can stop the power of our spring! In order to ensure how big is the power that nitinol creates when restoring the form, I hung a Youtube silver button on a spring, which weights 825 grams. Trying again with heating the nitinol - and what we see is even this huge weight can be risen by the spring very easily. However, you could now probably ask if it’s such an amazing alloy, why don’t we use it in our everyday life? The main drawback of nitinol is its high price and the complexity in manufacturing and welding. In the 70s experiments were carried in the United States on engine models based on nitinol and its properties. However, it hasn’t gone further than the prototype stage. The statement of US leadership on disadvantages of the project became the reasoning to reject this idea. Today nitinol is mainly used in medicine for bone bonding. Who knows, maybe in the future when the oil runs out, humanity will revert to the nitinol engines? Music: www.audiomicro.com Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Music: http://audiomicro.com
Neodymium  - A METAL Is Used to Make MAGNETS!
 
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Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/ ATTENTION! This video shows dangerous experiments! Do not repeatthe experiments shown in this VIDEO! So, today I want to tell you about the metal neodymium. It is one of the metals of the lanthanides, and is located at the bottom of the periodic table of chemical elements. Neodymium is a fairly active metal which is stored in glass ampoules or in an inert atmosphere for corrosion protection. In air it will oxidize and cover itself with a layer of oxide. Immediately from the ampoule neodymium can be seen as a shiny metal with a distinct crystal structure. Neodymium is a relatively hard metal, its hardness resembles iron. I even broke the pliers trying to bite off the piece of neodymium in half. Also, while experimenting with neodymium I noticed that when you tap on it, the metal produces a ringing sound, just like bronze. This is telling us of the elasticity of the metal. Neodymium dissolves well in hydrochloric acid, and the reaction goes very rapidly. During this reaction it produces hydrogen and neodymium chloride, which is of pink color like the many of the compounds of neodymium. The solution of neodymium chloride has one amazing property. Its color can be different depending on the lighting. When under the illumination of a led lamp the solution looks pink, but under the light of a fluorescent lamp the solution becomes yellow. This effect is caused due to the presence of f-electrons in the outer electron layer of the neodymium, the light absorption spectrum of the compounds of neodymium has very sharp bands caused by the so-called forbidden f-f transitions within the metal’s atom. If I got anything wrong here please do correct me in the comments as I'm not very good in quantum physics. This property of the compounds of neodymium is used for the production of the so-called neodymium glass which used in photography as a filter of yellow light. Also this glass is used in incandescent bulbs to create a more white light. If you add sodium hydroxide or lye to the neodymium chloride, the precipitate of neodymium hydroxide is then produced, which, like all the neodymium compounds, changes its color depending on the lighting. From this compound it is possible to make neodymium oxide by using heating, which is added to neodymium glass for the manufacture of heavy-duty lasers. These lasers are used to create fusion synthesis, they have an extraordinary power. The neodymium hydroxide, similar to the hydroxide of lanthanum, can be dissolved in trilone b that’s used to remove limescale in kettles. It looks very nice if we look at it with a macro. Neodymium can also react with acetic acid, by dissolving in it. As with lanthanum, in this reaction a suspension of neodymium hydroxide is formed. If you heat the neodymium with a gas burner, it will not light up due to its high melting point. However, the neodymium powder burns perfectly on air. Metallic neodymium is attracted to a magnet quite weakly and is paramagnetic, meaning it does not magnetize. However, in combination with iron and boron, neodymium obtains an incredibly high ability to magnetize, so called magnetic saturation. Using this property of the compound of neodymium-iron-boron it is used for the manufacture of the most powerful to date neodymium magnets. These magnets are now used everywhere, from hard drives to expensive speakers. Also, I would like to note that these magnets are very fragile. The neodymium-iron-boron compound resembles ceramic, so these magnets are very easy to break or crack. On the outside these magnets are coated using nickel for protection from corrosion.
Rubidium  - Metal, that is More Expensive than GOLD!
 
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Please note that this video was made solely for demonstration purposes! Do not attempt to repeat the experiments shown in this video! Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Interesting page about chemical experiments: http://m.chemicum.com/ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/ So, today we will conduct interesting and very expensive experiments with rubidium. Rubidium is an active alkali metal, which is in the first group of the periodic table of chemical elements, below potassium. Due to its extremely high activity rubidium is stored in glass ampoules under vacuum or inert atmosphere such as argon. In the vial you can observe the shiny surface of rubidium. Before we conduct our experiments with rubidium, it must be removed from the ampoule, however, the ampoule must of course be first opened to do that. In order to open it, I took a file and scratched the ampoule to get a more flatten crack later on. Then I hit the ampoule with a hammer, and now it’s open. However, our rubidium is still trapped inside! To finally get it out of there, I used the small melting point of rubidium which is 39 degrees Celsius. I heated the vial with the rubidium inside with a torch and poured off the resulted molten metal into the jar of kerosene. Because kerosene has water and oxygen impurities in it, rubidium oxidized very rapidly even in kerosene and becomes coated with a layer of peroxides. Rubidium is an incredibly soft metal, it’s hardness resembles a butter at room temperature. Now let's conduct some chemical reactions with it. To get started, simply cut off a piece of rubidium and leave it on a napkin. Because of the oxidation with oxygen, rubidium melts by the heat of the reaction. In this case rubidium may become self-igniting, setting flames to everything surrounding it. If you take a large piece of rubidium and leave it on a wooden surface, it will then firstly melt, and later self-ignite burning with a beautiful violet flame because of the rubidium ions. In water, rubidium behaves much more dangerously than potassium. If you throw even a small piece of rubidium in water, an explosion will immediately occur, because rubidium is much denser than water and has a very low melting point, and it is also a very active metal. Large pieces of rubidium vigorously explode in water. I had also conducted a reaction with rubidium and sand, similar to lithium. However, rubidium simply melted on the hot sand, without any combustion. Rubidium still reacted with the sand to form an amorphous silicon from the silicon dioxide that the sand consists of. A beautiful effect was when rubidium was somewhat absorbed in the sand to form a shiny metal surface. Even more interesting was the reaction of rubidium with sulfur. At first I just set fire to the rubidium with sulfur, and the reaction was pretty rough. Then I have melted the sulfur and added pieces of rubidium to it, rubidium burned in the sulfur to form beautiful sparks of molten metal. Finally, to remove the leftover rubidium from the jar, I filled it with alcohol. In this case rubidium immediately ignited the alcohol because of the violent reaction, but then the reaction became more calm. Also, due to the strong alkaline environment the alcohol was colored orange. Nowadays the metal rubidium has little practical application primarily because of the high cost and few places to buy it. The cost of the ampoule with rubidium that I experimented with was around 500 euros. Usually rubidium and its compounds are used in organic synthesis, optics and nuclear industry.Also, vapours of rubidium are used in the high-precision rubidium clocks that are of extremely low error. Subscribe to my channel to see many more new and interesting things. A big thank you to the Faculty of Chemistry Chemicum at the University of Tartu for the provided rubidium for our experiments.
Cerium - A Metal, which forms BRIGHT SPARKS!
 
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Mel Science: https://goo.gl/SxwFlQ Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Interesting page about chemical experiments: http://m.chemicum.com/ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/ So, today we’ll take a look at the secret corners of periodic table of chemical elements, by looking at the class of lanthanide metals that are quite active but at the same time are hard metals and have some unique properties. Today we will focus on this metal called cerium, which is almost at the beginning of the lanthanide array. Cerium is quite an active metal, when exposed to the air, as time goes by, it gets covered with a layer of cerium oxide, and eventually may even completely oxidize and turn into oxide powder. Hence cerium is stored in ampules or in an inert atmosphere, or coated with a layer of paraffin to protect from oxidation. Cerium is an expensive metal, I gave away $15 for 10 grams, but due to its high prevalence among the lanthanides it is the cheapest of them. Cerium is widely used due to its pyrophoric properties, i.e. spontaneous combustion in air as dust. To demonstrate this property, I'll break the ampoule that contains pieces of cerium. In appearance the unoxidized cerium from the ampoule is a shiny metal, which has a crystalline structure at the break points. Let's try and rub cerium on a file to see whether the bright sparks will be formed at the same time. Honestly, I was expecting a bit more, like a huge amount of sparks, but you can’t fool chemistry. That’s why the Austrian chemist Velbash invented the alloy called ferrocerium which has a strong ability to form sparks. You can see the composition of this alloy on the screen. Ferrocerium is commonly called flint, which is used in lighters or camping flint. Namely, the addition of other lanthanide metals and iron to cerium improves its properties and leads to the formation of bright sparks. As time went by I now had a small handful of sawdust cerium; let’s try and light them using ferrocerium flint. Cerium powder burns perfectly forming cerium oxide. Now let's see what happens if we burn a piece of cerium with a burner. In the air cerium gradually burns without a bright flame forming yellow cerium oxide. By the way, this oxide is used in gas lamps. The lamp gets covered with a mesh tissue that is impregnated with salts of cerium and other metals. When the tissue is burning, cerium salts decompose and form cerium oxide which then glows when heated, illuminating everything around.
Golden Rain - Growing crystals of lead iodide. Chemical reaction.
 
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Hello, everyone. Today we will conduct a very beautiful experiment, which chemists call "golden rain". For this experiment, we need potassium iodide and lead nitrate. To begin let's take two flask and pour into each of them at each gram of substance. Also, be careful with lead salts, as they are quite toxic. Once we poured gram substances into flasks pour then into each flask 175 ml of hot water. The water should be really hot, if the water is colder, the experiment may fail. Potassium iodide dissolves well and lead nitrate solution becomes cloudy. This is due to a process called hydrolysis. To prevent it, add a little of acetic acid to the solution. Once everything is dissolved, take a large beaker and merge back our solutions. If solutions were cold, then a fine precipitate is going to form from lead iodide. However, our solution is hot and a precipitate of lead iodide will dissolve in the hot water. Over time, the solution cools down and out of it a beautiful flakes of lead iodide will start crystallizing. The slower the cooling process will be the larger and more beautiful the lead iodide flakes is going to be. This experiment looks better in a bright sunlight. Flakes of lead iodide is a very strong reminiscent of the golden glitter, hence the name of this experiment, the golden rain. This experiment looks very nice in the dark in the right light conditions. music: http://audiomicro.com Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Music: http://audiomicro.com
TOP 15 CHEMICAL REACTIONS, THAT WILL IMPRESS YOU!
 
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Chemistry is awesome kind of science. In this video you will find an amazing chemical reactions like golden rain, chemical clock, dry ice experiments, barking dog experiments, burning of some substances, crystals, acetone flash light, three-layer liquid and so on! music: www.audiomicro.com Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Music: http://audiomicro.com
Beryllium - A LIGHT Metal that REFLECTS NEUTRONS!
 
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Mel Science chemical sets: https://goo.gl/SxwFlQ Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Interesting page about chemical experiments: http://m.chemicum.com/ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/ So today I will tell you about such metal as beryllium. Beryllium is located in the second group of the periodic table, above magnesium. In nature you can find beryllium as part of emeralds, i.e. beryllium silicate. Beryllium has a very low density, but at the same time high hardness, it is a very toxic metal, so it is best to be stored in glass ampoules. Beryllium is a very rare element, and has a fairly high price for itself. A gram of beryllium costs about $15, the metal is obtained by recovering the beryllium fluoride with magnesium. Externally beryllium looks like a shiny gray metal with a distinct crystalline structure. To show you some of the chemical properties of beryllium, I'll break a vial containing this metal. Beryl crystals are so fragile that even in the vial they had to crumble into many pieces. So to start, let's see how beryllium reacts with an alkali - sodium hydroxide. The reaction of beryllium with the aqueous alkaline solution is accompanied by the release of hydrogen and the formation of hydroxyberryliate, as you can see the reaction progresses slowly. In the hydrochloric acid beryllium actively dissolves to form chloride beryllium and hydrogen. By the way, beryllium compounds have a sweet taste, however I will not check it as beryllium salts are very toxic. I have many tables but only one life. With regards to the chemical properties, beryllium resembles aluminum, if you try to set fire to a piece of beryllium, it will not burn due to the formation of a solid oxide film on the surface of the metal, also this metal has a fairly high melting point. Beryllium is mainly used as a dopant to the various alloys. Beryllium additive greatly enhances the hardness and strength of the alloys and the corrosion resistance of surfaces for items made from these alloys. In addition, beryllium bronze does not sparkle when being hit against a stone or metal. One of the alloys, by the way, has its own name - randol. Due to its similarity to gold, randol is called "Gypsy gold" Beryllium absorbs X-rays poorly, and that’s the reason why the windows of X-ray tubes are made from it. In nuclear reactors beryllium is used for making neutron reflectors, they are used as a neutron moderator. Beryllium oxide is the most heat-conducting of all oxides, its thermal conductivity at room temperature is higher than that of most metals and nearly all non-metals. It serves as a high-temperature high-heat-insulating and refractory material for laboratory crucibles and in other special cases. Now you know a little bit more about one of the other metals, if you want the series of the elements to continue please "Like" this video and subscribe to my channel to see many more new and interesting. Thank you for watching.
Indium - Metal, That You Can Bite!
 
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Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Music: http://audiomicro.com Interesting chemical experiments: http://www.m.chemicum.com/ So, today I want to tell you about a very interesting metal - Indium. It’s in the third group of the periodic table of chemical elements, below gallium. Indium is unusual because it is the softest metal that you can actually hold in your hands. Lithium is softer that indium, but because of its high activity, lithium will form caustic alkali in hands and oxidize in air. In appearance, indium is shiny and does not tarnish in air. Due to the high softness, indium can be scratched even with a fingernail, you can cut a piece of it off with a regular construction knife. If you take a piece of indium and a piece of gallium and rub them against each other, then at the point of contact of the two metals a liquid alloy of indium, gallium, will start to form, having a composition of 75.5% of gallium and 24.5% of indium. The melting point of this alloy is about 15 degrees Celsius and this alloy remains liquid at room temperature. This alloy can very well moisten a glass, forming a beautiful mirror. By the way, in some cars headlights mirrors are covered with indium metal! If you moisten a cotton swab with this alloy, then we would get a metallic pen, with which you can draw conductive lines on the paper. In order to demonstrate you the most interesting property of indium, I decided to cast a thin plate from it. Pure indium has a melting point of 157 degrees Celsius, it’s possible to easily cast different ingots from this metal. The resulting indium sheet is very soft. Since indium is incredibly soft, you can easily bite a piece of it off. My teeth are not very strong, so it took me a bit of effort to bite off a piece of indium. Biting indium is not the most pleasant experience, it can be compared to chewing solid tar or soft plastic. Narrow strips of indium make them easier to bite. Also, if you try to bend an indium ingot you can hear a kind of crunching. This crunch is caused by deformation of crystals inside the metal. The name indium is derived from the beautiful indigo colour, in which it paints the burner flames during combustion in air. Pure indium is used as a component in many alloys, indium compounds are used in electronics, particularly in the manufacture of touch screens. Subscribe to my channel to see many more of new and interesting! Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Music: http://audiomicro.com Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/
Lead - Metal That BULLETS Are Made From
 
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Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Interesting page about chemical experiments: http://m.chemicum.com/ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/ So today I will tell you about the metal lead. Lead is pretty much at the bottom of Group 4 of the periodic table of chemical elements. Of all the non-radioactive elements, this metal has almost the biggest atomic mass. Outwardly lead is a soft, silvery metal which is very easy to scratch, since it is 1.5 times softer than gold. It's also a very easy to melt metal because of its melting point of 327 degrees, you can easily create ingots or cast figures from the lead. This metal is very stable on air and does not react with acid solutions. However, lead and its compounds are quite toxic and you need to be careful when working with lead salts. In ancient Rome, lead was often being used as wall facing, for the manufacture of pipes and utensils. Romans did not know about the toxicity of lead, which they then subsequently paid for as lead affects the brain, and the human’s psyche then suffers greatly from it. The usage of lead at home is considered one of the causes for the Roman Empire collapse. And now that we know you should be careful with it let's conduct some nice experiments with lead, or rather with its compounds. In the first experiment we'll take a hot solution of lead nitrate and mix it with a hot solution of potassium iodide, and then will wait until the mixture cools down. Upon cooling beautiful crystals of lead iodide will start to fall from the solution, resembling gold tinsel. We now just did the favorite trick of medieval alchemists, received gold from lead, although this is just a chemical delusion. This experiment is also known as the golden rain. Lead iodide crystals look very nice in the dark at lateral illumination. For the second experiment we'll take the lead acetate, which is a salt of lead and acetic acid, and drop a piece of zinc into it. Over time a layer of lead crystals will start to grow on the zinc due to the reaction of substitution of lead by zinc ions. The layer of lead crystals looks very nice. It turns out to resemble something like a lead hedgehog. Lead has a very wide application these days. Mainly they tend to make bullets for weapons, some of those are covered with a copper shell. Lead is also used in the manufacture of lead-acid batteries for cars, as a part of solder alloys. Because of its low price and high density, lead is used as a protection against radiation and as the load in fishing floats. Lead is obtained by reacting lead ore concentrate with carbon, after which it is purified from silver, nickel and other metals. Now you know a bit more about one other metal from the periodic table, if you want to continue this journey of the elements, like and subscribe to my channel to see many more new and interesting.
Strontium  - Metal that Absorbs X-RAYS!
 
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Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Interesting page about chemical experiments: http://m.chemicum.com/ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/ So today I will tell you about one interesting metal - strontium. Strontium is an alkaline earth metal that is in the second group of the periodic system of chemical elements. This metal is fairly active, and thus it is stored in either kerosene or in mineral oil. For you to see the surface of strontium a bit better I washed its pieces from the oil in ethyl acetate. The strontium’s surface is black due to the fact that it was oxidised even while being in oil, and then it coated itself with a layer of strontium oxide and nitride. Strontium is a pretty solid metal resembling lead solder, but some pieces can break apart because of the fragile crystal structure. Strontium reacts with water forming hydrogen and strontium hydroxide. Though the reaction is more intense in hot water. If you set fire to a piece of strontium, it will first melt, and then ignite forming strontium oxide which can paint the flame of the burner in red. Strontium reacts with acids, such as hydrochloric acid, forming strontium chloride and hydrogen. With nitric acid, the reaction is also very rapid. Like all of the active metals, strontium reacts with sulfur when ignited. Nowadays strontium and its compounds are used in metallurgy, nuclear energy and medicine. Most often in everyday life we may encounter strontium compounds by using pyrotechnics. Strontium salts are part of the lighting pieces and other pyrotechnic articles because of their capacity to stain the flame in bright red. Also, most of the produced strontium compounds were previously used in the manufacture of glass for the old kinescope TVs and monitors because of the ability of strontium to absorb X-rays. Warning! Some experiments are dangerous, do not try it by yourself!
Growing Crystals And Making a Mirror with Gallium.
 
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Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Music: http://audiomicro.com Interesting chemical experiments: http://www.m.chemicum.com/ Greetings all. Today I'll talk to you about one unusual element - gallium. Gallium is a fusible metal which is in the Group 3 of elements of the Periodic System. This metal was discovered by a German scientist and was named in honor of France, and more precisely, its Latin name which is Gaul. Let's examine some of the properties of the metal. For this I’ll put a few beads of gallium on my hand. The melting point of gallium is 29.8 degrees Celsius. Since the human body temperature is 36.6 degrees, the gallium will just melt right in my hand. However, melting does not occur immediately as gallium previously was at the room temperature. I’m trying as hard as possible to press the pieces of gallium into the hand, so they would melt faster. After some time gallium does melt and we finally see a very beautiful phenomenon - the liquid metal directly in our hands! To melt the remaining gallium beads I pour them into the hot water. Gallium simply melts faster in there. Molten gallium can be poured into a syringe for easy transportation and carrying out experiments. I’m trying to release as much gallium as possible into my hand from the syringe. It’s a very strange feeling when you hold the liquid metal in your hand. And unlike mercury gallium is not toxic. However, gallium does have one big disadvantage, it is just very dirty. Since gallium has a low surface tension it moistens many surfaces. If you put a drop of gallium in the glass jar and shake it, you can get a beautiful gallium mirror. Also, gallium may create a supersaturated solution. Or to simply put it, it often does not harden when cooled down below 30 degrees. This property can be used for growing crystals of gallium. To do this, I have cooled down gallium to the room temperature. Next I’m throwing a piece of solid gallium into the liquid one and waiting about 10 minutes. After that the metal turns into a small crystal. I've made a few of these. As you can see, they are all very beautiful. Also, if you dip such crystal in warm water, it is possible to hear a so-called "singing metal." With the rapid melting of gallium crystals its structure collapses and instead we get a sound. Gallium is now mainly used in electronics. LEDs and semiconductors are made based on it. The compounds of gallium can now be find inside of any mobile phone. You can learn more about the other interesting properties of gallium from my later videos. Thank you for watching. Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Music: http://audiomicro.com
Dysprosium - THE MOST MUSICAL METAL ON EARTH!
 
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Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/ Do not repeat the experiments shown in this video! Today I am gonna tell you about a quite unusual metal - dysprosium. As it is clear from the element’s unusual name dysprosium belongs to the lanthanide series where it is preceded by terbium. Like other rare-earth metals dysprosium can be found in various minerals such as xenotime, monazite, gadolinite. The name dysposium is derived from the Greek 'dysprositos', meaning hard to get because it is very hard to extract pure metal from its ore and separate it from other metals. Pure dysposium is a gray metal. My sample is pretty old and has covered in gray oxide layer. Dysprosium is a pretty expensive metal and it costs about 20 dollars on ebay. Its physical properties are not that much different from other lanthanides although I have began to question that. For instance a Wikipedia article about the metal in English says that the metal is very soft and that it can even be sliced with a knife. Hm, let us check. I can’t cut it with a knife although it’s possible to cut off a small piece. Probably my sample is just fragile because of its porous structure but it can’t be cut with a knife that is why it is always check if the information is true. Also dysprosium gets attracted to a powerful neodymium magnet quite well, of course not as good as iron. Nevertheless, dysprosium is paramagnetic at room temperatures but if frozen to the temperature of liquid nitrogen it can become ferromagnetic. This property of the metal has applications in a special alloy called terfenol-d the formula of which you can see on your screen. This alloy has a unique property called magnetostriction. To put it simply, if a pole made of this alloy is inserted inside a copper wire coil and alternating current is passed through it, such a pole will be slightly lengthening upon magnetizing and shortening upon demagnetizing. In an alternating magnetic field the pole can quickly change its length and make vibrations that can turn into music! This is where this property of terfenol-d is used - in vibration speakers.
Chemical Traffic Light - Beautiful chemical Experiment!
 
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Hello everyone. Today we will conduct an interesting colorful experiment, called the "Chemical traffic light". To begin, we need to weigh out approximately 2 grams of glucose and dissolve it with a little amount of hot water. Next, we add 10 ml of sodium hydroxide to the solution of glucose. To make the solution colorful, take a flask, fill it with hot water, and pour there a small bit of a soluble indicator called indigocarmine. The solution now becomes deep blue. Afterwards, we pour alkaline solution of glucose into the flask and observe beautiful changes of color. First, the solution becomes green, and then it turns red and eventually becomes yellow. These colors are reminiscent of the traffic light colors -- red, yellow and green. However, this is not all. This reaction can be reversed, simply by shaking the solution. With a weak shake the solution becomes red, and with a strong one it turns green. Then the reaction proceeds into the opposite direction - green, red and yellow. So why the solution changes color when agitated? It's because of the fact that our air contains 21% oxygen. While shaking, the indicator solution is oxidized by the atmospheric oxygen. A glucose, which is a reducing agent, changes back the color of the solution to yellow. However, not only the indigocarmine has such properties. There is also another existing indicator which is called Methylene Blue. It can be used as well, but then the colors will be different. When adding the alkaline solution of glucose, the solution becomes colorless. When the solution is shaken its color is converted into blue. Repeating of that experiment needs safety knowledge and wearing gloves. Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Music: http://audiomicro.com
Praseodymium - A Metal that SLOWS The SPEED OF LIGHT!
 
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Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/ Thanks for the channel support: Gabor Buza, Yash Pande, Vadim Polyash, larry Han, Applied science. ATTENTION! This video shows dangerous experiments! Do not repeatthe experiments shown in this VIDEO! So, today I will continue to talk to you about the rare earth metals – lanthanides, and this time we will focus on the metal called praseodymium. It is a metal that has electrons in f orbitals, and is located in the period of lanthanides. Because of its chemical activity, praseodymium is stored in ampoules in order to prevent oxidation in air, after removing it from the ampoule praseodymium looks like a shiny metal with a yellow-green tint due to a layer of oxide covering the metal. Praseodymium can be found in nature in the monazite and bastnasite minerals which are used for producing almost all of the rare earth metals. Price-wise praseodymium is almost the same as neodymium, I paid $15 for 10 grams in a vial. From the chemical point of view, praseodymium can resemble neodymium as it is also readily soluble in hydrochloric acid, forming praseodymium chloride - a green substance, like many of its compounds. Even the name praseodymium derived from the Greek prasinos, which means green. If we add sodium hydroxide to the praseodymium chloride, it will form a greenish precipitate of praseodymium hydroxide. This hydroxide, like many compounds of lanthanides, forms a soluble complex with Trilon b – a compound that is used to remove scale from kettles. Praseodymium dissolves in acetic acid, and like other lanthanides forms a suspension of the hydroxides due to the hydrolysis with water. When heating with a burner, pieces of praseodymium are oxidized in air and being covered with an oxide layer, but they will not light up. Though the powder of praseodymium lits quite well, forming fumes from its oxides. The oxide of praseodymium is used in the production of a very unusual glass which is able to slow down the speed of a light pulse by changing its group velocity due to the high refractive index of the glass. Also, the glass made with the addition of praseodymium has a greenish yellow color, it is used as a light filter in the glasses for glassblowers. Praseodymium, like neodymium, is weakly attracted to magnets and is paramagnetic. However, as with neodymium the composition of praseodymium-iron-boron can be used for the production of powerful praseodymium magnets. However these magnets have a big drawback – a low operating temperature, meaning that such magnets may lose their magnetic properties already at a temperature of 30 degrees Celsius, for example in the hands of a person. Neodymium magnets unlike praseodymium are demagnetized at 55 degrees Celsius, this effect is called the Curie point. Also the alloy of praseodymium and Nickel is used for creating ultra-low temperatures utilizing the cooling effect of the paramagnetic field. music by TOBU: https://www.youtube.com/user/tobuofficial
Potassium - The Active ALKALI METAL!
 
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Please note that this video was made solely for demonstration purposes! Do not attempt to repeat the experiments shown in this video! So today I will show you a few experiments with a very dangerous and expensive metal - potassium. Potassium is an active alkali metal, which is in Group 1 table of chemical elements. Compounds of potassium are essential micronutrients for many living organisms. Pure elemental potassium was obtained in the early 19th century by an English scientist. On the appearance, potassium has a metallic luster, with a slightly bluish tint. It is a very soft metal, about as hard as the butter from a refrigerator. In air, a fresh slice of potassium is being instantly oxidized and coated with a layer of peroxides and carbonates. Potassium is more active than sodium. So if small pieces of sodium react with water more or less calmly, even small pieces of potassium immediately ignite and explode spontaneously. The reaction of potassium and water produces alkali, and hydrogen is released which burns pink flames due to potassium ions. In the slow motion shot you can see how hydrogen is ignited by potassium sparks. The behavior of potassium in the water is very unpredictable. Even small pieces can explode in water powerfully, although on the contrary large ones do not want to blow up and instead they just burn. Do not attempt to play with potassium, it is very dangerous! Because of its high activity potassium may spontaneously ignite in air. I took a small piece of potassium and began to spread it on a napkin. Once the napkin is coated with a thin layer of potassium, the latter reacts with oxygen and ignites, thus potassium superoxide and potassium peroxide are formed. Also, for this reaction a napkin is involved. Because of its high activity, the potassium can pull oxygen from the cellulose molecules that napkins are made of. Potassium can be set on fire, it will burn and form potassium superoxide. If potassium superoxide is dipped in water, it will begin to decompose into oxygen and potassium hydroxide . In the last experiment, I took a small piece of potassium and threw it into a cup with ethanol. Potassium rapidly dissolved in ethanol to form ethanolate, potassium and hydrogen. Subscribe to my channel to learn a lot of interesting things about many different unusual materials and their properties. Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Music: http://audiomicro.com Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/
Gadolinium  - THE COLDEST METAL ON EARTH!
 
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Best Patrons: Stan Presolski, reinforcedconcrete, Dean Bailey, Bob Drucker, Pradeep Sekar, Applied Science, Purple Pill, afreeflyingsoul, Alfred Barnat, Sabarish Elango. Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/ Do not repeat the experiments shown in this video! Today I would like to tell you about such an unusual metal as gadolinium. Gadolinium belongs to the lanthanides series in the periodic table following europium. Gadolinium looks like an ordinary metal of gray color and it has distinctive crystalline structure because of its purity. The metal is extracted from minerals containing practically all rare-earth metals - from monazite. The final stage of extracting metallic gadolinium is heating up its oxide with calcium and later distillating it. This metal is not that expensive.
Quantum Levitation With YBCO SUPERCONDUCTOR!
 
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Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Music: http://audiomicro.com Hello everyone. Today I want to tell you about one unusual subject - the superconductor. A superconductor or a high-temperature superconducting ceramics is an alloy of oxides of yttrium, barium and copper in proportions (which you see on the screen) YBa2Cu3O7-x and abbreviated as YBCO. The ceramics was first made in the University of Alabama, USA in 1987. The uniqueness of this pottery is that it becomes a superconductor or more precisely loses all the electrical resistance at a relatively high temperatures, at least by the physicists standards, -184 degrees Celsius. In order to demonstrate the properties of this object let’s conduct an experiment. First, let’s take a small piece of ceramic and then put a piece of styrofoam and a powerful neodymium magnet on top of it. Next, the superconductor is cooled with liquid nitrogen down to -196 degrees Celsius. After the ceramic is cooled, take a piece of styrofoam out from underneath of the magnet. And what do we see? The magnet began to levitate over the superconductor and it even spins! The same thing can be done with a large piece of a superconductor and a big neodymium magnet. The effect of levitation is caused by the ceramics cooling down to the critical temperature, it then becomes a superconductor, as well as a perfect diamagnetic. This means that it can repel any magnetic field, as well as create it’s own when being near a strong magnetic field. The phenomenon is called the Meissner effect. If the magnet is lifted the conductor next to it begins to lift with it as well. The magnet and the superconductor are almost like "frozen" together in space. If you bring the superconductor near a powerful circular magnet, it can then be rotated. Circular magnets can spin up to high speeds, as the only restriction here is the frictional force between the magnet and the air. It is also possible to freeze in space several magnets coupled to each other. Thus, they can be given any inclination in relation to the superconductor. The magnet hovering above a superconductor can withstand a considerable weight limited only by the power of the magnetic field of the magnet. For example, my levitating magnet withstood a three-liter jar of jam putten on it. The property of superconductivity and magnetic levitation is now used in many fields of science and technology. For example, this property is used in MRI brain scanners, magnetic levitation trains. In particular, high-temperature superconducting ceramics are used as magnetic bearings where the use of the conventional bearings are not advantageous for the task. Stay tuned to my channel and you will learn more about some of the unusual substances and their properties.
Chemical Volcano and Fire Blizzard with Chromium Oxide!
 
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Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Music: http://audiomicro.com Interesting chemical experiments: http://www.m.chemicum.com/ Hello everyone. Today we will conduct a reaction with chromium oxide 3. Chromium oxide will serve us as a catalyst. We will get the chromium oxide out of the reaction of the decomposition of ammonium dichromate. Do not attempt to repeat following experiment by yourself! For the reaction, we will take a metal cup and pour there a little, though nevermind, let's just empty the entire ammonium of dichromate. Next, we ignite the substance using a burner and then observe the beautiful decay of the substance. Well, the reaction has been completed now and we've got quite a lot of chromium oxide 3 as a result. The first reaction with it is going to be the catalytic oxidation of ammonia using chromium oxide 3. We will get ammonia gas from a Wurtz flask. To obtain it, we need a mixture of sodium hydroxide and ammonium nitrate. Now pour the reagents into the flask. Since ammonia is lighter than air, it is best to collect it from the bottom of the vessel. To start the reaction, we’ll add some water to the mixture. The reaction has started and now ammonia is entering the glass jar. After the jar is filled with ammonia, we need to heat up the chromium oxide 3. Light up the burner, get a bit of chromium oxide 3 into a spoon and heat it up. Now let’s add the retrieved red-hot chromium oxide into our jar. What did just happen during this reaction, you could wonder. Ammonia in the jar has reacted with oxygen. The catalyst for the reaction was chromium oxide 3. This reaction produces nitrogen oxide and water. For the next reaction let’s take a metal cup and pour there a small amount of chromium oxide. Place a piece of cotton wool soaked in ethyl alcohol onto the cup . Then, ignite the cotton. Now quickly sprinkle the cotton wool with chromium oxide. During this reaction, chromium oxide catalyzes the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde. By the way, the smell of acetaldehyde is very much like a quick-drying super glue. Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Music: http://audiomicro.com
Scandium - A Metal that Produces STRANGE SOUNDS!
 
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Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Interesting page about chemical experiments: http://m.chemicum.com/ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/ So today I will tell you about such metal as scandium. Scandium is a rare earth metal that is located in the 3rd group of the periodic table of chemical elements. You can find about 10 grams of scandium per ton in the earth’s crust, and the richest in scandium rocks are found in Norway and Madagascar. In appearance, scandium is a shiny metal with a yellowish tint due to the scandium oxide layer covering the metal. Because of its rarity and high chemical activity, scandium has a very high price to it. This piece of scandium, weighing 1.3 grams, costs about $40. Its density is 2.98 g / cm3, only by 10% more than that of aluminum. However, the melting point of scandium is much higher (1541 °C. Interestingly enough, scandium chips in a jar when shaked produce a very interesting sound. It is quite resonant, I can assume that this is due to the lightness and hardness of scandium. By its chemical properties, scandium resembles aluminum and lanthanides. Chips of scandium burn well in the air, and during the combustion you can hear this interesting raspy sound. From the heat of the reaction the produced scandium oxide melts and forms into a ball. If you try to rub scandium into a file, you will not see scandium powder spontaneously igniting in the air. Scandium reacts well with acids, such as the hydrochloric acid. In this reaction scandium chloride is produced, in many compounds scandium has the oxidation state of +3. Besides acids, scandium can also react with alkali to form skandate - the complex compounds of scandium. By this characteristic scandium is quite similar to aluminum, it has the ability to react with acids and alkalis, which means it’s amphoteric. Scandium finds many uses in the world. Scandium is often used as a dopant for the aluminum alloys, even a simple addition of 0.4% scandium increases the strength of the alloy by 30%. Expensive bicycles are made from this alloy. Scandium iodide is added to mercury gas lamps that produce very authentic looking artificial light similar to the sunlight. In the nuclear industry hydride and deuteride scandium are used for them being excellent neutron moderators. Also scandium compound are used for the creation of luminophores in microelectronics and in the production of solar batteries. Scandium does not have any biological role. Now you know a little bit more about one of the other metals, if you want the series of the elements to continue please "Like" this video and subscribe to my channel to see many more of the new and interesting. Thank you for watching.
Lanthanum  - A metal is Used To Make OPTICAL FIBER!
 
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Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Interesting page about chemical experiments: http://m.chemicum.com/ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/ So, today I will continue the series of videos about the lanthanide metals and will also talk about such metal as Lanthanum. Lanthanum is located at the beginning of the lanthanide series of metals, and from this metal the name was derived for the whole series of metals with similar properties, the so-called f-metals. Btw actually, the periodic system of chemical elements should look 2 times longer than it currently is and if it was shown in its full length it would appear more like this. However, as it turns out that is not the most compact way of showcasing elements, so the lanthanides and actinides were moved a bit down. Lanthanum is quite an active metal, and as a result it is stored in kerosene or mineral oil. In air, lanthanum oxidizes and covers itself with a layer of oxide. This metal is quite expensive, 1 gram costing $10. By its hardness lanthanum resembles zinc, it is also quite durable. From the chemical viewpoint lanthanum is second among lanthanides based on its activity, just after europium, it reacts with water rather slowly, but in acetic acid it begins to react eagerly forming hydrogen and a slurry of lanthanum hydroxide. By adding alkali an interesting gelatinous compound is produced, the polyhydroxy lanthanum, which won’t decompose being in a temperature lower than 800 degrees Celsius, but it does dissolve in hydrochloric acid. From these compounds a porous ceramic can be created, which has a chance in the future to become a good catalyst in organic chemistry. Lanthanum reacts very rapidly with hydrochloric acid forming a transparent lanthanum chloride. This compound is sometimes used in aquariums to prevent the growth of algae. When pouring the sodium hydroxide alkali to lanthanum chloride, a lanthanum hydroxide is formed, from which by using heating a lanthanum oxide can be obtained. This oxide is used for the manufacture of optical glass with a low refractive index. Some of the lanthanum chemical properties are similar to calcium. Lanthanum hydroxide can dissolve in the descaling agent for kettles that contains Trilon-B which is a good complexing agent. If you heat lanthanum by using a gas burner it will get covered with a layer of lanthanum oxide, however won’t even burn when ignited on wood. However, if being part of ferrocerium, which is used for creating sparks in lighters, lanthanum is very useful for firing up sparks created by the friction on a solid object. Ferrocerium contains about 25% of lanthanum. Today the most widespread use of lanthanum is the use of its compounds as the anode in rechargeable nickel-metal hydride batteries. For example, for the creation of a Toyota hybrid car that uses such batteries, 10 to 15 kg of lanthanum are required. Also, lanthanum sponges are used for hydrogen storage, and lanthanum fluoride is added to the ZBLAN glass that is used for making fiber for the transmission of information. Who knows, it may be because of lanthanum that you are currently enjoying a high speed broadband at your house. Now you know a little bit more about one of the other metals, subscribe to my channel and add likes to discover much more of new and interesting!
Reaction of Liquid Gallium with Aluminium
 
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So, today we are going to carry out further experiments with an unusual metal - gallium. This metal has one interesting feature. It is able to create an amalgam with another metal, such as aluminum or iron. To demonstrate this property I will conduct an experiment. Let’s take the aluminum radiator from a computer and drip about 2 grams of liquid gallium onto it. To speed up the reaction of gallium with the aluminum, its surface was scratched with a knife. During amalgamation, gallium penetrates the crystal lattice of the aluminum, thereby disrupting its structure. In this case aluminum becomes very brittle like glass. I will leave the aluminum radiator to soak with gallium for a couple of days. After 2 days we need to wash the unreacted residues of gallium from the aluminum. Now let’s check the fragility of the aluminum radiator. As you can see, with a little effort aluminum easily starts to break in my hands. If I had left the radiator impregnated with gallium even longer it would have become even more fragile. Now let’s conduct another experiment. Take an aluminum foil and fold it several times. Next, we need to cut it into small pieces. And add a few drops of liquid gallium to these pieces. Now let’s start making gallium and aluminum alloy by stirring them. Over time, you will notice that aluminum begins to dissolve in gallium and foil turns into a silver slurry. This paste is an amalgam of aluminum and gallium which has an unusual property. When you throw it in water, it will start the generation of large quantities of hydrogen. The reason is that when alloying of aluminum and gallium occurs gallium prevents the formation of the protective oxide film on aluminum surface. Without it, the aluminum begins to react rapidly with water to form hydrogen and aluminum oxide. However, gallium in this reaction is not consumed. It can be collected and reused. This property of gallium - aluminum alloy has been patented by an American company to produce hydrogen. However, due to the high price of gallium this project never became incarnated to the masses. Stay on my channel and you'll learn some more amazing properties of Gallium metal. Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Music: http://audiomicro.com Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/
Antimony - THE MOST EXPLOSIVE ELEMENT ON EARTH!
 
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Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/ Do not repeat the experiments shown in this video! In this video I would like to tell you about such an unusual element as antimony. This element belongs to group 15 and to the so-called semimetal series of the periodic table. From a chemistry point of view antimony is rather a metal. It means that it easily oxidizes or in other words it gives its electrons and it even looks like metal. Metallic antimony is silvery and can easily be confused with bismuth. However, in contrast to other metals that are good heat and electricity conductors, antimony doesn’t provide electricity well. Because of such a property it was added on to nonmetals. Even scientists still can’t decide if antimony is a metal or not. Nevertheless, antimony as an element shouldn’t be confused with stibnite that is its natural mineral - antimony trisulfide. Since ancient times women have used stibnite in powdered form to darken their eyebrows and eyelashes. Because of that, nowadays, the word stibnite is often associated with cosmetics. Of course nowadays antimony trisulfide is rarely used because its compounds are toxic to people. For instance now antimony trisulfide is used to make watch heads. It is stibnite that antimony is extracted from by melting of the mineral with further reduction of the oxide to the elementary antimony.
Europium - A Metal That PROTECTS EURO!
 
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Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/ Do not repeat the experiments shown in this video! Today I would like to tell you about such an unusual metal as europium. Europium is a pretty active so-called f-metal belonging to the lanthanides series in the periodic table. This is a very active metal and its chemical activity can be compared to that of lithium that is why it is stored in containers with inert atmosphere to protect europium from oxidation. By the way europium is paramagnetic and gets attracted to powerful neodymium magnets and also this metal is very expensive. I paid 20 dollars for 1 gram of the metal. Of course I could have bought a whole ton of the metal for 70 cents for 1 gram but I didn’t feel like doing that. When taken out of its container europium is a shiny metal that quickly covers in its oxide and yellow carbonite. This is a pretty soft metal. Europium can easily be cut with pliers. Its softness can be compared to that of plumbum. Europium actively reacts with water like lithium and calcium forming poorly soluble europium hydroxide of yellow color. As time passes by the metal covers in thick layer of hydroxide and the reaction slows down. If mixed with hydrochloric acid the reaction significantly speeds up because europium dissolves in hydrochloric acid very well producing yellow europium chloride. By the way I was surprised by one property of europium chloride. Freshly made europium chloride solution fully blocks ultraviolet light when being pointed at with an ultraviolet laser which is pretty strange because usually europium salts glow in ultraviolet light. This effect is well observed if one tries to pass a beam of ultraviolet laser through europium chloride solution with a flask filled with luminophore solution from green emitting luminophore behind it. Even more interestingly when the solution had been stored in a dark place for a couple of days it began glowing red-orange in ultraviolet light and stopped blocking ultraviolet laser beams. I think this effect is somehow linked to the fact that the radius of europium’s atoms is large and the atoms have f-orbitals. Let’s move on. If to mix alkali - sodium hydroxide with europium chloride, it will form yellow sediment from europium hydroxide. As many other lanthanide hydroxides, europium hydroxide dissolves in edetate disodium - a teapot limescale remover forming soluble agent. If you try to set a piece of europium on fire out in air despite your expectations, it won’t burn although its chemical activity should cause it to. I think it’s so due to the high melting point of this metal. Upon piercing europium in air it forms europium oxide that also gives the flame of the burner red color. This oxide as well as europium chloride glows red in ultraviolet light. Europium oxide as well as its other compounds make up well known luminophore powder based on strontium aluminate. These differently colored powders that are abundantly sold via the Internet have a unique property. Such powder glows in ultraviolet light and it also accumulates light energy and it can glow for a few hours after the light was turned off. Such powders are used in applied arts and they are also added to lots dyes especially those that are used to paint tips clocks’ hands that glow in the dark. Europium is an afterglow activator in such powders and it also increases brightness of the residual light. The colour of the powder depends on its content. To get other colors other rare-earth metal compounds are added. Europium oxide is also used in picture tubes to make red pixels and also in order to make fluorescent lamps’ light warmer. Europium is also used to protect the dyes of euro banknotes. Europium protects euros. What an interesting coincidence. Perhaps californium is used to protect dollars!
Grow Purple Single Crystals of Salt at Home! DIY Home Decorations!
 
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Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Music: http://audiomicro.com Interesting chemical experiments: http://www.m.chemicum.com/ Hello everyone, in this video I'll show you how to grow a beautiful purple single crystal. For this we’ll need the following substances – potassium and chrome alum. To begin, let’s make a mixture of alum. To do this, take a glass and weight 100 gram of aluminum potassium sulfate and 12 grams of chromium potassium sulfate in it. Adding chrome alum will make the crystals violet. Then, pour 400 ml of a very hot water into the glass and stir until all the alum is dissolved. After it’s all dissolved, leave this glass for a few days to let the crystals form at the bottom. A day later pour the alum solution into another container. As you can see a lot of beautiful little fused together crystals were formed at the bottom of the glass. Now pick open the mass of the crystals and put them in a bowl. Choose from this mass the most beautiful and large crystal. This crystal will serve as a seed from which a large crystal will be grown in the future. The solution, which previously was merged can be now filtered but that is optional. Now tie the seed on a thin fishing line and hung it in a solution of alum on a pencil or a stick. Now we can only wait for the crystal to grow. Over time, water will evaporate from the solution and excess alum will form the crystal that is hanging onto the fishing line. After some time the crystal will begin to take a regular geometric shape that is defined by the crystal lattice of a substance. For alum it is octagonal or octahedron. Also, during the crystal growth excess crystals will grow as well on the bottom and the line of the glass, and they should be removed. Though it’s better to save these crystals as it is possible to prepare a solution and raise other crystals out of them in the future. Also, in single crystals growing it is important to avoid extremes of temperature and pollution of the solution. After 2 months my crystal become large enough and I decided that I can stop its growth. I pulled out the crystal from the solution and desiccated its surface with a napkin. Next I covered the crystal with colorless nail polish, one or two layers is usually enough. It is important to protect the crystal from further destruction. After the nail polish has been dried out it’s okay to take the crystals with bare hands. Crystal growing is very exciting activity that develops patience and mind. I raised two purple crystals. One is dark and the other one is more transparent and bright. Now, ladies and gentlemen, as we have done a long journey growing these crystals let's just enjoy their beautifulness without any further comments.
Making Rayon Fiber - Artificial silk, chemical experiment!
 
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Attention! This experiment should be done in well ventilated area or in a fume hood! Hello everyone. Today, we will conduct a very interesting experiment, which is called making a rayon or an artificial silk production. We will need a basic copper carbonate for this experiment. The substance forms by copper sulfate and baking soda by reacting with each other. Take a beaker and pour into it about 4 grams of basic copper carbonate. Copper carbonate has greenish tint. Next, we need a concentrated solution of ammonia. Here I have approximately 40 ml of 25% ammonia solution. Now I will pour this ammonia solution to the copper carbonate. This forms a complex compound of copper, which has a bright blue color. However, copper carbonate doesn't entirely react with ammonia and a little residue remains at the bottom of the cup. Let's pour the liquid into the other beaker for the solution to become clear. Now we have a copper compound complex, which has very interesting properties. This solution can dissolve cotton wool. To do this, I'm taking about a gram of the cotton wool and begin to add it slowly to the copper complex solution. The wool is highly soluble and forms so-called viscose, which is the raw material for the production of artificial silk. After the wool has been dissolved, the liquid, which was in the cup, has become quite thick. To obtain the artificial silk, prepare one molar solution of a sulfuric acid. Next, we fill the syringe with a few ml of viscose, fit the needle and slowly inject a stream of viscose into the acid solution. At the same time we can observe an interesting effect. When viscose contacts with sulfuric acid, the cellulose from the solution begins to polymerize. Sulfuric acid reacts with complex compound of copper and dissolves it. Thin blue fibers of rayon are formed. After some time, sulfuric acid reacts with the complex compound and washes out the copper salts from the fibers. Fibers become colorless. After that, our fibers are bleached and now we can find out how they feel. To the touch, the fibers are very soft and they easily tear. This is due to the fact, that I used a too thick needle. Now I pour the rest of the viscose into the sulfuric acid solution. Something similar to vermicelli but with a blue color is formed. These fibers will also become colorless within time, but they will be less durable than a fiber extruded through the needle. The solution eventually acquires a blue color because of the copper sulfate and carbon dioxide being formed. Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Music: http://audiomicro.com
Four Chemical Ways To Make Fire Without Matches
 
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Hello everyone. Today we will consider reactions of making fire without matches. Please note that this video was made solely for demonstration purposes! Do not attempt to repeat the experiments shown in this video! The first reaction, which is already known to many people, is the reaction of potassium permanganate and glycerin. Let’s pour the potassium permanganate. Now make a small indentation for the glycerol and afterwards add glycerol. Since my potassium permanganate is not ground the reaction requires a lot of time. To accelerate the reaction add a few drops of water. Glycerol reacts with potassium permanganate, contributing to its decomposition. The reaction increases by the generated heat. Now the next reaction. We place a mixture of potassium chlorate and sugar in a ratio of 2 to 1. All components were thoroughly ground. To start the reaction, sulfuric acid was added dropwise. Now the third reaction. I moisten a piece of cloth with acetone to make it more flammable. Let’s put a concentrated sulfuric acid into a pipette and then sink it in a potassium permanganate to take a few crystals. Prepare a droplet and drip onto the napkin. Sulfuric acid reacts with the potassium permanganate forming manganese oxide 7 which ignites acetone. And the last reaction. Pour a mixture, which consist of four grams of ammonium nitrate and one gram of sodium chloride, i.e. table salt. All components were thoroughly ground. Add ten grams of zinc powder to this mixture. Next, mix the components. To start the reaction, add a few drops of water. The addition of water facilitates the interaction of zinc with ammonium nitrate. Sodium chloride is used as an ion catalyst. Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Music: http://audiomicro.com
Phosphorus  - An Element, That IGNITES Everything AROUND IT!
 
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Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/ Please note that this video was made solely for demonstration purposes! Do not attempt to repeat the experiments shown in this video! So, today I want to tell you about such an element as phosphorus. Phosphorus is a typical non-metal element that is located in the 15th group of the periodic table of chemical elements. In nature, phosphorus is present in the composition of the minerals called Apatite. Our body contains 1% of phosphorus by mass, mostly as part of the bones. Pure phosphorus exists in 4 allotropic modifications, the most common one of which is the modification of red phosphorus. The red phosphorus looks like a dark red powder, which readily absorbs moisture from the air. Over time, red phosphorus gets caked due to formation of polyphosphoric acids while being exposed to air. In everyday life, we can find phosphorus on the scratch surface of a matchbox. During the friction process of a match with the box, the potassium chlorate contained in the match-head oxidizes the phosphorus, releasing heat that ignites the composition of the match-head. Red phosphorus burns well in air. And, of course, it burns even better in pure oxygen. In a flask filled with pure oxygen, the burning phosphorus emits huge amounts of light. This reaction can be used for lighting up a large space The smoke produced in the bulb is nothing more but the phosphorus oxide, from which it is possible to obtain calcium zinc phosphate which is used for coating the insides of fluorescent lamps, as a luminophore. In addition to the red form, which is more or less stable, by a process of sublimation the red phosphorus can be converted into a very unstable form, the white phosphorus. White phosphorus has more interesting but dangerous properties, for example, its extremely high toxicity. In air, white phosphorus actively oxidizes and releases smoke, forming the oxide of phosphorus. Hence, it is stored in water. In the dark, white phosphorus glows due to oxidation by oxygen in air, but the glowing is very weak. But you shouldn’t think that everything that glows in the dark is phosphorus. No one is going to sell toys made of white phosphorus and coat the clock hands using it. If you are doubting this, look at what happens when the white phosphorus is put onto a warm surface. It immediately melts and ignites, burning with a very high temperature - more than 800 degrees Celsius. White phosphorus burns on any surface, igniting everything around it. That is why people started to use it to make incendiary ammunition shells, which later got banned by the Geneva Convention, although the US and Israel have not signed this Convention. White phosphorus is highly soluble in some nonpolar solvents, such as benzol and carbon disulphide. In carbon disulphide the solubility of white phosphorus is the highest. If you immerse paper into such solution of phosphorus in carbon disulphide, you will see an interesting effect. Over time, the carbon disulphide evaporates, leaving a fine white phosphorus, which will then spontaneously ignite and burn the paper. According to some sceptical scientists, exactly this reaction is used as a demonstration of the phenomenon of fertile fire in Jerusalem. Also, the solution of white phosphorus in carbon disulphide was used for the self-igniting Molotov cocktail during world war II. There are 2 more forms of phosphorus though, black and metallic phosphorus, however, unfortunately, they are very difficult to find, especially getting hands on them for conducting experiments. Nowadays, phosphorus is used in agriculture as a fertilizer, for water softening and for protection of metals from corrosion. Also, phosphorus is part of the most dangerous toxic nerve gases on the planet, the usage of which is prohibited.
Tantalum - The MOST CONFLICT Metal On EARTH!
 
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Thanks for the provided tantalum: http://www.samaterials.com/ Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/ Do not repeat the experiments shown in this video! So, today I want to tell you about this refractory and also a conflict making metal, tantalum. In the periodic table of chemical elements tantalum is located in the fifth group, among the so-called transitional refractory metals. Due to its rarity and difficulty in obtaining, tantalum was named after the Greek king Tantalus. According to the legend, he offended Zeus and the other gods, for which he was cast out of heaven for an eternal torment. Like the ancient Greek king, many scientists and researchers have suffered and endured, trying to obtain this element in its pure form. Externally, tantalum looks like a grey shiny metal, and by the way quite heavy. In its density it comes next after the gold. If you take the current market price, one kilogram of tantalum costs around $150, therefore this metal is quite expensive. Tantalum is very ductile, it’s very easy to make a wire or foil from it. This metal is extracted from the mineral coltan, the deposits of which are located in Brazil, but especially rich deposits of tantalum ores are found in Central Africa. Recently tantalum is referred to as a conflict making metal, because a lot of African countries are fighting to get their hands on it. For example, in Congo and Rwanda there are military conflicts associated with the smuggling of tantalum ore. From about the last decade, about 9 African countries and 20 different military groups were involved in the tantalum wars. However, let’s go back to the chemical properties of the tantalum metal. From the chemical point of view, this metal is extremely stable, it is not soluble in dilute acids, even in the hydrofluoric acid due to a very robust oxide film covering the metal. One of the very few caustic environments that can dissolve tantalum is a mixture of hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid, in which from the tantalum a complex compound forms that is soluble in water. In the form of a powder tantalum burns quite well in air, forming the tantalum oxide. In spite of all its chemical stability, this metal also reacts well with molten alkalis, forming tantalates. For example, if you pour a bit of dry sodium hydroxide on the tantalum foil and then melt it, such an aggressive environment can easily dissolve the tantalum and burn a hole in the tantalum foil. Though that’s pretty much it, you cannot conduct any other special chemical experiments with tantalum due to its inertness. The only thing we can do is heat the tantalum rod and see how fast will it oxidize in the hot flame of a gas burner. After such an abuse, tantalum rod gets covered with a white and inert substance – tantalum oxide from reacting with oxygen in air. This material is also used in creating glass that absorbs gamma rays. Because of its plasticity and chemical stability, in the olden days tantalum was used for making filaments for light bulbs, but later with the rise of the price for this metal, tantalum was replaced with a much cheaper tungsten. The internal resistivity of tantalum is comparable to the one of steel, hence this element can be used to create heating elements instead of using nichrome, especially in places where you need a very high temperature, as tantalum melts at more or less about three thousand degrees Celsius! So, for example, it is possible to heat the tantalum wire and it will not oxidize as much. At the moment, one of the most important applications of tantalum is in manufacturing the most efficient tantalum capacitors, in electronics. In the capacitors like anode a very fine tantalum powder is used, which is pressed around the tantalum wire and is sintered to the form of a sponge. Then such sponge is anodized, i.e. is covered with a layer of tantalum pentoxide that acts as the dielectric layer. Next, the anodized tantalum sponge is covered with a layer of the cathode of manganese dioxide. Then, on top, a layer of graphite and a layer of silver is added, and now the capacitor is ready. The advantage of these capacitors is that they can be made to be extremely small, due to the very thin dielectric film. These kind of capacitors can be put into any computer, smartphone or a tablet. So say thanks to tantalum for the smartphones. Recently, jewelers are trying to use tantalum in the jewelry, as this metal is quite dense and is completely non-toxic to humans. Now even the Chinese sell tantalum rings. Hmm, would you gift your girlfriend a tantalum decoration? In my opinion, it would be quite original. However, tantalum by itself is grey and doesn’t shine as beautifully as gold.
Cesium - The most ACTIVE metal on EARTH!
 
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Please note that this video was made solely for demonstration purposes! Do not attempt to repeat the experiments shown in this video! Mel Science: https://goo.gl/SxwFlQ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Please help me to produce more videos on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Interesting page about chemical experiments: http://m.chemicum.com/ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/ So today I will tell you about the most active and unusual metal on earth – cesium. Cesium is an alkali metal which is located near the bottom of the periodic table of chemical elements. Only francium can be more active than cesium, but that metal is radioactive and only an insignificant Because of its high activity, metallic cesium is being stored in special ampoules under inert atmosphere of either argon or hydrogen. Appearance wise, cesium has a yellowish tint, like gold, but the price for cesium is still higher than gold. Due to the extremely small sales market and its highest activity, price of cesium can reach over 100 euros per gram! The vial, which you see on the screen, is 50 grams of cesium. Just imagine it’s cost. Cesium is unusual in that it has a very low melting point - only 29 degrees Celsius. If you take the vial of cesium in hand, you can see how quickly the metal begins to melt. Furthermore, even while cesium is still in the vial, we can already conduct experiments with it. If you leave the liquid cesium in a vial for some time, it partially hardens, forming very beautiful crystals of pure cesium. For the first time on YouTube you can now observe cesium as it is being cut. First, I took a piece of cesium and put it on a piece of wood. Cesium melts from the oxidation reaction of oxygen in the air, and then self-ignites with a beautiful magenta flame due to cesium ions. Cesium also behaves similarly on the napkin.
Rainbow Flame! Coloured Fire Experiment!
 
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Please note that this video was made solely for research and demonstration purposes! Do not attempt to repeat the experiments shown in this video! Hello everyone. Today I will show you one interesting experiment, which is called the fire rainbow. For this experiment, we will need different metal salts that will paint flames in different colors. The first ingredient, one that you can find in your kitchen, is cooking salt. It will paint the flame in yellow color. The next one is lithium chloride which I pour in the first cup. It will paint the flame in red carmine color. Then, I pour strontium chloride. Next substance is boric acid. After is bluestone. Then I pour barium chloride. Next goes lead nitrate, and in the end - potassium chloride. To achieve the best result of transferring the color during combustion I use methanol as a fuel. I’m pouring a small amount of methanol into each of the cups. Next, I set fire to methanol. Once the flames break out, we get a fire rainbow. Lithium chloride paints flame in such a rich carmine red color. Strontium chloride paints the flame in a bright red color. Sodium chloride paints flame in yellow. Next boric acid dyes the flame in a rich green color. Bluestone colors the flame in a dim green. Barium chloride should also paint the flame in green color, although we don’t observe that here. Lead nitrate paints flame in a such yellow-blue color. Finally potassium chloride, colors the flame in a such yellow-purple color. At the end methanol slowly burns down and the flames are reduced. Now we can see more clearly how different salts paint their flames. For example, potassium chloride, which previously was almost yellow, now became more purple. Copper sulfate has also become more green. After methanol is burned, the experiment stops. Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Music: http://audiomicro.com
Sodium + Potassium = Strange Liquid Metal!
 
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Please note that this video was made solely for demonstration purposes! Do not attempt to repeat the experiments shown in this video! Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Music: http://audiomicro.com Interesting chemical experiments: http://www.m.chemicum.com/ So today we will find out what happens when you combine two active alkali metals - sodium and potassium. For this, I took a piece of sodium and potassium, and began to rub them against each other within the evaporating dish. To prevent the alloy from oxidation by being exposed to air, I’ve decided to conduct the melting of sodium and potassium under a layer of kerosene. Since potassium is a very soft metal, it immediately deforms and wrinkles. Over time, a liquid alloy of sodium and potassium is formed at the point of contact of the two metals, which is instantly being covered by a gray oxide film. This alloy remains in liquid state from minus 12 to plus 785 degrees Celsius. It is a very dangerous alloy because it is more active than sodium or potassium on their own. I’m filling the syringe with a little bit of the alloy and, as you can see, alloy has a glossy surface inside the syringe, such as mercury. Now I’m dripping sodium potassium alloy into the water. As can be seen alloy instantly ignites in water forming burning droplets. If you drop this alloy on the wet surface, the alloy will also light up, sometimes with an explosion. In the end I poured the remaining alloy into the water. Sodium potassium alloy is used in nuclear reactors as a coolant, as well as in metallurgy. Subscribe to my channel to see many more new and interesting experiments. Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Music: http://audiomicro.com Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/
Molybdenum  - A Metal That Forms Weird Solutions!
 
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Thanks for the molybdenum plate: http://www.samaterials.com/ Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/ Do not repeat the experiments shown in this video!
Tellurium - THE MOST INSIDIOUS ELEMENT ON EARTH!
 
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Best Patrons: Stan Presolski, reinforcedconcrete, Dean Bailey, Bob Drucker, Pradeep Sekar, Applied Science, Purple Pill, afreeflyingsoul. Thank you guys! Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/ Do not repeat the experiments shown in this video! In this video I would like to tell you about the most treacherous element that will make anyone who dares to hold it just for a few seconds in his hands, regret his decision. In the periodic table of chemical elements tellurium is right below selenium, in group 16, and in contrast to the elements preceding it, tellurium belongs to semimetals. Tellurium is very scarce in Earth’s crust and its rarity is compared to that of platinum. Tellurium is so rare because during the first stages of Earth formation, its compounds reacted with water forming volatile hydrogen telluride, which has easily vanished into the open space throughout Earth’s existence. Today this same metal is obtained when copper electroplating produces by-products in the form of tellurides of precious metals, which later on are reduced to mettalic tellurium. After refining, pieces of this metal look very similar to pieces of any other metal, although holding this metal in the hands for just a few seconds is enough to make sure it is tellurium. Smallest bits of tellurium can bind with oil on our fingers and get inside the organism through skin pores. This is not necessarily deadly but it’s very unpleasant to those around you because inside the organism, tellurium metabolizes into dimethyl telluride.
Holmium - THE MOST MAGNETIC METAL ON EARTH!
 
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Thanks for the Holmium: http://onyxmet.com/ Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/ Do not repeat the experiments shown in this video! Hi everyone! Do you want to get to know what metal may soon be used for making 10 petabyte hard drives and why no MRI brain scanners can be made without it? Now you will get to know all of that. Friends, here is holmium - the most magnetic metal on earth having the highest magnetic moment among all metals and also the highest magnetic permeability at low temperatures. In the periodic table of the chemical elements holmium belongs to the lanthanides series of the periodic table which all have their unique and unusual properties. Holmium’s atomic number is 67. As many other lanthanides, holmium was discovered by a Swedish scientist and as was customary back then was named after a Swedish settlement, after Stockholm whose name in Latin is Holmia. In order to obtain pure holmium, scientists mix monazite - a mineral containing almost all rare-earth metals, with acid removing the dirt and as a result obtaining monazite concentrate - a mix of many rare-earth metals. Later on by filtering and conducting ion exchanges multiple times pure holmium oxide can be extracted which looks like yellowish or pinkish powder depending on your lighting. In LED light holmium compounds appear more yellowish whereas in fluorescent light they appear more pinkish. This effect is achieved due to the fact that holmium as well as all other lanthanides is an f block element and because of its having f electrons on the outer orbital the spectrum of absorbed light has very sharp emission bands caused by so-called “forbidden” f-f transitions within the atoms. One can extract pure metal, which looks like ordinary metal which by the way is not that cheap and 5 grams of which cost 15 dollars on eBay but you may find a better price thought, from holmium oxide by conducting chemical reduction. If you manage to buy it at a low price, it would be great if you could grind it with a grinder wheel to see the beautiful sparks of burning holmium with holmium oxide. Melting point of metallic holmium is about 1500 ℃ that is why it can only be melt in special furnaces and you will be able get such droplets of the hardened metal. Besides, you can mix a piece of holmium with sulfuric acid, the metal will react with the acid and form holmium sulfate of some colour. Why of some colour, you might wonder? Tell me please what colour is this flask now? What about now? That’s the point. By the way, the change of colour pure holmium sulfate undergoes under the influence of fluorescent and LED light is more interesting to observe than that with holmium oxide. Holmium compound are used for dying glass ore synthetic gemstones such as cubic zirconia, zirconium dioxide. Besides holmium oxide in perchloric acid solution is used for calibrating optical spectrometers thanks to its clear light waves absorption edges. Also along with chromium and thulium it’s part of yttrium-aluminum garnet which is used as medical lasers stimulated emission with the help of which prostate surgeries can be performed. Nevertheless the video isn’t over. Now we will speak about quantum physics, magnetic moments and extra-low temperatures. The thing is that at room temperatures holmium’s magnetic properties are not of much interest because it gets only slightly pulled towards a powerful neodymium magnet and even less than some other lanthanides. Nevertheless, if holmium is frozen to the temperature of less than 30 Kelvin degrees, it becomes more magnetic than any other metal on earth. That is the very reason why holmium was used in conducting recent experiments during which information was transferred onto separate atoms of holmium. Scientists managed to transfer 1 bit of information onto a single atom of holmium at the temperature of 1,2 Kelvin degrees. To put it simply a single atom of holmium maintained the received magnetic moment for long enough for the information to be read. It means that we can make 10 000 times more spacious hard drives that the ones we have today. To my mind the only disadvantage is that we will have to store such hard drives at extremely low temperatures but perhaps scientists will solve this problem too. However holmium’s magnetic properties are used even now. For instance it is used in MRI scanners which have special coolable pole components made from holmium that direct and concentrate magnetic field thus boosting it. I hope my understanding is right and if there are advanced physicists among you, please feel free to correct me. Thus although holmium is rather ordinary from a chemical point of view, it’s quiet unique from the physics point of view and has lots of incredible uses that will enable us to make several petabyte or thousands of terabytes capacity hard drives.
Rhenium - A METAL WITHOUT WHICH THERE WOULDN'T BE GASOLINE!
 
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Onyxmet: http://onyxmet.com/ Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/ Do not repeat the experiments shown in this video! Hi everyone! Today I would like to tell you about such a refractory metal as rhenium. Without it, there would not be high octane petrol and modern internal combustion engines. In the periodic table of chemical elements, rhenium belongs to group 7 and is located on the bottom next tungsten. It is so for a reason. Rhenium is one of the least abundant metals in earth’s crust. It is truly a very rare and precious metal. Because of being so rare, rhenium was discovered only in 1925 by three German scientists who studied columbite. Today this metal is extracted as a by-product in molybdenum mining from such a mineral as molybdenite. Pure ammonium perrhenate, that metallic rhenium is extracted from, is obtained as a result of refining and concentration of the ore. The main product used for producing rhenium is rhenium powder which is later baked or melted into small drops. Drops of this metal shine very well because of being highly resistant to oxidation by oxygen in the air. Besides, the density of rhenium is just one percent smaller than that of osmium - the densest metal on Earth. That is why such a small drop weighs a whole gramm and costs whopping 15 euros. When this drop is compared to one gram of lead, the difference in size becomes evident. Besides being high-density, this metal also has a high melting point which is just 236 Celsius degrees smaller than that of tungsten. This metal is the second most refractory metal. If a drop of rhenium is heated until red-hot with a powerful gas burner, you will see the drop of this metal start oxidizing at high temperatures.
How To Dissolve Glass With Acid?
 
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Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/ Do not repeat the experiments shown in this video! So, today I want to tell you about such a substance as hydrofluoric acid, which is one of a few acids that can dissolve glass. This acid, unlike other corrosive substances, is stored in polyethylene bottles, as it does not corrode them (and obviously cannot be stored in glass bottles because spoiler alert it dissolves glass). This acid is obtained from fluorspar by the use of concentrated sulfuric acid on it. Looking at this substance from the outside, it’s a transparent liquid with a pungent smell, slightly fuming in air due to the forming aerosol from the water in air. You need to be extremely cautious when working with such substance, since when exposed to the skin, hydrofluoric acid behaves extremely treacherously. Burns caused by the hydrofluoric acid heal very poorly. By the way, the method of dissolving corpses with this acid that is shown in the Breaking Bad series would have hardly worked, since though hydrofluoric acid dissolves the bones well it doesn’t dissolve well the living tissues. To demonstrate the dissolving glass property of hydrofluoric acid, I decided to grab a piece of glass that is used for microscopes and covered it with a layer of tape, after which I cut out the name of our channel, therefore revealing the glass in that area. Now I’m moving the piece of the glass into a plastic cup with the solution of acid. Remember that It is only possible to work with hydrofluoric acid in plastic vessels. Also, I decided to pour some of the hydrofluoric acid into a regular silicate glass jar to see how much glass it would eat in one hour. Let's see now, how much this acid corrodes metals, and let’s start with zinc. As an example, in hydrochloric acid, zinc reacts very actively, but here in the concentrated hydrofluoric acid zinc dissolves rather sluggishly. All because of the huge difference in the electronegativity of the fluorine and hydrogen atoms that make up this acid, and also because of the small size of the fluorine atom. In the solution, the fluorine atom does not release the hydrogen atom from itself, which prevents the formation of free protons in the solution. It is the ability to form free protons in a solution that can tell us the strength of an acid. However, if instead of zinc we will use titanium, which practically is not really dissolved in other acids, however it will dissolve much more actively in this acid. All due to the fact that fluoride ions from the acid contribute to the formation of complexes that are highly soluble with titanium. Let's take another low-active metal - hafnium, which in chemical activity is similar to glass due to the strong oxide film covering this metal. As we can see, it dissolves in the hydrofluoric acid even better than titanium, again due to the fact that being in this acid the oxide film immediately dissolves from the surface of hafnium, and so the unprotected metal begins to actively dissolve. These reactions reminded me very much of the reaction of aluminum and sodium hydroxide, in which, also because of the dissolution of the oxide film from the aluminum surface, the latter begins to actively dissolve in water. Additionally, if you mix the hydrofluoric acid with nitric acid, you will get a mixture that can dissolve the most stable metals, such as, for example, tantalum, or platinum. Now, let's go back to our dissolving glass jar. After an hour of etching the glass with hydrofluoric acid, we can now check the damage done to the glass. The glass jar got covered with a white coating consisting of sodium and calcium fluorosilicates, this coating is easily removed, after which you can feel the etched glass is now rough. This reaction is sometimes used by artists to apply beautiful matte patterns on the glass. By the way, speaking of patterns, now it's time to check our inscription on the glass. You can see that the letters are made of the same coating as the coating in our jar, I also managed to remove it quite easily. Using macro photography, we can see the thickness of the glass layer that got dissolved by the hydrofluoric acid in just one hour, which is somewhat impressive. The inscription looks very distinct, with beautiful blurriness on the affected area which reminds me of crystals. Nowadays, hydrofluoric acid is being used for creating catalysts in oil refining, in the production of Teflon, and also for the creation of cryolite, which is an indispensable additive in the production of aluminum from ore. To conclude, hydrofluoric acid is a rather dangerous and an unusual substance, though, despite all the danger, is an indispensable substance in modern chemical industry.
Vanadium - The Chameleon Metal!
 
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Get a free 30-day Audible trial today by signing up at http://www.audible.com/Thoisoi2 Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/ So, today I will tell you about such a metal as vanadium. Vanadium is a transition metal that is located in the fifth group of the periodic table of chemical elements. One of the fascinating things is that in air vanadium gets covered with a beautiful film of vanadium oxides, which gives the metal a very beautiful multicolored look. Different colors can be seen due to the different thickness of the oxide film all around, because of that light in different areas is absorbed and reflected at different wavelengths. Pieces of vanadium look very beautifully. However, the oxide film on the vanadium surface can be dissolved with nitric acid, after which the silver surface of this metal can be seen. Density wise vanadium is quite light, from a chemical point of view, this metal is very stable in air and does not react with sulfuric or hydrochloric acid. If the non-oxidized vanadium crystals are heated in air, they will be covered with an oxide film, also giving it a multicolored appearance. Vanadium is readily soluble in nitric acid, forming vanadyl chloride, that has a blue color, and nitric oxide. Over time, the reaction is accelerated due to the heating of the mixture and effervesces, nitrogen dioxide - a very dangerous gas - starts to escape the solution. However, the most interesting property of vanadium is that with its compounds it is possible to carry out a so-called chameleon reaction. For this reaction, let’s take a little vanadate of ammonium, a substance used as a catalyst in organic synthesis. We’ll add 15% of hydrochloric acid to vanadate ammonium, and while vanadium oxides, the so-called polyvanadates are formed in the solution. By the way, vanadium oxide 5 is used as an effective catalyst in the production of sulfuric acid. Initially, the liquid in the test tube is green. To start the reaction, we’ll throw a few zinc granules into the test tube. The hydrogen evolution reaction begins, in which atomic hydrogen is formed that has the ability to efficiently give back an electron and restore other compounds. Over time, the color of the solution changes to blue, due to hydrogen restoring vanadium to oxidation state plus four. Further, the solution gradually acquires a green color due to the addition of one more electron by the vanadium atom. At the end, after some time the solution becomes violet, since vanadium has taken all the electrons from the atomic hydrogen, while restoring itself to bivalent vanadium. I decided to conduct another experiment, where I would add an alkali, sodium hydroxide to the chloride of bivalent vanadium. I was amazed by the result, to say the least, it turned out to be some sort of cosmos within a test tube, let me go vanadium! It looks very fascinating with macro as well. Vanadium compounds are quite toxic, but there are organisms that are practically filled with vanadium, for example, fly agarics and from the sea life - shells. Scientists are still wrecking their heads as to why in these organisms there is so much vanadium-containing protein, amavadine. Nowadays, the metal vanadium is mainly used as a component of very strong steels. The addition of small amounts of vanadium to steel makes it much stronger and harder, often from such steel, wrenches and surgical instruments are made. Now you have learned a little bit more about one of the metals, if you want the series with the elements to continue, put some likes and subscribe to my channel to find a lot more new and interesting. By the way, I want to tell you that we have updated our website, which now contains the table of elements or rather is a table of elements. With this updated design you can now conveniently and quickly view each and every video about the elements, a link to the site will be in the description.
Barium  - A Metal From The VACUUM TUBE!
 
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Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/ So, today I will tell you about such metal as barium. Barium is the most active of the alkaline earth metals, it is located near the bottom of the 2nd group in the table of chemical elements. Like many active metals, to protect it from corrosion, barium is stored in either mineral oil or kerosene. Externally, barium looks like a gray metal due to the oxide layer covering it. The hardness of barium resembles lead, you can cut a piece of barium with a pair of pliers. On the cut you can observe that the shiny metal surface quickly oxidizes in air and tarnishes. Since barium is the most active of the alkaline earth metals, it reacts very actively with ethyl alcohol forming ethanolate barium and hydrogen. Though with water barium reacts even more vigorously, releasing large quantities of hydrogen, also forming, during this reaction with water, hydroxide of barium. Barium hydroxide is only slightly soluble in water, and hence the solution becomes turbid.If we add the thymolphtalein indicator into the glass with barium hydroxide, the solution will become blue due to the alkaline environment within the solution. By the way, soluble compounds of barium are toxic and you need to be extremely careful while working with them. For ions of barium there is a very good quality experiment we can do. If to the solution of salt of barium, such as the barium chloride, we add some sodium sulfate, then what will form is an almost insoluble in water white precipitate of barium sulfate. This reaction is very sensitive and it can be a very helping hand in detecting even small concentrations of sulphate in water. By the way, barium sulfate is used in medicine for x-ray studies of the gastrointestinal tract such as the Radiocontrast substance. Barium metal on its own burns quite well in air. However, due to the relatively low melting temperature it does not burn completely, and burns with pumping action. I think this behavior is caused by the partially formed peroxide of barium, which reacts with the metal barium, and in that time the combustion is briefly enhanced. As a result of barium burning in the air we get oxide of barium. This oxide is used to create high-temperature superconducting ceramics, as well as an additive in the specialty glass GroGlass with low refractive index. On the surface of a tree barium burns more intensely because of an additional reaction with the cellulose from wood. If a piece of barium is rubbed on a file, you will notice the formation of small sparks, from the combustible particles of barium on air. Like other active metals, barium can react with sand, recovering silicon from its oxide. With sulfur the reaction goes rapidly, as with strontium. Nowadays the metal barium is mainly used as an additive to aluminum alloy – silumin. In the heyday of tube radio, barium was used as a getter, that is the absorber of gases in vacuum tubes to maintain high vacuum in them. If you break a lamp, you can see how quickly a thin layer of barium oxidizes. Also, compounds of barium are used in pyrotechnics to create the green color. Now you have learned more about one of the elements, if you want to continue the series with metals, subscribe to my channel and give some likes to see many more new and interesting!
Yttrium  - THE BRIGHTEST METAL ON EARTH!
 
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Best Patrons: Stan Presolski, reinforcedconcrete, Dean Bailey, Bob Drucker, Pradeep Sekar, Applied Science, Purple Pill, afreeflyingsoul, Alfred Barnat, Sabarish Elango. Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/ Do not repeat the experiments shown in this video!
Erbium - A Metal, Which CREATES QUANTUM INTERNET!
 
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Thanks for the erbium chloride: http://onyxmet.com/ Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/ Do not repeat the experiments shown in this video! Today, I would like to tell you about one more unusual rare-earth metal - about erbium. Like all the other lanthanides, erbium belongs to group 6 in the periodic table. Its atomic number is 68. The history of this element is quite interesting. As many other rare-earth metals, erbium was discovered in Sweden but a small village named Ytterby that is located close to Stockholm was especially profound in this respect. From 15-th century on quartz for blacksmiths was mined in this village and from 18-th century on feldspar for potters was also mined here. In 1787 lieutenant Carl Arrhenius planned to build fortifications in this village but he accidentally saw an unusual black stone that he studied later on because he was was fond of chemistry but he didn’t find anything interesting in this stone. Later still Johan Gadolin, a Finish chemist, managed to find out that 38% of its content was an unknown element and along with that he named the mineral after himself naming it gadolinite. He named the new unknown element ytterbite after the settlement it was found in - Ytterby. Later in the middle of 19-th century another Swedish scientist whose name was Carl Mosander found out that ytterbite consisted of a mix of oxides of new metals. He named them erbium which was an oxide of erbium and terbium which understandably was an oxide of terbium. During the next 30 years the names of these two elements would change until finally in 1905 a pure oxide of erbium was extracted and all obscurities ended. The pure metal was first extracted only in 1934 through the reduction of erbium chloride using potassium vapor as the reducing agent. Nowadays, however, erbium is extracted from such a mineral as xenotime which is mostly found in China. The Chinese have monopolized the rare-earth metals market that is the reason why all the devices are made there, because making them requires rare-earth metals. Getting back to the point, the extracted metallic erbium is very similar to other lanthanides, to terbium for instance. Although it gets attracted to magnets much worse than terbium. By the way to check out the magnetic properties of many elements see the link down in the description. Erbium compounds are of distinctive bright pink color. Thanks to their colors they were discovered when gadolinite was studied. Erbium reacts with acids quite actively. It forms pink erbium chloride, which is slightly more pale than neodymium chloride, when submerged in hydrochloric acid. Like neodymium and holmium compounds, it changes color depending on lighting. In LED light it is more gray whereas in fluorescent lamp light it is bright pink. Chemical properties of all lanthanides are very similar and erbium is not an exception. When ground on our dear grinding wheel, it sparks beautifully burning down in the air and forming 3 valent erbium oxide. However, from the physical point of view erbium and its compounds are among the most widely used.
Samarium - A Metal Which HELPS HEAL CANCER!
 
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Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/ So, today I want to tell you about the metal samarium Samarium is a rare earth so-called f-metal, it is located in the lanthanide portion of the periodic table of chemical elements. Samarium got its name from the Samarskite mineral from which samarium itself is obtained, and the mineral itself was named in honor of the Russian mining engineer Vasily Samarskiy-Bykhovets. In appearance, metal samarium looks shiny, with a yellowish tinge due to the formation of samarium monoxide on air. Also, pieces of samarium have an extremely pronounced crystalline structure, which is also called a metal’s dendrites. In air, samarium oxidizes quickly, covering itself with a layer of oxide, that is why it is best to be stored in an inert atmosphere in a glass ampoule. If a piece of samarium is to be thrown into hydrochloric acid, it will start actively dissolving in it, forming a samarium chloride of yellow color. The activity of samarium is comparable to its neighbors - neodymium and praseodymium. Interestingly enough, the salts of samarium have a weak luminescence, meaning they glow dimly with a red-orange light under the ultraviolet rays. Also, the samarium chloride solution slightly absorbs ultraviolet radiation, this can be seen if you pass a ray of the ultraviolet laser through a solution of samarium chloride. The standing next to it phosphor solution begins to glow dimmer after passing through the laser beam through the solution. When alkali is added to the solution of samarium chloride, the white samarium hydroxide precipitates, which then can be dissolved in trilon b, the descaling agent for the kettles. In the acetic acid, samarium dissolves in the same way as neodymium, forming samarium acetate, which is immediately decomposed because of the hydrolysis in water. Metal samarium is a paramagnetic substance, meaning it is weakly attracted to a powerful neodymium magnet. Although, if samarium is alloyed with the metal cobalt, then from such an alloy it is possible to make some very good and rather powerful samarium-cobalt magnets. The magnetic saturation or the magnetic force of these magnets is higher than that of ferrite magnets, but lower than that of neodymium magnets. However, the operating temperature of such magnets sets records among the magnets - this magnet won’t degauss even at 500 degrees Celsius, when neodymium can degauss at 55 degrees. Such magnets are used in the top-end electric motors, as well as in jet engines, where the operating temperature is quite high. In air, a small piece of samarium does not burn from the burner due to the high melting point, although the samarium powder will light up and burn quite well. When samarium burns in air, samarium oxide is formed, which is added to the glass used for lasers to absorb excess ultraviolet as well as infrared radiation. Samarium oxide itself under the ultraviolet light glows with a slight yellow color. Today samarium compounds have many uses, for example, the squares drug, which is a samarium complex, and is used to treat cancer tumors, samarium compounds are used as Lewis acids in organic synthesis. Also, the isotope of samarium, samarium 149, is an excellent neutron absorber, which creates a problem in the nuclear industry. The reason being is that during the decay of nuclear fuel, the formed samarium 149 absorbs the slow neutrons, which are quite necessary for the normal operation of the reactor. Samarium 149, along with the other isotopes of gadolinium, are called reactor poison. Also, samarium monosulfide has an extremely high ability to convert temperature difference into electrical energy, being similar to Peltier elements. Now you've learned a little bit more about one of the metals, if you want the series with the elements to continue, please put a like and subscribe to my channel to find out a lot more of new and interesting.
Platinum  - The MOST PRECIOUS Metal on EARTH!
 
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NOVAELEMENTS: http://www.ebay.com /usr/novaelementscom?_trksid=p2047675.l2559 https://www.novaelements.com/ Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Interesting page about chemical experiments: http://m.chemicum.com/ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/ So, today I want to tell you about the most precious metal on Earth - platinum. In the periodic table of chemical elements, platinum is located in the 10th group and is also a part of the so-called platinum group of precious and rare metals. Platinum full video script: https://drive.google.com/file/d/0Bw_R-2ve_CpvTGFBeG4zVWV3Vk0/view?usp=sharing
Make your OWN pH Indicator from Red Cabbage!
 
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Hello everyone. Today we will conduct an experiment that anyone can repeat in their home. We will make a universal pH indicator from a red cabbage. First, we would need to buy the red cabbage. Then we need to cut it into about four parts, and for the experiment one quarter should be enough. Afterwards, further chop the quarter piece into small pieces. The smaller the pieces the better. You can also crush it using a blender. To make the actual indicator, we need to extract purple pigment from the leaves. To do so, put the sliced cabbage in any container and fill it with boiling water. Then wait for about 20 minutes until most of the water-soluble substances appear in the solution. Now I will explain why do we do it. Red cabbage, as well as many other vegetables, contains natural dyes, i.e. anthocyanins, which gives the fruits and leaves their different colors. The color of these substances will depend on the acidity of their environment. When the acidity changes then the color changes as well. For example, the color of ripe fruit often changes from green to red and from yellow to red. Once the cabbage is settled in the water for approximately 20 minutes, the resulting liquid then should be filtered. And, here we’ve made our universal indicator. In order to show its effect, I’ll dilute it in water several times for the solution to not be so saturated. Now I’ll pour this indicator into seven different beakers to show you what colors the substance contained in a red cabbage can acquire. I’ll pour sulfuric acid, a very strong acid, into the first beaker and the solution immediately becomes red while the acidity or pH is equal to one. I’ll add acetic acid to the second beaker, it is not as strong as sulfuric acid and the solution becomes bright pink. And I’ll add sparkling water to the third beaker. Soda contains carbonic acid that turns the solution in a light pink color, with pH being approximately four. I do nothing with the next beaker as there is more or less neutral solution in it. Then, in the following beaker, I’ll add the baking soda solution, the solution turns blue, and the pH is approximately eight or nine now depending on the concentration. In the next beaker I’ll add the ammonia solution, the solution there turns green and the pH is now equal to about twelve or thirteen. Finally, in the last cup I’ll add a strong base - sodium hydroxide, the solution turns green at first and then yellow, yellow indicates pH of about fourteen. Well, and we’ve got a diverse palette from one of the colors. But that's not all, it’s still possible to play around for a long time with this indicator. You can, for example, make an alkaline solution of yellow color and add an acid to it, such as sulfuric acid, and then you can gradually watch all the transitional colors. Or, conversely, it can be an acidic solution, and then adding a solution of an alkali or soda to it. You can also do a multi-layer liquid by pouring the solutions very carefully. I would also want to warn you to be careful when you play about with a variety of substances as, for example, sodium hydroxide and sulfuric acid, are very corrosive substances, if they get on your skin it will be quite painful, so be careful with it. Anthocyanins are the substances that change color and are contained in virtually any brightly colored fruit plants. As well as an indicator you can also use beetroot, redcurrant or carrot juices, thus the diversity is quite large. Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Music: http://audiomicro.com
Thallium  - The MOST TOXIC METAL ON EARTH!
 
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Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/ Do not repeat the experiments shown in this video! Today I will tell you about the most toxic metal on earth - about thallium. In the periodic table of chemical elements thallium lies on the bottom of group 13 having an atomic number 81. Let us start off with a little bit of history. Thallium was first discovered in 1861 by an English scientist William Crookes and also simultaneously by a French chemist Claude-Auguste Lamy. It was discovered thanks to the green colour of flames, that compounds of this metal would give. Thallium was discovered when scientists studied rocks containing lead. Nowadays, it is mostly extracted from sulfidic heavy metals, such as crookesite and “gicionite” if my rendering of their names is correct. I’ve got quite old pieces of thallium for my experiment that were produced back in 1970. Since then they have been strongly oxidized and covered in dark thallium oxide. Usually to protect thallium from getting oxidized it is stored in glycerol. Do not worry, we have taken all the necessary precautionary measures. Do not try this at home! To see the shiny surface of metallic thallium, I submerged my piece of thallium in concentrated nitric acid where it slowly began to dissolve forming nitrites of this metal. Thallium’s oxides have been washed away, the metal looks shiny with bluish shades. Without its oxides this metal can easily be confused with tin or other safe metals that is why thallium is quite treacherous. It can easily be melt down because its melting point is just 304 degrees Celsius. Molten thallium oxidizes very quickly when exposed to air covering in dark thallium oxide layer. This sets it apart from other metals belonging to group 13. For instance chemical activity of metals starting from aluminium and finishing with indium steadily decreases. Indium doesn’t even oxidise when it is exposed to air and remains shiny. Thallium, however, is more active and not only has +3 oxidation state as metals placed higher in the periodic table but it also has +1 oxidation state which is quite unusual. Thallium used to be considered alkali metal for some time after it was discovered. If an oxidized droplet of thallium is submerged in nitric acid, the oxide layer will immediately dissolve after that metal’s shiny surface can be seen. Thallium’s solidness is similar to that of lead. It is also quite soft and can easily be twisted. We also used to have thallium nitrate we could use for a few experiments in our laboratory. By the way thallium compounds are the most toxic among all metals because toxic arsenic, for instance, belongs to metalloids class but we will speak about toxicity a bit later. Having put off all the fears and switched the hood to maximum suction setting I continued running my experiment with this element. Thallium nitrate doesn’t dissolve in water well and looks like white crystals. Thallium compounds, thallium sulfate to be precise, had been widely used as rat poison until 1972 but later on the practice was abandoned, because it is too toxic and it became clear that thallium sulfate was toxic to people too. If you add potassium iodide to thallium nitrate solution, there will form beautiful yellow thallium iodide sediment. In spite of being toxic this chemical has a few applications.
Hafnium  - The Last Stable Metal On Earth!
 
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Thanks for the hafnium: http://www.samaterials.com Best Patrons: Stan Presolski, reinforcedconcrete, Dean Bailey, Bob Drucker, Pradeep Sekar, Applied Science, Purple Pill, afreeflyingsoul, Alfred Barnat, Sabarish Elango. Hafnium info: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hafnium_controversy Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/ Do not repeat the experiments shown in this video! Hi everyone! I haven’t published videos about chemical elements for a long time. Today I would like to tell you about the most recently discovered non-radioactive metal, that is about hafnium. If to look at the periodic table, you will see that hafnium is located at the bottom of group 4 along with zirconium and titanium. It is there not accidentally, because all these three metals share common chemical properties especially zirconium and hafnium. That is the reason why hafnium is usually found combined with zirconium in rocks for instance in such minerals as zircon where hafnium concentration ranges from 1 to 4%. The striking resemblance of this element with an atomic number 72 to zirconium, was the very reason why it was discovered only in 1923 in Copenhagen. It was named after Latin name of the Danish capital - Hafnia. Here you can see the reagents and also obtained metallic hafnium which George de Hevesy, the discoverer of the element, used in his experiments.
Liquid Light - Chemical Reaction with Luminol
 
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Hello everyone, today we will conduct a very interesting experiment with an interesting substance called luminol. This substance will emit light under certain conditions. So to begin, let’s prepare a solution of luminol. For that let’s scale about 0.2 gram of luminol in a large glass, furthermore adding there 12 g of baking soda and half a gram of copper sulfate. Next, pour half a liter of water to our mixture. Then, add a small amount of ammonia solution and a few drops of sodium hydroxide solution. Luminol dissolves much better in an alkaline solution. After that, mix it up, so that everything dissolves well. And here we have prepared our first solution. Next, let’s take another beaker and add there about 5 milliliters of thirty percent hydrogen peroxide, and dilute the entire volume of the solution to half a liter. And here we have prepared both solutions. Now we will conduct the reaction itself. Take 50 ml of each solution. Turn off the lights and merge them together. As you can see, a very beautiful glow occurs. Luminol emits light for a few seconds. After that the glow begins to fade gradually. This is the basic drawback of luminol. In fact, to achieve a longer lasting glow it needs new materials to be added constantly. Light emission occurs because luminol is oxidized by hydrogen peroxide, and the resulting new substance creates a photon, which is a particle of light. Also, for a more effective reaction, I have prepared such an interesting system. I will pour both solutions on top of the funnel, they will mix in a tube and we will see a very nice glowing effect in motion. There is another method of the luminescence of luminol. To do it, I took a two-tenths of a gram of luminol and dissolved it in a one percent alkali solution. Also, I have added about 10 milliliters of thirty percent hydrogen peroxide to the solution. To start the glowing reaction, I just add a catalyst, either red blood salt or potassium ferrocyanide. Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Music: http://audiomicro.com